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Concept of Organizational Behaviour With Different Theories and Philosophies

University: NESCOT COLLEGE

  • Unit No: 12
  • Level: High school
  • Pages: 19 / Words 4741
  • Paper Type: Assignment
  • Course Code: H/508/0525
  • Downloads: 35
Question :

 This assessment will provide certain questions which are like:

  • Explain all the internal and external environmental factors of working.
  • What are the ways through which organizational structure is managed and framed?
  • What are organizational behavior and their opted functions?
Answer :
Organization Selected : Sainsbury

INTRODUCTION

Organizational behaviour is defined as the study of human behaviour and performance towards an achievement of organizational goal or objective in an appropriate manner. Also, it is regarded as a process which empowers managers or leaders to direct the business and its operations along with building relationships amongst various functional unit of an organisation in order to attain sustainable growth. Apart from this, working culture of an organisation plays significant role as it impact positively or negatively over employee’s attitude or response towards business objective (Burrell and Morgan, 2019). Also, motivation is another factor which is considered as an essential aspect which enables managers to acquire increased level of personnel engagement into business activities that benefits the entity and enhance their productivity. Hence, in context of this project Sainsbury is selected which is a UK supermarket chain. Sainsbury is the third-largest supermarket chain holding around 15.3% market share of the supermarket segment in UK. The company was founded in 1869 by John James Sainsbury and is headquartered in Holborn, London. It is public limited company and listed on London Stock Exchange and Financial Times Stock Exchange.

TASK 1

P1 Organisation Culture, Power and Politics and Their Influence on Individual and Team Behaviour

Organisational Culture

is guide provided to the members and individuals in company for managing and influencing their behaviour. It includes experiences, philosophies, values and expectations of organisation from staff and other related parties. Organisational culture includes vision and mission statement, norms, systems, symbols and language of company which members follow and influencing their behaviour. Few cultures present in organisation are highlighted below:

Person Culture

In some organisations personnel’s believes and thinks that they are more important than the entity they are working in. individuals are more concerned about themselves rather than the organisation and others working with them (Chang and et. al., 2016)Company who has this culture takes a back seat and eventually suffers as employees become self-centred and they keep themselves and their objective first rather than the organisation.

Power Culture

There are some organisations in which all the authority and power remains in few hands that is considered as power culture. This culture has one or two leaders who hold all the authority to make decisions and control plans or strategies of company. All rapid decisions are taken by top level management or few people who has all the power and therefore vertical structure is suggested for company who has this culture. It will affect Sainsbury teams and its members in negative manners, employees will start feeling less important and this will demotivate them and detach them from company.

Role Culture

In this culture roles and responsibilities are assigned to employees in accordance with their expertise and specialisation. Different functional units are created by grouping bundle of individuals for attaining specific objectives or goals. Divisional structure of organisation is recommended and best suited for entities adopting role culture. For Sainsbury role culture is suggested as it is best suited for the company because of its various divisions and huge employee base.

Organisational Power

is an ability or capability of company structure, by which management utilize all resources effectively for development and betterment of organisation. Power is basically ability individual have over other to get things done in their way and required manner, they control them and make them perform task according to them (Chumg and et. al., 2016). Some types of power which managers have in organisation structure to manage and influence the behaviour of employees or their teams are as follows:

Reward Power

It a power which leaders have, it enables them to appreciate their staff and by rewarding them according to their skills or their performances. This power is useful for motivating people and influencing them to work harder by pushing themselves to achieve better positions in organisation. This power is applicable in Sainsbury, managers can use this power to motivate their team members attaining efficient results and benefiting both the organisation and achieving their personal goals.

Coercive Power

Coercive power makes personnel belief that they are lacking and do not have enough competitive skills and they are not complying with the needs of organisation. It’s a forcing style of getting thing done with all negative effects on personnel and teams (Coccia, 2015). Practicing this power is not at all suggestive for Sainsbury as it will demotivate employees and increase dissatisfaction in them. Employees will get frustrated with the style leaders are working and start developing negative attitude.

Organisational Politics

has two aspects negative and positive, politics takes place in every organisation. If leader are using their power effectively and politics which is deploying is effectively and in favour of organisation and its employees it will provide favourable results. But if misuse of power or authority is done by any member then it can result in negative politics. Types of organisational politics:

The Weeds

It’s a dynamic and free dimension which grows automatically or naturally in the environment of company amongst employees. It can be favourable for the organisation and helps in building goods healthy relations. But if ignored and left unmonitored then it can be very dangerous for entity.

The Rocks

This type of politics takes place amongst people who ties knots with high level groups, who holds strong powers with them. These relations are made on the basis of individual interactions and formal authority levels like roles and expertise people hold.

The High Ground

It’s a functional politics which uses structure of control systems, incentives schemes and sanctions that keep company in order and compliance. Sainsbury managers can be a part of high ground politics; they can plan some special rewards for their employees according to their tasks and performances. Providing them job satisfaction and motivation (De Vasconcelos, Gouveia and Kimble, 2016).

Mixture of culture, power and politics in organisation is very influencing on individual working in Sainsbury as part of a team or on personal level. These elements have direct impacts on the behaviour and attitude of employees, if they are not happy and unsatisfied it will affect company and its operations. Therefore, all these three factors indirectly have its influence on Sainsbury’s operation and its employees.

M1 Critically Analyse How the Culture, Politics and Power of an Organisation Can Influence Individual and Team Behaviour and Performance

In every organisation the function of power, culture and politics plays a crucial role as it directly impact over team and individual performance as well it’s decision making capabilities. In context of Sainsbury, as it run its functional unit in retail sector by delivering different segment of product or services. Therefore, in order to improve their overall productivity, they make an initiative to adopt role culture into its working process which leads them to assign roles and responsibilities among personnel on the basis of their interest or capability. Sainsbury make an effort to adopt reward power as it motive them to recognise the employee effort and also help them to reward employees in a fairly manner (Fein and et. al., 2015). Additionally, Sainsbury ensures regarding maintaining a transparent or effective communication among workforce that benefit them by gaining advantage among competitor in an innovative style.

TASK 2

P2 Evaluation of Content and Process Theories of Motivation in Context of Sainsbury

Motivation is a process of encouraging employees of company to work with their full potential for attaining goals in an effective and more efficient manner, bringing higher profits to organisation. Two broad categorised in which motivating techniques are divided are content and Process theories. Content theories of motivation are the earliest tools introduced by researchers and further modifications are being done with passing of time. This theory is has four different theories in it given by authors and they are Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs, ERG theory, Herzberg’s two factor theory and McClelland’s needs for achievement theory. On the other hand, Process theories main focus is on how the individuals behave in order to fulfil their needs. Process theories are Expectancy theory, Equity theory, Reinforcement theory and Goal setting theory.

Sainsbury Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs theory is Selected Amongst Other Content Theories:

Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs theory is the most widely known and used for understanding and discovering the basic needs of people (Gkorezis and Petridou, 2017). It has five levels in structure which represents five types of requirements of a person and through which this theory is explained properly:

Physiological Needs

Under these level very basic needs of individual are considered like food, water and shelter. These requirements are foremost for every individual as these are the basic survival needs.

Safety Needs

Once basic needs are fulfilled then comes the safety needs, every employee wish to have a safe and healthy working environment. They require job security and freedom from any threats or danger while working.

Social Needs

These needs are associated with the feelings of employees, everyone wants to be accepted socially and especially at their workplace. Sense of belongingness is what all employees want to feel.

Self-Esteem Needs

Here, the needs of recognition and gaining importance from other are highlighted. Every personnel need to develop and grow and for that they want to be recognized by their superiors and wish to work on important projects.

Self-Actualization Needs-

These needs are those where personnel feel and want to take more challenges for developing better skills and bringing creativity in their work (Weng and et. al., 2015). For accomplishing this they wish to perform more meaningful and innovative job roles.

Out of Process theories Expectancy Theory is Considered For Sainsbury :

Expectancy theory concept was given by Victor H. Vroom and it has three components Expectancy, Instrumentality and Valance.

Expectancy-

A belief is followed in this factor that efforts of the employees will provide desired level of performance. Efforts are dependent on the experience, confidence and required standards of performance. Each personnel have different level of expectations and confidence in them about their capabilities(Hall and et. al., 2016). Therefore, management of Sainsbury has to understand these levels and provide required training and supervision to staff. In order to fulfilling their needs for attaining their expected level of performance.

Instrumentality-

Concept of this element is that employee belief that they get outcomes if they reach to their expected level of performance. By reaching to their performance standards they think if they get rewarded for their performance. So here role of Sainsbury’s leaders here is they should keep their promises for motivating employees and providing them what they expected.

Valance-

The value employees placed on the rewards for the outcomes they achieved on behalf of organisation. These values, rewards or goals are the sources by which people get motivated and work in particular way for providing effective resulted to company. Valance can also be defined as emotional expectations personnel holds in relation to the outcomes they are generating on behalf of organisation. Sainsbury’s managers have this job to analysis the behaviour of their employees and find out what they expect in relation to their reward. Then accordingly, appreciate their performance and reward them.

Sainsbury is a supermarket chain which has various departments performing several tasks with help of numerous employees. There are great chances of development of conflicts amongst employees and their interests can differ from company. To encourage staff and to increase their enthusiasm Sainsbury can use above suggested motivational theories. These way managers can stop building any conflicts and reduce its chances.

M2 Critical Evaluation of How to Influence The Behaviour of Others Through Effective Implementation of Motivational Theories

For attaining sustainable growth, the concept of motivation is considered as an essential component as it enables company to render increased level of satisfaction to each personnel. In context of Sainsbury, they make an effort to utilise motivational and behavioural theory within its business function that help superior to provide improved level of employee satisfaction(Kitchin, 2017). Moreover, content theory is viewed as more suitable for Sainsbury as it linked with personnel’s needs or demand that empower manger to take corrective course of action in regard of fulfilling the same in an efficient manner.

D1 Evaluate of The Relationship Between Culture, Politics, Power and Motivation That Enables Teams and Organisations to Succeed

From the above discussion, it has been determined that the culture, power and politics contains positive and negative influence on organisational brand value. Therefore, Sainsbury manager takes an initiative in examining the need and ability of an individual as well as team. This is because, it assist superior to obtain full engagement of manpower towards company objective that aid Sainsbury to overcome the issue of conflict, employee turnover, dispute effectually. By adopting proper culture and politics management and employees can work effectively that helps to accomplish the business goals (Wagstaff and Larner, 2015).Furthermore, Sainsbury make use motivational theory which help them to generate healthy working culture and also to render improved level of motivation among workforce in regard of organisation.

TASK 3

P3 Understanding of Effective and Ineffective Team and Their Comparison

Effective Team

is formed or called effective when the objectives for which they were working are fulfilled without any serious complications or difficulties. It’s a mixture of professionals with specific expertise performing specific tasks in order to acquire predetermined goals. Effective teams have some characteristic like its size and expertise of members, effective communication channels and diversified decision-making authorities.

Ineffective Team

is just opposite of effective teams, they fail in achieving goals and if they achieve them its way beyond time(Lee and Woo, 2017). These teams do not hold any quality of an effective one, members lack trust amongst each other, do not have proper communication and leaders take all decisions without any bodies consent. These things make team members fail in their jobs and create delays in getting jobs done.

Difference Between Effective and Ineffective Teams

Teamwork Development Theory

One theory which is suggested to Sainsbury for developing teamwork attitude in employees is Tuckman theory. This is introduced by Bruce Tuckman in 1965, which has five stages. Each stage is helping and enabling organisation to have effective teams and employees working in effective manner with their team members(Mohammad and et. al., 2015). Earlier, in the very beginning this theory only has four stages but in 1970’s Bruce Tuckman added one more stage of adjourning. All these five stages are elaborated below in next sections in context with Sainsbury:

Forming-

The very first phase is when team is being formed by managers, all individuals are new to each other. They all hold unique expertise in their fields, initially personnel face lot of difficulties in adjusting. Many conflicts are present at this stage, people are unclear about their role and responsibilities. Sainsbury managers role at this stage is to make balance between the team members and resolve their doubts.

Storming-

Next stage is storming stage employees start getting to each other now but still feel discomfort. They get some idea of their jobs and the objective of formation of team. Still face complications in adjusting and working, communication system is not very effective which leads to forming of more conflicts amongst employees. Many teams fail on this stage and get dissolved. This is a very complicated stage and managers have to perform their roles very effectively specially of managing staff they have to try and convey the aim behind forming them into one team and giving them clarity of their goals.

Norming-

Those teams who survived the storming phase reaches to norming stage. Here things start getting better employees gets good ideas of the goal of their team develop trust and comfort with one another(Mohelska and Sokolova, 2015). Communication practices are improved and a very healthy working environment is created. No more conflicts exist as people talk and resolve them, managers start inviting opinions and ideas of members for decision-making. This is the third stage which is better than other two here less conflicts are there and it becomes easy for Sainsbury managers to manage their teammates. Their job here is to assign them tasks according to the talents and expertise of staff.

Performing-

This was the last stage till 1970’s after that it became second last. On this stage all team members have the exact idea of what company expect from them and what’s the goal of their team. People are motivated, enthusiastic and ready to work. Manager’s job is to just sit back and assign tasks to respective personnel and let them perform their jobs accordingly. Employees are very competitive but not amongst the team, keep their personal agendas separate form company’s and perform activities to attain objectives of organisation. Monitoring and supervisory role is performed by managers of Sainsbury on this stage. They just have to supervise their team mates and the way they are performing their duties.

Adjourning-

Teams are made for temporary or permanent purposes, those team who are made for shorter durations faces this stage. At this stage teams are dispersed off because the purpose for which team was formulated gets fulfilled or accomplished. Leaders on this stage have no job except one, of appreciating and rewarding employees for their performance and results achieved by them (Boddy, 2015). This is the last stage in which leaders of different teams in Sainsbury will appreciate and reward the employees according to their performances.

M3 Analyse of Team Development Theories For Development of Cooperation in Various Teams of Sainsbury

In case of Sainsbury, its manager makes use of Tuckman teamwork theory into its business operation with an aim of enriching overall performance of company and individual in a better way. Additionally, with the implication of these concepts, it encourage Sainsburys employer to examine the ability of each manpower and also to recognize their contribution for an attainment of predetermined goal. Moreover, it motive company’s manager to perform different role like planter, motivator, analyst, investigator and monitor, evaluate and so on with an intent of placing the brand in aggressive and competitive position.

TASK 4

P4 Application of Philosophies of Organisational Behaviour in Sainsbury

Organizational behaviours are the survey of individual as well as of an entire business performance which help the leaders to format various strategies in respect of organisation. The purpose for studying organisational behaviour is to develop long and short term objectives to be performed by personnel have in order to attain goals of company (Bester, Stander and Van Zyl, 2015). It further motivates the employees to enhance their performance so management of Sainsbury used path goal theory in order to understand organizational behaviour and further it explained:

Path goal theory is based on the specific leadership style or behaviour which suits the best for the employees and in the working environment in order to achieve organisational goals and objectives. Managers of Sainsbury follow path goal theory in order to enhance productivity of employees through motivating them. By using path goal theory superiors provide directions to their employees so that they can work effectively and acquire desired objectives. There are different leadership styles which mentioned below:

Directive Leadership-

Under this leadership style, leaders inform their followers what is exactly expected out of them and what they have to do. They provide those guidelines or clear instruction what to do and how to perform task in appropriate manner. It is one of the most effective leadership styles for improving internal working condition. Managers of Sainsbury provide direction to personnel regarding their task or improvement in their performance as well. It is most effective leadership style, which helps the employees to get guidelines and complete task in well manner or achieve business goals and objectives.

Participative-

Under this leadership style, leaders make sure that every employee participate in the organizational activity (Balmer and Burghausen,2015). In the other words, leaders consult with the followers before making any decision in respect of the company. It will be possible when all the employees are trained and involved in their work. Sainsbury employees not able to make decision alone so leaders of the hotel ensure that every decision will be done through taking suggestions from the followers and make sure that everyone participated in this process because it will improve the final results.

Supportive-

This leadership style used to maintain good relationship between employees and leaders. This is done by resolving organisational issues or problems with the help of supporting solutions and ideas which are best suited for it. Managers of Sainsbury should share business issues with the workers to get valuable proposals which will further enable the managers to make their decision in respect with achieving business goals and objectives.

M4 Justification and Evaluation of Range of Concepts and Philosophies in

Fluence Sainsbury in Positive or Negative Manner

The field of organisation behaviour contain several concepts, philosophies, theories which provide proper guidance or direction to firm for obtaining profit maximisation with an optimal utilisation of available resources. Hence, in regard of Sainsbury, they make an attempt to apply path goal theory which drives them to adopt all sort of modification or changes of existing marketplace in an efficacious mode. With the help of such application, it enable firm to enhance its market share or size as well as to carry out managerial and operation function of organisation in a smooth manner. For example, company desire to expand its market division to new geographical region in which path goal theory guided them by delegating responsibilities or task as per personnel ability and potentiality (Bakotić, 2016). Due to this, it motivated each manpower to put their best contribution towards an accomplishment of firms goal. On the contrary, if an establishment denies to do same, it will lead them to undergo several kind of issues such a dissatisfaction, ambiguity, dispute, misconception and etc. has decided to expand their business so they uses path goal theory in order to assign task between employees for the purpose of improving performance. Thus, Sainsbury ensure that they build a good relation with their employees so that they can easily reach to their vision or objective in a stipulated time period.

D2 Critically Analyse and Evaluate The Relevance of Team Development Theories in The Context of Organisational Behaviour Concepts and Philosophies That Influence Behaviour in The Workplace

For enhancing the overall performance of company, Sainsbury makes use of appropriate philosophies, concept, and theories within their functional areas. Hence, team development theory and path goal theory enable organization to bring improved level of collaboration and cooperation among team members. Due to which, it lead firm to enhance their sales performance in an impressive way (Alblas, Wijsman and van Noort 2019). Moreover, it encourage Sainsbury manager to provide increased level of motivation as satisfaction to their employees that benefit firm in enlarging its productivity and proficiency ratio among competitors.

Also read: Organisational Behaviour as a Measure of Effectiveness

CONCLUSION

In the above assignment thorough discussion of organization behaviour concept, its different theories and about some philosophies which helps entity to analysis staff and motivate them accordingly in order to get their full engagement in organisational duties. Moreover, with the implication of different models related to culture, power and politics enable organization maintain its working culture in efficacious way. Tuckman teamwork theory helps company to provide equal opportunity among manpower that enhance firms overall productivity ratio. Moreover, theory of motivation help organization to provide improved degree of satisfaction that enrich firms sales volume and brand image within competing industry. Get more details about assignment help UK from my experts. 

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