Organisational behaviour is considered as management process that influence control over individual behaviour in organisation. There is strong relationship between employee’s behaviour and success of business (Rickaby and et.al., 2017). Positive and motivated people contribute well in accomplishing goal of business unit. Present study is based on A David & Co Limited. It operates its business in food and beverage industry. It is medium size firm that aims to increase its profit and expand operations across the world. Current assignment will explain influence of culture and power on individual and team performance. Furthermore, it will describe content and process theories of motivation with reference to A David & Co Limited. Study will illustrate various factors that are essential to form an effective team and will explain team development theories.
P1 Impact of organisational culture, politics and power on individual and team performance
Organisational culture and its influence
Organisational culture can be defined a underlying beliefs and values of the firm that creates unique environment in the organisation. Each firm has different values, assumptions and accordingly entities create workplace environment. This culture describes vision, system and practices of business unit (Babalola, Gbadegesin and Patience, 2014). There are various kinds of organisational culture:
- Power culture: This is the type of environment in which higher authorities have all power and they set rules that need to be followed by each individual in the firm. This type of culture helps in making quick decision but creates bureaucracy in workplace.
- Role culture: It is another type of culture in which higher authority’s gives special role to each individual and they are liable to perform their allotted responsibilities. Role culture is helpful in building detailed structure in which long chain of command exist and workers cannot directly communicate with higher management, they have to follow hierarchic in business unit (Horner and Swarbrooke, 2016).
- Task culture: This types of environment all individual work as team in order to fulfil particular task. Power is distributed among all team members and they have to work together in order to complete the give task successfully.
- Person culture: In this culture, each person assumes that individual is superior in business unit. In this, employees work individually and take their own decision.
A David & Co Limited adopt task culture. That influence team and individual performance to great extent (Peso and et.al., 2014). As in this culture firm brings right people at right level those who can perform particular task properly. This helps in maintaining individual identity and raising their efficiency as well. They all work in a team that develops bonding between them. This makes them positive towards brand and changes their individual behaviour as well. Furthermore, task culture is helpful in raising team performance because all people work together in order to achieve the organisational goal. They all work to get positive outcome. Task culture helps A David & Co Limited in managing flexibility and changes of market significantly.
Power, politics and its influence
Power and politics is major element that influences organisational performance to great extent. A David & Co Limited is the medium size firm that always treats its employees well so that they stay in organisation for longer duration (Mu and et.al., 2018). Positive power encourages productivity. A David & Co Limited give power to its workers to make decision ad involve them in decision-making process. This positive power and politics influence team behaviour and individual performance. Because when they are being involved in each activity, then they feel valuable and this motivates staff members and makes them positive towards brand. Positive power helps in raising confidence of individuals and they perform well. This also supports in raising team efficiency (Turecki and Brent, 2016). Positive power and politics enhances respects and communication in workplace. By this way healthy workplace culture gets build up . This supports A David & Co Limited in retaining its skilled people in business for longer duration and improving their individual and team performance.
Negative power and politics adversely affect workplace environment, people don’t respect each other and that creates conflict situation at workplace. Leaders in this situation raise employee’s performance by threatening them .This reduce productivity and performance individual. In such circumstances people implements unethical behaviour that decreased performance of business to great extent (Teslya and et.al., 2014).
Power and politics affect team and individual performance to great extent. If higher authorities utilises their power positively then it motivates employees and they put their hard efforts to perform their allotted work with quality (Janasz and Janasz, 2018). But if high authorities misuses their power and ply politics at workplace then it may make other negative towards the brand. If management promotes their favourite employees and ignores performance of good performance then this will create negative atmosphere and people will not perform well in business unit. On other hand positive power and politics is helpful in creating health workplace environment (Child, 2014). In such kind of place employees like to work for longer duration. They get equal opportunity to get promotion. This motivates them and raises their productivity as well.
Forevermore, organisational culture influences the team and individual behaviour to great extent. If culture is not goods then individual will not feel satisfied. That would increase conflict situation and will affect their performance as well. Such kind of situation makes them behaviour of employee negative towards brand. Whereas if there is positive culture and higher authorities give promotional opportunities to each person then they will be motivated and will perform their work significantly (Bucic, Ngo and Sinha, 2017). This will positively influence their behaviour and performance in business unit.
There is strong relationship between culture, power, politics and motivation. If culture is good then it will enhance satisfaction level of worker and they will put their hard efforts to raise their performance. Positive culture and significant values makes person positive and raise their productivity as well. By this way A David & Co Limited can become able to accomplish their goal effectively (Xiang and et.al., 2017). But if there is negative culture or power then people will feel demotivated. That will affect their performance and entity will not be able to perform well in market.
A David & Co Limited should involve employees in decision-making process and have to take their suggestion. This can makes them feel valuable; by this way workers will stay in business for longer duration and will work efficiently.
P2 Content and process theory of motivation
Motivation can be defined as positive emotional state of employees towards firm. Motivation makes the person loyal and enhances their satisfaction towards brand. There are two motivational theories: content and process.
This model emphases on human needs and believes that if needs of person are fulfilled then it may support in encouraging individual (Theories of Motivation and Their Application in Organizations: A Risk Analysis, 2018).
Maslow’s theory of motivation
This is considered as most commonly used method that are used by firm to encourage their workers. A David & Co Limited applies this motivational theory in order to retain its staff members in business for longer duration. It concentrates on five basic needs: physiological, safety, social, esteem and self-actualisation requirements. If company is able to offer people food, shelter, job security, love then it may make them positive and can turn their behaviour as well. A David & Co limited always treats its workers as assets of business, by this way it fulfil needs of all its staff members (The Process Theories of Motivation, 2018). It offers salaries as per the performance of individual and incentives that make them feel happy. This raises job satisfaction. By this way person contributes well in accomplishing goal of the company. A David & Co Limited aim to raise their profit and expand its food and beverage business across the world. For that, it requires talented people those who can provide amazing services to consumers. Firm takes care of five basic needs of workers and fulfil their desires.
Herzberg’s two-factor theory
It is another motivational theory that considers two needs of person: motivation and hygiene. This models states that there are various factors that encourage people such as recognition, achievement, job security etc (Teslya and et.al., 2014). If A David & Co Limited provides its workers such things then it makes them positive. Entity creates numerous opportunities for its staff members for personal and career growth. Employees get benefit to get promotions and high salary packages. That raises their confidence and makes them satisfied towards the brand. Hygiene factors involve relationship with other staff members, salary, working conditions etc. These entire things influence the mind of individual and affect their satisfaction level as well (Janasz and Janasz, 2018).
This theory of motivation enables A David & Co Limited in effective achievement of goal. As entity provides good salary packages to its workers and creates healthy workplace environment. By this way, all workers feel happy at workplace and they coordinate well with each other’s. Higher authorities involve them in decision-making process that makes them feel happy and they share their innovative ideas. This aids business in accomplishing goal of business unit significantly (Rickaby and et.al., 2017).
It is another motivational theory that emphases more on things that makes the process smooth. It concentrates on psychological and behavioural process that encourage and individual and influences their behaviour as well.
This model explains that company is required to treat each individual fairly in business unit. If all employees are getting equal treatment then it would support in encouraging them and making them positive towards firm. By maintaining such kind of equity A David & Co Limited can be able to raise performance of its staff members. That enhances their contribution and makes them loyal towards brand (Babalola, Gbadegesin and Patience, 2014). If employees feel over- rewards or under- rewarded then they make feel demotivated but if A David & Co Limited ensure equitably reward to workers then it may encourage them and will raise their productivity as well (Horner and Swarbrooke, 2016).
Goal setting theory
It is another process theory that states that goal and overall performance of employees are closely interrelated aspects. If entity has challenging goal then it may affect overall performance of workers to great extent. A David & Co Limited has to develop realistic goals so that workers can understand it and can perform their duties accordingly. If one goal has been achieved then it will raise confidence of person that will result improving performance of employees. This would help in improving overall performance of business unit and retaining people in the firm for longer duration (Janasz and Janasz, 2018).
This models states that motivation is highly depends upon decision making process,. If entity has involved active cognitive process for making judgement then it may encourage people and can raise their performance (Child, 2014).
Motivational theories are helpful in determining the factors that can encourage people and can make them positive towards brand. By applying Maslow’s, equity theory A David & Co Limited can identify process and needs that are required to be implemented properly in order to satisfy employees. By creating healthy workplace environment and providing them rewards and recognition enterprise would be able to retain its workers in business for longer time. Furthermore, it will help in raising their productivity as well (Teslya and et.al., 2014).
P3 Factors that form an effective team
Team working aids business in minimising issues and completing project within specified period of time. Tuckman theory of team development explains that by following four basic steps entity can develop a effective team.
Forming: In this phase, all the workers are uncomfortable in business unit and they are unable to work together in the organisation. Every person is busy in finding solution for his or her problems. In such condition team leaders have to advice all team members and have to help them in order to understand their duties (Horner and Swarbrooke, 2016).
Storming: It is the next stage in which people see themselves as team members. But they find many challenges and feel unable to perform their duties efficiently. Leaders have to increase clarity of purpose among employees and have to develop strong relationship with team members.
Norming: All team members are clear with their role and responsibilities in the stage. They accept challenges and perform their duties well (Teslya and et.al., 2014). All team members discuss the process and share their views. Employees give respect to team leader and other workers. Now people feel comfortable in team and support each other so that so that organisational goal can be obtained.
Performing: Group members now performs team, they are mature and understand common goal of team. All team members perform their own job this raise confidence of each individual and support in achieving the goal (Xiang and et.al., 2017).
Factors that form an effective team
There are several components that help in forming an effective team as oppose to an ineffective team. These factors are described as below:
- Communication: This is considered as most essential factor that helps in developing healthy relationship between all team members and raising their team performance as well. A David & Co Limited has to ensure raising communication between all employees so that confusions can be minimised and healthy bonding can be developed. This aids in resolving conflicts and developing confidence of each person. If there is improper coordination then it might create difficulty in working as effective team (Theories of Motivation and Their Application in Organizations: A Risk Analysis, 2018).
- Team size: It is another essential element that forms an effective team. If there is stable team size then leader of A David & Co Limited will be able to manage all team members efficiently. But if team size is too long then it might create issue in handling all workers properly. Lengthy team size increase chances of conflict because by this way leader would not be able to make effective communication between them. Managers of company always have to ensure involving right number of members those who can complete the allotted work timely . This would help in forming an efficient team as oppose to ineffective team (The Process Theories of Motivation, 2018).
- Leadership: It is another most essential component that aids leaders in forming an efficient team. If leaders adopt effective leadership style and guide people well then it aids in managing all employees well and raising their performance as well. Good leadership motivate team members and enhance their contribution towards work. If leaders don’t guide their employees well then it might demotivate them and they will not perform well in team (Bucic, Ngo and Sinha, 2017).
- Openness: This is another major factor that form efficient team. It is essential for team leader that to raise transparency and maintain openness in business unit. By this way all people will feel happy and they will perform well in A David & Co Limited (Mu and et.al., 2018).
There are various team development theories such as Tuckman, belbin etc. All these models explain the role of leader and team members that supports in developing an efficient team. Tuckman theory explains four major phases: forming, norming, performing, storming that assist in developing team performance .Initially team members feel uncomfortable thus, leader of A David & Co Limited has to make them comfortable and have to raise their confidence so that they can perform well. Later on, they get to know about their duties and properly perform their duties in a team (Babalola, Gbadegesin and Patience, 2014).
Belbin theory explains nine role that has to play by leader and for developing a good team. These are resource investigator, team worker, coordinator, plant, monitor evaluator, specialist, shaper, implementer and complete finisher. If leaders perform their role well then it assist in forming an efficient team in business (Mu and et.al., 2018).
There is strong relationship between team development and success of organisation. if team members are performing their duties well then it helps the company in meeting with their objectives. But in order to forma effective team it is essential for A David & Co Limited that to create positive behaviour of its employees. If people are positive towards brand then they will contribute well in achieving goal of business unit (Teslya and et.al., 2014). Organisational behaviour is the concept that focuses on making people satisfied and comfortable so that they can positive connected with the firm. If employees are happy then they will also perform well in team that would develop an efficient team in A David & Co Limited.
P4 Concept and philosophy of organisational behaviour
Organisational behaviour is the helpful technique that assist in understanding needs of employees and influencing their behaviour as well.
Path goal theory
It explains that leadership style influences the behaviour of employees in business unit. If leaders of A David & Co Limited are unable to guide people well then it may impact on workers satisfaction level. Leaders have to behave in such manner that can aid in creating friendly environment so that all skilled people perform their duties well and retain in business for longer duration (Mu and et.al., 2018). This path goal theory is highly depended upon expectancy theory. That explains that individual has different expectation from organisation and if entity is unable to fulfil their expectation then it many make them negative towards brand. If certain preferences of needs are being fulfilled then it helps in gaining positive outcome. Leaders of A David & Co Limited has to selects best suited behaviour that can support in fulfilling requirement s of workers and meeting with their expectations. This makes the person positive towards brand (Rickaby and et.al., 2017).
It is another organisational behaviour concept that emphases on language, attention, perception, thinking of individuals. It concentrates on information process in the mind of employees. If higher authorities use simple language and create positive perception of its staff members then it may help in making people positive towards the brand. A David & Co Limited have to circulate information in appropriate manner so that it does not create negative impression in the mind of workers (Babalola, Gbadegesin and Patience, 2014).
Social capital theory
This is another organisational behaviour concept that explains that interpersonal relationship between employees and employer. Social capital influences the behaviour of individual to great extent. Level of experiences impact on their preferences. If the person has got positive experiences in other firm and don’t get same environment in recent company then it may make them negative towards the brand (Theories of Motivation and Their Application in Organizations: A Risk Analysis, 2018). In addition, if leaders of A David & Co Limited give rewards to its workers and enhance their association in business unit then it will create positive image in the mind of workers and will make them loyal towards the brand. Otherwise, staff will be negative and will not perform their duties well.
- Autocratic: This model explains that power is in the hand of higher authorities. If they uses their power efficiently and treat all employees well then it may help in making people positive towards brand. If leaders misuse their power then it may negatively impact on employees and they may leave their job (Child, 2014).
- Supportive: This is another philosophy that explains that managers have to support their employees. This encourages them and raises their confidences well. By this way if any kind of critical situation occur in business then workers support the firm and activity help in overcoming the critical situation (Bucic, Ngo and Sinha, 2017).
Organisational behaviour is the wide concept that clearly describes factors that influence the emotional state of individual. If company has created positive environment for them then people may feel happy whereas if there is poor norms and inflexible hours then employees will feel demotivated. This may impact on their working efficiency and they will not be committed towards brand (Rickaby and et.al., 2017). Path goal theory clearly states that if leaders of organisation are not leading people well then workers will not be positive towards brand. leaders have to create positive atmosphere for workers and have to give full support to their team members. This aids in making them positive and retaining in business for longer duration. Improper leadership decreases moral and confidence of individual by this way they become negative towards brand.
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From the above study it can be concluded that organisational behaviour is the big concept that affect overall performance of business unit to great extent. Companies are required to understand needs of its employees and have to treat them accordingly. Motivational theories are helpful in determining the factors that can encourage people and can make them positive towards brand. Entity creates numerous opportunities for its staff members for personal and career growth. Employees get benefit to get promotions and high salary packages. That raises their confidence and makes them satisfied towards the brand. Lengthy team size, improper leadership increase chances of conflict because by this way leader would not be able to make effective communication between them. Managers of company always have to ensure involving right number of members those who can complete the allotted work timely.
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