Organisational behaviour is considered as the study which supports the organisation to understand the behaviour of employees and there several ways through which they interact with the other employees. It helps the human resource manager of every organisation in creating positive working environment for the employees that motivates them to perform their work in effective manner. This report is based on A.M (Holdings) Limited, which supplies confectionery foil and laminated carton board in UK. Present assignment will emphasize on the influence of culture, politics and power on employees performance and productivity (West and Lyubovnikova, 2013). Apart from this, various theories will describe motivation which helps the organisation to motivate its manpower and improve their productivity level. In addition to this, concepts and philosophies of organisational behaviour within an organisation on the basis of different situation at work place will going to be discuss in this assignment.
P1 Evaluation of organisation's culture, politics and power on individual, team behaviour and performance.
Organisational behaviour refers to the way through which employees interact with each other at work place. This study is done with the motive of understanding human behaviour to find out possible outcomes which can be opted by the organisation in order to enhance its performance. It is the responsibility of HR manager of every organisation to allocate roles and responsivity to the employees according to their designation and capability (Avey, Palanski and Walumbwa, 2011). Apart from this, it is required by HR team to maintain positive and conflict free environment at work place. A.M (Holdings) Limited is supplier of confectionery foils and laminated boards It has been evaluated that organisational culture, politics and power influences the performance level of the individual as well as team behaviour. These terms are evaluated as below:
Culture: Culture refers to the combination of the values, assumptions, belief of organisation which influences the behaviour of individual as well as organisation. In context to A.M (Holdings) Limited, its HR manager is always making efforts to create positive culture at workplace. Effective working environment influences the performance of individual as well as team. This also motivates the employees that directly reduces the employee turnover of this organisation. Thereat re several types of culture which affects the employees. Some of these are described as below:
Role culture: This culture refers to the functional structure of the organisation. In this manager of an organisation assigns the job to the subordinate on the basis of its capability and skills. In context to A.M (Holdings) Limited, it is the responsibility of the manager to assign the task to the employees according to their specialisation. This will influence the employee to perform its business operations in effective manner which will help the organisation to achieve the goals and objectives (Boje, Burnes and Hassard, 2011).
Task culture: In this culture various teams are formulated in order to resolve particular problem at workplace. In relation with the A.M (Holdings) Limited, manager of this enterprise concentrates on making the team of the employees on the basis of issues. In addition to this, members of team are expertise in resolving the issue in the given time frame. It will directly impact the productivity in positive manner and also built interpersonal relation among the employees.
Person culture: This type of organisational culture majorly emphasize on employees of company.In relation to the A.M (Holdings) Limited, this firm can conduct various training and development session for its employees in order to develop their skills and knowledge. Employee with higher skills will perform its job responsibilities in effective manner within the given time frame. As a result this will enhance the business growth of this organisation.
Politics: This term refers to the interaction of the human being at work place which involves powers and authority. Politics is considered as the negativity which creates unnecessary issues within the organisation and affects the performance of the individual as well as team. In every organisation employees usually becoming the part of politics for the motive of achieving higher power and authority (Wagner and et. al., 2012). In context to A.M (Holdings) Limited, politics is affecting its employees in negative manner and these are describe below:
Decline in productivity: Internal politics of A.M (Holdings) Limited is affecting the productivity level of the employees as they are distracted with the disputes and conflicts. As a result individuals are not able to concentrate on their performance and reduces the quality of work.
Enhances the stress level: Politics affects the working environment of an organisation. In this, employees have jealousy feeling with each other that increases the stress level of the employee.For example: If the an individual is the part of the team, stress level of that individual will also affect the performance of whole team. Because of stress environment at work place goal of team will not be achieved in the given time period.
Power: It is considered as the capability of an individual that persuades other person with their activity in the organisation. In context to the A.M (Holdings) Limited, top management of this enterprise have the maximum power which gives them authority to influence employee to perform according their vision and thoughts. Power has its own positive as well as negative impact which affects the performance of the employees. In context to A.M (Holdings) Limited, different types of power used by its top management are evaluated as below:
Reward power: In this, organisation increases the performance of the employee by proving them rewards on the basis of their productivity level (Laforet, 2011). This type of power is used by maximum organisations as it improves the performance of the individual as well as team in effective manner. Monetary benefits influences the employees to accomplish their given task in best possible way with quality. It is considered as the positive form of power.
Coercive power: This type of power states that the top management of the organisation formulates rules and regulation which are compulsory for the employees to follow. In context to A.M (Holdings) Limited, top management of this organisation have created various targets for the packaging team. In case if this team is not able to achieve their daily target, member of team have compensate it from their salary. Coercive power is the negative form of power as it involves punishment. As a result, this power demotivate employees which decreases their quality of performance
From the above mentioned organisational culture, power and politics, it has been analysed that all factors affects the performance of individual as well as team. In order to improve effectiveness in employees performance, it is responsibility of HR manager of the A.M (Holdings) Limited to create positive working environment and develop formal communication between the employees. This reduce the politics and conflicts at work place.
P2 Various Theories of Motivation
Each organisation majorly emphasizes on improving the performance and productivity of the employees in order to achieve predetermined goals and objectives. It is the responsibility of the HR manager of every enterprise to understand the needs and requirement of its employee which affects their performance. In context to A.M (Holdings) Limited, its HR manager is expertise in handling manpower of the organisation and motivates them on continuous basis. Motivation encourages individual to perform their work in effective manner. It also increases the work efficiency of the employees at team level too (Evaluation and Explanation of Theories on Motivation, 2018). HR manager of this organisation using various types of motivation theories in order to improve the work performance of the employees. Motivation theories are classified into two types content theory and process theory. These theories are evaluated as below:
Content Theory: This type of theory is based on human behaviour and its preferences to satisfy their needs (Jansen and Samuel, 2014). In addition to this, it also provides particular framework which satisfies their needs of the individual and motivates them to perform in effective manner.
Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory
Herzberg Theory states that in every organisation there are certain factors which motivates the employees to perform well. These factors are termed as motivating factors. Apart from this, there are some others factor which may dissatisfy the needs of employee and affect their performance in negative manner. These factors are known as hygiene factors. Both the motivating and hygiene factors are elaborated as below:
Hygiene Factors: These factors involve physiological needs of the individual which are required to be fulfil by the organisation in order to motivate them towards the work. In context to A.M (Holdings) Limited, it HR manager is motivating the worker by satisfying there needs in order to improve their performance for the business growth. These physiological needs of individual are evaluated as below:
Pay: It is required by the HR manager of A.M (Holdings) Limited to provide appropriate salaries to its employees which can easily fulfil its sociological needs. Apart from this, pay scale of every employee of similar designation must be equivalent (Huhtala and et. al., 2013). It will motivate the employee to perform their assigned duties in effective manner.
Working Environment: HR manager of A.M (Holdings) Limited is majorly focusing on providing appropriate working environment to the employees such safe, clean and hygienic basic facilities etc. In addition to this, HR also focuses on availing latest tools and technology to the employees in order to ease their work. This increases the satisfaction level of the employees.
Interpersonal Relation: In an organisation its essential for its employees to work in effective manner that can give monetary benefit to the enterprise. In context to A.M (Holdings) Limited, its HR manager is conducting various team building activities in the organisation that improves the interpersonal skills of the employees. It will improve the mutual understanding between the employee and also influence their work performance.
Motivational factors are the one which encourages employees to perform its work in effective manner with positive and valuable outcome. In relation with A.M (Holdings) Limited, Human resource team of this organisation is using these factors to motivate the employees. These factors are described below:
Responsibility: HR manager of A.M (Holdings) Limited delegates the duties and responsibilities of the work among the employees. Employees perform with more proficiency when they owns the responsibility (Glendon, Clarke and McKenna, 2016).It motivates the individual as well as team to perform their task in effective manner.
Rewards and recognition: In this, HR manager monitors the performance of the employee on regular basis and provide them rewards for their hard work. Monetary rewards provides opportunity to individual to earn extra money apart from the salary. This motivates the employees to perform their work in effective manner.
Process Theory: This theory emphasize on the ideas of how an organisation changes and develops.
Vroom's expectancy theory: This theory emphasis both on process and content of motivation by integrating needs, reinforcement and equity (Fagbohungbe, Akinbode and Ayodeji, 2012). It was profound by Victor Vroom in 1964 that assists managers to motivate employees by determining three major factors of appraisals viz. Expectancy, Instrumentality and Valence. On these three factors, HR managers of David determine performance level of employees and recognise them by giving different appraisals.
- Expectancy- This part entails that to obtain better result of business, a person has to work more hard in business. Through this technique, managers of A M (Holdings) Limited can encourage staff members to perform well by providing rewards and incentives to best performers.
- Instrumentality- This process assists general opinion of people that they think to perform well, will aid in getting better reward at business. Under this process, top management of A M (Holdings) must ensure that promises of rewards can be fulfilled as well as create an awareness among employees too.
- Valence- It describes the degree at which value of people at workplace can be rewarded that results to gain high success (Elstad, Christophersen and Turmo, 2012). Thus, it is necessary for employers of A M (Holdings) Ltd., to give promotion to employees as per performance of them by discovering their value.
This theory of motivation aids managers of A M (Holdings) Limited, for encouraging workers to work well. It also helps in recognising performance of employees as well as giving them rewards in perfect manner.
P3 An Effective Team as Opposed to an Ineffective Team
Team is a group of people in which all the members comes together for achieving a common goal (Demir, 2011). In a business organization, it is important to build a team in order to perform business activities and task in effective manner. By this company can easily attain set goals and objectives without any kind of issues. Mainly, team play important role in performing allotted duties and responsibilities with the purpose of making overall performance of the company is competitive. Along with this, team includes person who have specific role towards the job. As all the team members perform task accordingly. With the help of this company can easily improve their performance level. In context of A M (Holdings) Limited, they also formulate teams for improving their entire activities and task. It helps in increasing productivity of the workers and company as well. All the teams and its advantages are understood by following points:
Functional Team: This type of team is a group of people which is set by the A M (Holdings) Limited for performing specific plan and task. In this, manager of the company also provide roles and responsibilities to every team members (Colquitt and et. al., 2011). By this they easily perform their task and at the same time also attain allotted target in effective manner.
- Importance: The main advantage of building functional team is to save time and cost of the company by using optimum resources.
Problem Solving Team: These type of team are built with the purpose of of solving issues that arise at workplace. In this all the team members are having specific skills and knowledge by which they can easily resolve issues and make positive work environment (Choi, 2011). For resolving issues, all the members are formulating plan which contribute in managing issue and reduce the negative impact.
- Importance: The main importance of this type of team is to determine issues as per daily basis which may lead in providing solution for resolve issues. This will help in improving performance level of the company.
Virtual Team: This type of team is known as geographically in which all the workers are perform activities together from different geographic locations (Carpenter, Berry and Houston, 2014). In this they communicate by technology like, Fax, email, voice conferencing.
- Importance: The main advantage of this team is to operate their activities from different countries which help in improving performance level of the A M (Holdings) Limited.
Project Team: This type of team are build for performing specific project of the company. In this all the team members are selected as per entire project requirement. With the help of this, company can easily enhance their productivity level.
- Importance: Main advantage of this type of team is to complete big project in appropriate time frame in order to attain competitive advantage.
This model is appropriate which was developed by Dr Meredith Belbin. It define propensity of team members and their behaviour as well. It directly affect the relation with all the team members. In this context, there are some effective components which help management to build team. All these are as follows:
Plant: It it important for management to implement effective tools and techniques to effectively conduct operations effectively. As A M (Holdings Limited) which supplies confectionery foil and laminated carton board. In this company needs to maintain better connection with their customers to provide them effective services.
Resource allocator: Under this, management needs fund, material and manpower to perform task. Thus, it is important for manager to provide resources to workers so that that execute business activities appropriately.
Co-ordinator: It is also an effective component in which management provide information to workers towards the objectives and task as well. With the help of this all the business activities are effectively conducted. In this leader of the company also provide guidance to team members so that they easily perform their task.
Shaper: It defines duties and task which provide to team members for performing all the function effectively. By this manager of the team can easily check employees in a team.
Monitor evaluator: In this management undertake monitor process to evaluate the overall performance of the workers. With the help of this, company easily determine the subordinate efficiency for making better decisions.
Teamwork: Under this, employees are work in a team which help in executing operational activities in effective way by utilising optimum resources.
Implementer: Company use effective and different management theories and models to make effective functions and system as well.
Complete: In this, team help all the members to implement as well as execute activities in effective manner and at the same time also deliver quality services to end customers.
All these are important team for A M (Holdings) Limited to implement their entire task in systematic manner. All these are contributing in improving overall performance of the company and at the same time also reduce any kind of issues at workplace.
Difference Between Effective and Ineffective Team are described as below:
In every team member is getting equal opportunities to share their view and thoughts in decision making process. This contributes the team in taking effective and worthy decision which is beneficial for the organisational growth in monetary terms.
In this team members are sharing their al the thoughts in decisions making process which creates issues and conflicts at the workplace. This issues distracts the employee from performing their work in effective manner.
Effective team shares positive working environment with its team members (Bolino and et. al., 2013). It also emphasize on improving the skills and knowledge of the team mates
Ineffective team share stressful working environment at workplace as the team have not accomplished its task in given time period.
Effective team performs their all the task in effective manner and also shares positive relation with the team member that avoids the issues at work place and directly reduces the conflicts between the team mate.
In this, employees do not share positive relation with other employees which results in misunderstanding related to the work and creates conflicts at workplace.
P4 Concepts and Philosophy of Organisational Behaviour
In every organisation motivation has its own importance as it encourages the employees to perform their work in effective manner. In relation to this, human resource manager of every organisations is using several types of theories to motivate its employees on the basis different situations (Boje, Burnes and Hassard, 2011). These theories are beneficial for the organisation as it improves the performance level of the employees that leads to the growth of the organisation. In context to A M (Holdings) Limited, its HR manager is monitoring behaviour and performance of the employees that helps superior to understand the behaviour of employees. It also creates perception of employees work and performance on the senior authority. In order to create positive environment at workplace HR manager of A M (Holdings) Limited uses leadership theory to improve the performance of the employees. Leadership theory is evaluated as below:
Path Goal Theory
Path goal theory is a leadership theory given by Robert house. This theory states that behaviour of the leader is contingent towards motivation, satisfaction and performance of the follower or subordinate. This theory is based on Vrooms's expectancy theory in which an individual's motivation is depends upon its expectations. Every employee can be motivated with the attractive outcome of its performance (Avey, Palanski and Walumbwa, 2011). This theory is beneficial for A M (Holdings) Limited as it guides the HR manager to select the behaviour that is suitable with maximum number of employee's needs and the working environment at workplace. Further human resource manager guides the employees to perform their regular base work in effective manner. Path goal theory is finds the achievement on four different styles which are elaborated as below:
Directive: In this leadership style, leaders guides the employee about his roles and responsibilities. Employees are directed by the leader in terms of ways through which task must be executed. This style positively impacts upon the employee and motivates them to perform their work in effective manner.
Participative: This leadership style focuses on involving employees in decision making procedure and take suggestion from them to improve the growth structure of the organisation. This develops the interest of employees in their work and impacts in positive manner (Ates and Bititci, 2011).
Supportive: In this, leader shows concern for employees which builds positive relation between them. It reduces the stress of the employees make him feel comfortable with the leader to share their issues and obstacles with the leader.
Achievement: This leadership style more emphasize on showing trust on employees and expect that they will perform at their higher level.
Different situations: There are several different situations in the organisation which may affect the performance as well as growth of the employee. These situations are elaborated as below:
Multitasking: Multitasking is considered as the capability of the individual to perform more than one task in single time. In context to the A M (Holdings) Limited, employees often tries to perform several number of work at single time as it directly decreases the quality of their work (Ashkanasy and Humphrey, 2011). In relation to the production team of multitasking is considered as the biggest obstacle for the organisation as the manufactured products are not satisfactory for the customers and affects the name of the company.
Unclear Goal: It is the responsibility of top management to clear goal and objectives with employees. This will help the employee to understand the growth structure and realise them that they are important in the organisation. It is the major concern of top management as if the goals are not clear with the employees they will not be able to perform in the right direction. It may affect the performance of employees in negative manner.
Poor Communication: Communication is the way of transferring views and ideas with one another. In context to A M (Holdings) Limited, its HR manager focuses on developing proper communication at work place in order to avoid conflicts among the employees.
From the above mentioned report, it has been concluded that organisational behaviour is essential part of every enterprise as it provides better working environment to the employees and motivate them to perform their job responsibility in effective manner. Apart from this, every business organisation has its own culture which is created by the employees as well as HR manager. It has been evaluated that motivation is essential for the growth of every organisation. In addition to this, importance of different types motivational theories have been elaborated on the basis of its importance in the organization.
Books and Journals
- Ashkanasy, N. M. and Humphrey, R. H., 2011. Current emotion research in organizational behavior. Emotion Review. 3(2). pp.214-224.
- Ates, A. and Bititci, U., 2011. Change process: a key enabler for building resilient SMEs. International Journal of Production Research. 49(18). pp.5601-5618.
- Avey, J. B., Palanski, M. E. and Walumbwa, F. O., 2011. When leadership goes unnoticed: The moderating role of follower self-esteem on the relationship between ethical leadership and follower behavior. Journal of Business Ethics. 98(4). pp.573-582.
- Boje, D.M., Burnes, B. and Hassard, J. eds., 2011. The Routledge companion to organizational change. Routledge.
- Bolino, M. C. and et. al., 2013. Exploring the dark side of organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior. 34(4). pp.542-559.
- Carpenter, N. C., Berry, C. M. and Houston, L., 2014. A metaanalytic comparison of selfreported and otherreported organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior. 35(4). pp.547-574.
- Choi, M., 2011. Employees' attitudes toward organizational change: A literature review. Human Resource Management. 50(4). pp.479-500.
- Colquitt, J. and et. al., 2011. Organizational behavior: Improving performance and commitment in the workplace. McGraw-Hill Irwin.
- Demir, M., 2011. Effects of organizational justice, trust and commitment on employees' deviant behavior. Anatolia. 22(2). pp.204-221.
- Elstad, E., Christophersen, K. A. and Turmo, A., 2012. The strength of accountability and teachers’ organisational citizenship behaviour. Journal of Educational Administration. 50(5). pp.612-628.
- Fagbohungbe, B. O., Akinbode, G. A. and Ayodeji, F., 2012. Organizational determinants of workplace deviant behaviours: An empirical analysis in Nigeria. International Journal of Business and Management. 7(5). p.207.
- Glendon, A. I., Clarke, S. and McKenna, E., 2016. Human safety and risk management. Crc Press.
- Huhtala and et. al., 2013. Ethical organisational culture as a context for managers’ personal work goals. Journal of Business Ethics. 114(2). pp.265-282.
- Jansen, A. and Samuel, M. O., 2014. Achievement of organisational goals and motivation of middle level managers within the context of the two-factor theory. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences. 5(16). p.53.
- Laforet, S., 2011. A framework of organisational innovation and outcomes in SMEs. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research. 17(4). pp.380-408.
- Wagner and et. al., 2012. Lost sleep and cyberloafing: Evidence from the laboratory and a daylight saving time quasi-experiment. Journal of Applied Psychology. 97(5), p.1068.
- West, M.A. and Lyubovnikova, J., 2013. Illusions of team working in health care. Journal of health organization and management. 27(1). pp.134-142.