Organisational Behaviour is defined as the process of studying the behaviour of the human in an organisation including individuals and groups. It is also defined as the study of perception of employees in an organisation. Every firm requires organisational behaviour for the growth and sustainability. The given assignment is related with the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) which is a public broadcaster company. Its headquarter is in Westminster, London(CHEN and et. al., 2013). The main purpose of the report is to discuss about organisational culture, power and political behaviour of managers in context with BBC. It will also determine the content and process theory of motivation for achieving the organisational goal. In this project different types of team and barriers of effective performance are described.
Organization Culture means the values and behavior to create a psychological and social atmosphere of the organization. It is the beliefs, experiences, expectations, which are possessed within the company (Coccia, M., 2014). BBC can follow Handy”s Typology theory and Hofstede's Work theory for better organizational culture which can be described as below:
Handy's Topology Theory
This theory has been described by Charles Handy's which includes four culture of the organisation. Organisation requires different types of culture for effective result.
When power remains within the hands of less people and only they can take decisions for the organisation is called power culture. They are the superior person with lots of benefits and responsibility. For an example, this culture can help BBC in quick decision making in the crisis scenario.
Task culture means when group of people formed together to solve the particular problem assigned to them and possess equal opportunities to each member of the team. Under this culture, the leader provides task to all employees together and achieve the goal. For an example, this culture can help BBC in evaluating a particular task and hence increase the productivity of the organization.
When employees think they are important for the company is called person culture. Here the subordinates focus on their own goal rather than business goal. In an organisation, employees should focus on the company goal's rather than individual.
For an example, This culture will harm the BBC, as sometimes the decision can go wrong. Company should focus on making the decision collectively rather than following person culture.
The roles and responsibilities assigned to each and every employees according to their interest area and educational qualification is called role culture. In an organisation, every subordinates should be aware about their responsibilities and performed accordingly. For an example, It will help the BBC as each individual is doing their specific work with the desirable skill set. Due to which they can excel in their work and give high performance in their work.
In the context of BBC, power culture will be used analysing their employees performance and getting effective outcome(Fuchs and Edwards 2012). In this culture the company can easily make decision which lies with the few superior to achieve the goal of the organisation.
Hofstede's Work Theory
The theory tells about the cultural differences. This theory firstly covers four pyramids but later on two more were added. They can be following:
It explains the power of the individual. According to BBC, every employees of the company should possess equal power.
It denotes that people are totally unaware about the uncertainty. BBC should make possible outcomes to avoid from such uncertainties.
Individualism vs. Collectivism
This dimension question whether individually performance is better or grouped is good. As per the context of BBC, the work should be classified first and then individuality and collectivism should be made.
Masculinity vs. Femininity
Masculinity talks about success, assertiveness, achievement, heroism. Similarly. When femininity comes the preferences are about caring, cooperation, modesty and quality life. In the BBC, both dimension should be followed.
Long Term vs. Short Term Orientation
Long term focuses on searching virtue for the declination of society. Short term presents building of truth which are inclined. So as per the BBC, every employees must aware about the long term and short term goals for better result.
Indulgence vs. Restraint
This includes the degree where society controls their desires and impulses. BBC should keep in mind about the desires and impulses of the employees.
Power of Manager
Manager need various powers to exist in the company that is called power of manager. BBC requires French and Raven's power for the organisation which is described as:
French and Raven's Power Theory
This theory was given by John R.P. French and Bertram H. Raven in 1959. It includes different types of power with different form which affects individual success and leadership and are following:
It is based upon coercion and forced for doing work against will. In context to BBC, coercive power can be used sometime in order to achieve the goal(Kazemipour and Mohd 2012). As it impacts on employees health and behaviour.
When employees perform well they should be rewarded. It can be in form of gifts, awards, promotion. BBC should maintain the reward power for the success of the company. It provide chance to employees to work better.
Legitimate power is the combination of coercive and reward power. It totally depends upon the employees for such power.In BBC, this power should be used for better results.
When individual relate themselves with another person is called referent power.As BBC is a big corporation so to connect with different people it requires referent power. As it increases the personality of employees.
Expert power means having skills, knowledge, experiences about the particular field required by the company. BBC requires expert power to carry various types of task performed in the organisation.
As per the scenario, BBC faced culture, communication, investigation, gender pay differences issues. In order to overcome such issues BBC can use reward power. Reward power helps in motivating employees and achieving the goals and objectives of the organisation. If employees are motivated they work efficiently and effectively for the company.
Political Behaviour of Managers
Political Behaviour is defined as the action which indicates government in particular and authority in general(Kellison and Mondello2012). According to Chanlat's Characteristics of political behaviour, the idea of agonistic politics followed in BBC. Agonistic politics means the positive impact of the conflict. As the culture, communication, gender pay differences, harassment was increased in BBC which bring the political conflict in the organisation. After the political conflict of employees at BBC, the organisation focused on solving their issues and trying their best to provide them all the benefits.
a. Content and Process Theories of Motivation
Motivation means the willingness, goals and people's action. It also describes the need of the people which requires satisfaction and inspired by individual or group. In the context of BBC, content and process theories of motivation have been followed.
Content Theories of Motivation
It describes the changes need of the people with time and the unique factors which motivates behaviour of the people. As there are many theories described under content but as per the structure of the BBC, Herzberg's theory is considered.
This theory is also known as two factor theory which includes motivation and hygiene. This theory described satisfaction and dissatisfaction factors with high and low level. Here, motivation factors are those factors which motivates the employees and helps in achieving the goals and objectives. These are called job satisfaction factors which includes work itself, recognition, advancement, achievement, responsibility. As per Herzberg's theory employees are motivated then they work for the company's goals and objectives which leads to high satisfaction. The employees of the company fulfilled their responsibility, achieve the target, worked effectively and perform their duty. Similarly, when the satisfaction level is low, it is called dissatisfaction. The employees are totally dissatisfied with the company and the work. The recognition, awards not provided to the employees which de motivates them. Similarly, hygiene factors are those factors which provide comfort, good working environment. It includes salary, company's policy and administration, working condition, supervision and interpersonal relationships. Herzberg's theory says when hygiene factors are at high level, it provides employees satisfaction(Lawrence and Lee 2013). Employee knows about their roles and responsibility, policies, salaries. So accordingly they perform their roles. Similarly, when hygiene factor is low which leads to dissatisfaction which hampers the company.
By applying this theory BBC improve a lot. This theory has two factors hygiene and motivation. After appointment of human resource in BBC the working environment improved a lot along with health and safety needs of workers. Similarly, after implementation of policies, rules and regulation employees were motivated and performed well. They increase productivity and enhance skills, knowledge and behaviour.
Process Theories of Motivation
This theory describes the relationship that between changes and develop. It describes how motivation took place and the steps of motivation. There are many theories of process but as per the context of BBC, followed Locke's goal setting theory.
This theory was given by Edwin in 1960's which denotes specific and challenging goals with the effective performance of task. It provides the guidelines to employees for doing work. This theory is based on 5 principles which includes:
It means clear and transparency of the company's goal. The BBC follow clarity principles in order to achieve vision and mission of company.
There must be challenging work in the workplace which shows the creativity of the employees(Norton and Ashkanasy 2014). As easy work does not requires challenging factors. BBC prefer to face challenging task and encourages their subordinates to perform it.
BBC want true commitment from their employees so that they can achieve the goal. Fake commitment leads to fail of goodwill.
BBC always provide feedback to their employees so that they can do more better and work accordingly.
There are many complexity while doing work so BBC should take special care for those problems.
Content theory spell out the different types of culture in the organization and how it can be used to increase the productivity of the company. As at the time of crisis and quick decision making power culture should be use. But at the time assigning the task role culture should be followed so that work should be assigned according to the skills sets of an individual.
b. Improving the levels of motivation to achieve organisational goals within BBC
The main objective of BBC is to earn maximum profit and goals of the organisation by motivating employees. The improved level of motivation can help in achieving the goals and objective. BBC can conduct different activities regarding employees benefit. If employees are motivated then they focus on organisational goals rather than on the individual goals. It can leads to better performance of the company as well as individual. As employees are the main assets for any company. The motivated employees focuses on the improving quality, increasing output and
reducing the labour turnover.
Thus BBC has applied content and motivation theory for running business. After the new HR selection in firm condition of company was improved a lot. The new rules and regulation formed for reducing turnover and improving staff. From this the productivity increase and knowledge enhance by help of applying hygiene and motivation factors at workplace. Similarly, by using Locke's theory all the steps were known to staff and tried best to perform accordingly. Thus in this subordinates at BBC motivated and achieve the goals and objectives of organsation.
a. Different types of teams and their important
The concept of team arose from 1970s. It is defined as collection of individuals who work collectively in order to achieve the common goal of an organisation. It usually consists of four or more people. It compromises of people with different skills and knowledge in order to maximize strengths and minimize weaknesses. Every members of team should learn to help each other so that maximum output can be achieved(Robbins and et. al., 2013). BBC made team for achievement of goals and objectives. Here BBC formulated different types of team for effective and efficient results which can be described as below.
When specified functions are performed in the organisation is called functional team. It belongs to the members of same departments and are permanent in nature. Here the manager possess responsibility and reporting their subordinates. In the context of BBC there is group of people with common expertise work towards achieving specific goal.
This team is important in BBC in order to resolve the conflicts which arise within the same department and work on specified problems.
Problem Solving Team
It is a temporary team comprises of 5-12 members from same or different departments and possess several interests, roles and skills. Its main objective is to provide fast solution to the given specified problem. As it a cross functional group so problems can be diagnosed from different perception. As BBC is the big corporation which possess different departments. So in order to solve those problems this team is formed.
This team is significant in BBC to give fast solutions to the problems which arise in various departments.
When team is formed for the specified period of time and for the specific project is called project team. It includes design team, negotiation and commission. These team members are talented and are expert in various fields. They belong from different groups but work on same project. Here, BBC formed project team to complete the specified project and for the result achievement.
As BBC works on many projects so in order to complete those project within the stipulated time this team is important.
It includes people which are separated through distances and connected by computers. In this team, individuals communicate each other through the help of internet such as email, WAN, video conferencing. It is beneficial when employees are located at various places. In this team management should monitor team progress and establishment of trust between members. As BBC is the large corporation which have many branches in other country so in order to work for them virtual team plays significant role.
This team is important in BBC because of diversity. People from different part of the world works. So to solve those issues virtual team is formed.
Here, BBC should apply problem solving team for running of business as it is large corporation. This is most suitable for the firm to adopt and achieve goals and objectives.
b. Effective team in BBC which relate with Tuckman and Jensen's Model
Team effectiveness is also called group effectiveness which is the potential of a team to complete the goals and objectives of an organisation given by the authority(Thomson and Van Niekerk 2012). Under BBC, Tuckman and Jensen's stages of team development has been followed:
Bruce Tuckman formed this theory in 1965 for the development of team. It carries four stages of team development which are:
It is the stage in which the member of team meet and introduced each other for the first time. They talk about interest, experience, background. Here team leader plays an important role for the team guidance, role and responsibility, clear direction. Project is assigned to team. Under BBC, team leader formed team and according to the members project is assigned.
When team work together then it is called storming stage. In this stage every team member present their ideas and opinions in order to complete the task. As everyone have different ideas and opinion so there is high chances of conflict among team member and they also learn to solve out the problems together. In the context of BBC, all team team plays important role for assigned task and give their opinions ad ideas to solve the particular problem.
When team work effectively then it is called norming stage. In this stage team member focus on organisation goal, respect each other opinion, help each other and give their best to accomplish the project(Unsworth, Dmitrieva and Adriasola, 2013.). Now BBC's team member assist each other and help to achieve the organisational goal rather than individual goal by giving best input.
When functioning level is high then it is performing stage. The main objective is achieving the goal. Here the members itself make decision, solve problem without the help of team leader. BBC's member performed very effectively for the best result assigned to them and each team played significant role.
In this stage, project comes to end and the members of team get separated. Here either the project get success or failure depends upon the efforts of team member. If project is successful, then team leader celebrates it and use best practices in future. Similarly, if project fails then they learn from it and evaluate it. In the context of BBC, firstly project fails because of team member but later on appointment of new director made best team leader and achieve the success.
a. Path-goal theory
This theory was formed by Robert House in 1971 which is also known as path goal model or path goal theory of leader effectiveness. In the context of BBC, this theory is followed. This theory follows three basic steps which can be: determining employees and environmental characteristics, selecting best leadership style and motivational factors for employees.
Determining Employees Characteristics and Task and Environmental Characteristics:
BBC should know about its employee's ability and experiences and accordingly assign task to them. If proper work is assign to the employees according to their skill set then performance of the employees will increase.
Task and Environmental Characteristics:
Under this, the leader of the BBC should clearly define the task, authority and team members to the employees so that they give their best to achieve the goal and objectives of the organisation.Working condition of the BBC should be work friendly so that employees will fully commit themselves to work and attain maximum productivity. Apart from that Task should be assigned according to the skills sets of the employees so that they can be motivated enough to work with their fullest productivity.
BBC follows mainly four types of leadership style which can be described as below:
Work of the leader is to direct their team members so that they will attain their goals with full productivity. The leader of BBC should clearly direct their subordinates about the task to be done.It helps the new employees as they are not clear about their roles and responsibilities. Apart from that this technique is also use while making the quick decision but sometimes it might get wrong.
Leader should be supportive and friendly with the employees. BBC subordinates can achieve the goal and objective easily if their leaders are supportive and helpful. Leader work is to clear the path so that they can attain their goals with full productivity. It is a people oriented leadership.
BBC consults with their employees before making any decisions. In this style of leadership the subordinates are trained.BBC leader works with the employees as they will help the employees to attain their goals by helping them.
Leader always motivates subordinates to give their best and meet the expected goals. This helps employees to work better and meet the standard set. This type of leader set the competitive goals for the employees so that they perform at its best. Their main aim is make the best utilization of limited resources.
Focus on Motivation:
BBC should clearly define goals and path to their employees so that they focus on their work. If any obstacles arises then it is the duty of leader to solve out the problem and provide support and help.
With the help of team, BBC can improve its productivity and performance. As team work for the achievement of organisational goal and objective rather than focusing on individual goals. So BBC should motivate team to meet their standard.
b. Main barriers for effective performance
The main barriers for effective performance under BBC can be following:
Employees expects to get good compensation at their work place to fulfil their basic needs and achieve their goal(Wong, Wong and Ngo, 2012). But under BBC employees were not satisfied with the compensation package according to the work which decline their performance.
For example, bonus, incentives should be given to employees for working effectively.
Reward is another motivating factors. But employees of BBC lack this facility so they could mention their effective performance in the organisation which is barrier for company as well as subordinates.
For example, reward can be in terms of monetary and non monetary terms. Thus for motivating staff rewards is important.
Work Life Balance
The employees happiness lies within their family members. But the employees of BBC could not maintain balance between work and family due to high pressure of task which is barrier for effective performance.
For example, worker should balance between personal and professional life for working effectively in an organisation.
Training and Development
In order to initiate any work proper training should be provided. Here BBC employees lack training and development so they could not perform effectively for the given assigned task.
For example, manager of company should arrange training and development program for enhancing skills, knowledge, behaviour, professional development.
Creative Work Environmental
Innovation starts with new and creative ideas. Here BBC employees lack a creative work environment so they could not perform well which leads to barriers for effective performance.
For example, every employee should get an opportunity to work in the good working environment.
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From the above assignment, it can be concluded that BBC need to follow different types of organisation culture, power and political behaviour in order to avoid conflicts within the organisation. Various motivation theories are used by management for motivating their employees for achieving goals and objectives(Xerri and Brunetto 2013). BBC formed various types of team to complete the given task within time. In order to increase the productivity and performance of employees BBC used path goal theory to know the real goal of the organisation. There are some barriers which decline the effective performance of the employees of BBC.