Introduction to Managing Innovation and Technology Transfer
Innovation can be simply defined as the creation or the generation of new idea or the alteration in the existing product. Invention and innovation are sometimes treated as same but have different meaning. Invention is nothing but a discovery of the product of someone's imagination. While the innovation is the outcome of a long term study and the process of experiments. The management process of such innovation is termed as innovation management. This is a very rigid task. The technology is the base of these innovations. Hence , transfer of the various techniques aids in the form
The ESRC (Economic and Social Science Research Council) of the united kingdom had been promoted the different major projects relating to the research of the industrial innovation in several universities of the UK in the year of 1995 to 2000. There are approx twenty six sub-projects under the innovation programme. The main goal of these research projects is to reflect the light of the modern technologies that laid the path of the new revolutions. It uses many renovation policies as well as processes in the small or large business enterprises whether it is public or private. The various transformation programmes shows that invention is not enough to bring change while the new ideas or the interchangeable nature of the current products also keeps importance in this regard.
The AIRTO(Association for Innovation, Research and Technology Organisations) plays a leading role in encouraging the Economic and Social Science Research Council to achieve their aims and objectives. It insist them to expand the knowledge of current and effective tools of the modern based technologies. The members of the AIRTO had undertaken several researches in order to spread the knowledge in the trading sector by using the results of the applications of the innovation programmes in the year of 2000. The members involved in the AIRTO having the specialisation in the innovation and the technology transfer are proved to be very helpful in exploring the inventions as well as the innovations. As a result this became their passion and they enjoyed their close contacts with the industries. The different innovations approaches led a major influence on the consumers while the formal study is some how limited in such activities.
This present report is based on the theme of managing the innovation and the technology transfer. The report is explaining the different methodology and the analytical approach that are taken to manage the innovations and the transferring of 21st century or the current technology through it. Various practical examples related to different company are taken in order to explain this theme. This report has taken several tools as well as techniques for managing the innovations which is created by the ESRC renovation programme. This tools and techniques are applied in the TWI limited for the processes involved in the phases of innovation. The same tools are used in different other organisation for the expansion of same purpose and treated as remedy.
Analytical approach to understand the managing innovation & technology transfer
Analytical approach can be simply defined as the process of examining the problem domain and do the partitions of such domain in order to solve them one by one. This is proved to be very helpful in underlines the difficulties by concentrating on each problem. This improves the reliability and make the environment user friendly.Technology transfer(TT) is the latest as well as popular topic in the field of research and innovations covering the sector of businesses, private and public firms, various industries, etc. around the whole world from the last few years. It is viewed or recognized as most useful approach that aids in gaining the competition based dominance against the other organisations.
There are different ways of expanding the technological sources in order to enhance the profit of the corporation and the growth in the various sectors. In the process of the development fir the nation like united kingdom or USA, the technology transfer has proved to be one of the best solution for the economical as well as industrial development. On the contrary the story of success of TT fully depends on the choice of accurate technology. The examining of the performance of the technology as well as their polices is measured by concentrating on their inputs and the outputs, as it became a standard for measuring the capital's value of the nations. The inputs involved the various data like expenditures on research and innovations while the output is shown as the patents and the copy rights.
On the contrary, the these traditional standard of measurement are not found effective in explaining the trends in innovation, the increment value and the turnover of the company. They only represent the pictures of the technology performance that do not show the various actors who done the tasks of innovation in a nation. The concepts of the national innovation systems deals with the understanding of the relationship of the actors who made their dedicated effort in the sector of innovation with regard to enhance the technology performance. The masters or the actors perform their best in the process of producing, transferring and applying the unique level knowledge. These actors do their research by examining the private as well as the government firms activities. They even perform the task of innovation by going through such industries. Therefore the innovative performance of the UK completely depends on the excellent work of innovators. They make an environment of the relevant information creation by using the modern as well as ancient technologies.
The technological innovation system is a modern concept that is developed under the scientific areas dealing with the study of innovation. It is used to explain the behaviour and the rate of the changes in the technological sector. It can be defined as the network of actors who interacts with each each other in the specific area of the industry under the guidance of relevant institute dealing with the creation, alteration and the utilization of the technology. The structure of the technological innovation system are discussed below...
The actors are some one who perform the innovation by making the correct choices and actions regarding generations, diffusions and the utilization of the technologies.
They are the pillars of the innovation system. They play the roles of creating the norms or rules in a society or country. It can be formal as well as informal. The formal are one that creates the rules under the order of government body or the authority. While the informal one created by the interaction of the different actors.
It consists of the several artefacts and the basic structures used to build the innovations. They includes the working of the technology which creates the base of economical value of such artefacts involving the costing and safety.
The critical factors is a term used in the area of different analyses like data analysis, business analysis, etc. These are the essential or relevant activities that are used to evaluate and recognize that what are the reasons of any successful business. The different methodologies dealing to evaluate these critical factors are following...
AHP(Analytical hierarchy process) methodology
This is one of the good methodologies that is developed by the Saaty in the year of 1997. The is increasingly used for the purpose of creating alternative solutions by doing the comparison. The comparison is done by making pairs and the result are drawn on the basis of priorities comparison. These results are very helpful in to rank the various alternatives. These comparison are created by taking opinions of the scholars or expert person that is found to be very relevant for dealing with the current situation. This technique is quite simple ,scientific as well as user friendly i.e. easily understand by the end users. This is made possible by using the appropriate software to draw the priorities based matrices by calculating the comparison matrices. But the disadvantage is that the each problem domain solutions are dependent on each other.
This methodology solves the vast problem domain by exploring the present as well as the historical based information. As the historical data will excludes or express the past experiences is proved to be quite aidful in making correct decisions. This gives the experts or innovators an idea to search or make search in the specific sector. They don't get confused as they are new in this field. The literary review consists of the views of the great and successful innovators or inventors.
Research framework and methodology
The research framework deals with the various sectors of the evolution of the critical factors. Here the critical factors of the technology transfer is focused that is done on the basis of Analytical hierarchy process.
Data analysis and results
This methodology is used to draw the proper knowledge of the innovations and the technology. This is created by gathering the inputs of the experts or the innovators. The input consists of several calculations such as the different matrices of the expenditures and the priorities comparison done by the aid of AHP. The framework or the infrastructure of the AHP is evaluating the TT critical factors hierarchically. This hierarchical structure includes the three levels...
- First level shows the objective of the evaluation of the critical factors of the technology transfer .
- In second level, the five critical factors are identified like issues related to management and strategies, the economical benefits, advantages related to the marketing and forces, the technical characteristics and the concern related to the regulation.
- In the third level drawing decision, the different constructs in the each and every critical factor domains of the TT are ranked according to the process or priorities.
Discussion of finding
This methodology is very helpful in the process of making new innovations. The different analytical alternatives help the corporation a lot in the transfer of technology and creating the supply value regarding the inventions and the modern changes on the old one. As a result the best product is created by the effective tasks involvement. This makes the effective increase in the profitability of the enterprises. The data found is treated as a solution to manufacture the new product.
Implication of the research
The implication of the research is nothing but the suggestions given for the formation of new ideas to develop unique product. This suggestions is given by the help of different analysis like AHP techniques. The information or the data generated is proved to be very beneficial for the purpose of making correct decisions to formulate the new inventions ideas. If the advice are not present then the creation of new innovative product is on the level of high risk as the product may or may not meet the requirement of the clients.
Implementation of the analyses
In this stage the data are being collected from the different analytical approaches that is discussed above and are implemented in order to create the new product aiming to fulfil the need of clients by using the modern internet based technologies.
The organisation after creating the products by the help of innovators are come at the step of the error resolving as the launched product may have certain technical errors that causes the unexpected behaviour of the product like unsupportive nature. This task is done by the exception handlers present in any enterprise. They handle the risk and make functioning of the the device appropriate. This process goes until the clients get satisfied.
Critical evolution of the explained methodologies by giving examples
The above mentioned different analytical approaches and the methodologies are not treated as the best remedies because nothing is made so perfect that there exists no error or fault. The ventures dramatically uses these approaches or methods that are given by the innovators. Even they are not able to maker the hundred percent correct product. According to the Ollila and Elmquist the analytical hierarchy process is used to compare the different solutions of the problem domain on the basis of partition and the result is being drawn by deciding the priorities of that solutions. It is quite effective as it give a clear vision of the solutions that is which one is best and where to implement it to the innovators.
On the contrary, the according to the view point of Petroni and et.al. this methodology is not a successful one as the time is consumed in the partitions of the problems then making their solutions in a tree based manner or in the hierarchical form. Additionally each part of the solution is dependable on one another so the final result is created by examining the all. If any one is neglected then the whole system become unbalanced. So this is the negative point of this method.
According to the Priem and et.al. the literary view methodologies are very effective in making the quality based innovation. As this gives different ideas or clues to support the production of the new changes. In order to create new alteration in the existed one, it is very important to examine the past data or the informations. This is done by conducting the surveys by the experts. So, this is very aidful for the purpose of taking advice of the successful entrepreneurs. Whereas the Teece said that this sometimes not give positive impacts regarding the development of new innovations. Because the past views of the experts are not applicable to the new product as the current demand of the clients get changed by the time. They need something unique or different than the previous one.
The data analysis and research methodology is coined as the best one by the Spithoven and et.al. as it aids in making the calculation work so simpler by giving the valuable data regarding various methods or process that are involved in the innovation. But it is not considered much better by the Carayannis and Campbell as the data drawn may be not appropriate. If the data taken to make the manufacturing of new product is wrong then the the outcome or the product become more error prone and as a result the product shows the unsupportive nature. According to the Reed and et.al. the discussion of finding approach is very effective in giving the best advice or guidelines to generate the new output.
Because the some actors are new in this position and they need proper training or guidance to develop the new product. Where as this method is not so accurate according to the view point of Priem and et.al because the advice may be wrong as well as time consuming. If the output is created by following the wrong advice then the created product become the exception for the enterprise. And to implement the new appropriate product the time limit exceeds and the extra expenditure charges will included. Every coins that two faces. One side reflects the good while the other one shows the limitations of that. Therefore the above based methodologies impacts the new innovations in both the ways positively as well as negatively. No doubt it is proved to be very helpful and shows its advantages but on other hand it has some disadvantages too.
For example the Arm Holding, a company in the Cambridge dealing with the chip designing got sixth position among the 100 innovative firms. Its technology of chip creation is used in all over the world corporation that deals with manufacturing smartphones or gadgets. The Arm holding uses the different methodologies that deals with the analytical approaches for managing the innovations such as the Analytical hierarchy process, the literary review, data analysis and research methodology, discussion of finding methodology and many others. These all listed methodologies make the effective benefit by making quality product and ultimately the turnover of the company increases dramatically.
From the above based report it has been concluded that the transfer of technology in the managing the innovation played a vital role as it changes the whole process of the manufacturing of innovated based product. As the modern techniques by using the networking makes the work so simple and accurate. The modern technologies provide many effective software by giving the users certain applications which is mobile as well as web based. The software like ubuntu, Linux, Unix, Windows 8 and onwards minimizes the work load of the actors by providing automated work functions such as data calculation by using the Ms excel or spreadsheets, the documentation work is completely done in apps like Ms-word or ubuntu, the task of making presentation is done in the power point, the tables or diagrams can be drawn easily by using the devices like E-draw, rational rose, etc.
The innovators used different analytical approaches in order to solve the problems occurred during manufacturing the new products. Some the methodologies are AHP, the literary review, the discussion based on the finding, the risk handling, the work of implementation, etc. are very beneficial for the experts as in such methodologies the problem domain are introduced and the process of making the solution carried on the basis of dividing those and then segmenting the overall solutions to make the new innovation successful. There exists also some limitations of these approaches as it deals with several issues like the time consumption, the error prone data analysis as well as the advices or the guide lines followed from the literary review are sometimes not accurate. Because the need of the client has been changed according to the time as they want or demand the unique and quality based products comparing from the previous one.
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