Questions- This assessment will cover following questions:
- Marks and spencer is the leading clothing and food retailer in UK. How does marks and spencer evaluate the process of change?
- What can be a strategic plan that marks and spencer can use for implementing change?
Organisational change means disturbing the equilibrium to improve functioning and system of organisation. Change can be brought in various forms like organisational culture, processes, technology, infrastructure etc. Change can be small and big depending on the objectives of organisation that it tend to achieve by bringing change in organisation. This change needs to managed properly so that organisation can get maximum benefits of it and overcome challenges that can come during change and reducing its negative outcomes to lowest possible. Change management is an approach to deal with difference being occurred. This management helps organisation and its people to cope up with change and allow time to adjust as per their pace. This study highlights change management and models proposed by various researchers to ease the process of change in organisation. This study also includes strategic plan to implement change in Marks and Spencer, a British multinational retail company.
Whenever an organisation decides to change something related to its process and functions or system. Organisation cannot directly do it without any consideration of its effect on its people. Individuals working in working for organisation are most likely to get affected by the change that company brings. Therefore to consider them and their ease is very important. Management of change though does not remove the effect completely but help that people can cope with change and later work in that situation. Change management in present scenario and highly flexible organisations has become very essential because organisation need to change itself in one form or other in a very short time span (Al-Haddad and Kotnour, 2015). That time change management is essential so that people can prepare themselves to work in a changed organisation. Marks and Spenser a renowned British multinational retail organisation. They have also brought change in their organisation in terms of technology that has become essential factor for organisation's success. Change that are adopted by company are of various types, first is happened change, this type of change happens without any advance preparation and are often traumatic (Cameron and Green, 2019). Simply these changes are not brought by the company but as their name suggest they happens and organisation have a very little control or no control over it. Second is Reactive Change, this happens when change in external environment have already happened and to cope with that company implement change in internal environment. This change allow less time to prepare and is also traumatic in most of the situation. Third is Anticipatory Change, when company enables itself to anticipate event or events that are going to happen in external environment and to face that pressure and cope with that prepare itself in advance and implement change in organisation. Fourth is Planned change, this type of change is implemented by the company to achieve pre decided goals and objectives. In order to stay ahead in competition this type of change are adopted by the company and that is why it is also known as Developmental Change (Hayes, 2018). Fifth is, Operational Change this change is essential when company is under competitive pressure and to deal with that change in its operations become essential in form improved quality and services. Lastly Strategic Change, change in organisational strategy and change at organisational level that affects various aprts of the organisation this change is known as strategic change. Change in management style a an example of strategic change. To facilitate these changes in organisation various change management models have been proposed by researchers, some of them with their evaluation are as follows-
Kurt Lewin's model-
Three step process of change management is most popular and accepted around the world. Steps included in this model are-
these three steps cover whole change management.
Unfreezing, includes analysing every existing process and its human interaction that comes under change. Doing this gives a perspective and enable to look and and realize the need for change. Under this step organisation or change agents need to make need of change visible to everyone in order to prepare and convince them to accept change and that they now have to deal in different manner from which is already they are doing (Rosenbaum, More and Steane, 2018). This not includes convincing people but also includes dealing with resistance which is not abnormal. Change agents should resolve all the queries and doubts of people in order to deal with their resistance.
Make Changes, this step includes implementation of change and guiding and giving required direction to team so that can guide everyone who is a part of change. In this step every problem that comes in initial processing of change needs to solved by change agent and their teams so that implementation and working over changed processes become easy for employees.
Refreezing, once the change has been implemented and has been accepted by everyone, it becomes new status quo, which needs to refreeze. Later this change become habit as earlier processes. Refreezing ensures that old processes and habits do not surface again.
McKinsey's 7-S Model-
McKinsey has developed this model to manage change in organisation. In this 7-S respectively represent strategy, structure, system, shared values, style, staff and skills. Before implementing change organisation need to assess its strategy, what is the objective of company, what strategies have been made to achieve objectives and what scope strategies have for changes. Then Look at structure of the organisation, what is hierarchy in the organisation, how departments are organised and how each department are connected with other and what is the frequency of their communication. Then analysis of system needs to be undertaken this includes identifying core system in business, how they are used, are these system accurate and how results of these are assessed and who has access to these system. Then next process includes recording of Shared Values which includes company's values, culture, culture of teams and these can be strengthen. Then recording of style is undertaken which includes, analysing leadership and management styles and their effectiveness. Then staff is evaluated positions filled and skills these employees possess and what skills they lack and do company need to hire someone. Evaluating skills like what skills do staff possess and what skills are not there in company and which are required in company. After this analysis this needs to be considered how each factor affect others and are they supportive to change or not.
Theory that focus more on people who are behind change and less on change itself. This theory works like-
Creating a sense of urgency- When change needs to be implemented initially a sense of urgency should be created to get the team on board and motivate them to accept change.
Build the core coalition- When process has started next step is to gather leaders and stakeholders of the company to convince them about the need of change. These people should be having various skills sets and experience and needs to ask for their commitment to changes.
Form a strategic Vision- This step undertakes defining changes and vision for that changes are being implemented and what values are going to be achieved through the change and what will be the outcome predicted.
Get everyone on board- In this step idea of change needs to be spread across the overall organisation. So that everyone can contribute in implementing change. For that regular meetings and open discussion are organised. The main idea behind this is that whole organisation and employees are convinced with the idea of change.
Remove barriers and friction- When everyone is ready to implement change, problems that can block the process should be assessed (Pollack and Pollack, 2015). Timely assessment of this will allow to remove them before they occur and block the process of change.
Generate short term wins- After process in his run organisation should make sure that there are short term wins during process that can motivate and encourage people and also assures that process of going in the right direction.
Sustain Acceleration- Once the process has started and going in the process it should be kept accelerating. So that desired results can be achieved in decided time period and as effective as they were assumed to be.
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Set your change on Stone- This is about reflecting change in organisation culture and documents.
On the basis of above explanation it can be evaluated that all these models focus on human aspect of change and suggest that firstly minds of people involved in the process should be changed and prepared to accept the change then only they will be able to work on implementing change and then working with change being implemented. All these models represent management of change in different style and is suitable for different situation in different type of organisation.
Development of Strategic plan for implementation of Change Implementation of change is way more critical than it looks in theory and only a well developed strategic plan can implement change successfully (Nikkilä and et.al., 2017). In this study development of strategic plan to implement change in Marks and Spencer has been included. Plan is as follows-
Unfreezing- As there are more than one change is required. Unfreezing also become difficult as there are more people gets involved and process of analysing also becomes large. In case of M&S changes are related to finance, product line and technology. These factors respectively affect those who are involved in management of finance, production and operation and all the employees tend to work on technology. In this situation company have to convince people who are working in finance these people needs to train by expert and that will definitely affect them and will make employees uncomfortable (Suehs, and et,al., 2019). Those who are in production and operation activities will have to be convinces as increasing product line will increase their work. People who do not know use of technology though they will be provided training required to make them work with new technology they may feel like their jobs may end because of technology. These situation will naturally probe people to resist. To deal with resistance company should make the need visible to all who resist and then let them feel the need. Then company should make sure that all their queries get solved. Later they should be given initial training so that they can understand that change will not create any difficulty while working and convince them for their wilful acceptance.
Make change- This phase involves implementing the change in real which was earlier recorded in documents. Then people should be guided while working so that they do not feel and have any difficulty while working on the changed process. Their problems related to work should be timely addressed (Verhulst and Lambrechts, 2015). Like people who are working with upgraded technology may find it difficult to initially work with that. They should be helped whenever they are facing any difficulty. Feedback of their work should also be provided to them so they can be aware of their performance and at this time they should be recognised for every small achievement by them. Refreezing- Once people have started working on new processes then to make these processes their habit so old habits does not get refurbished.
On the basis of above study it can be concluded that change which is natural comes within an organisation needs to be managed to get desired outcome and minimise negative implications in organisation. There are models that can help organisation to successfully implement change with wilful acceptance of those being affected by change. Models in which Lewin's model is most popular and widely accepted includes all the necessary requirements for a successful change implementation and similar facts have been included in Kotter's theory but they are divided in more small parts and explain more subject matter than explained in Lewin's model. These models should be implemented as per suitability in organisation and change agents.
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