This assessment will cover the following questions:
- What do you mean by GIS and state any three ways through which GIS could be applied by modern businesses.
- Explain 'database “and how DBMS are better system as compared to flat files.
- How cloud computing is safer computing environment than in house network.
a) Define GIS and three ways GIS can be used in modern business
This question will help in explaining GIS and the way in which it can be used in modern business.
GIS is also known as geographical information system which is mainly designed to capture, analyse, store, manipulate, manage geographical data. It is a kind of tool which can be used by users so that they can create interactive queries, edit data within maps as well as present result of these operations (Rahmati, Pourghasemi and Melesse, 2016). There are many ways in which GIS can be used in modern business but three main ways in which it can be used are:
- It can be used by organizations for visual representation of data or for navigation mapping as well. One of the most common example of web-based GIS mapping solution is Google maps, which is used by people in their everyday lives for navigation purpose.
- GIS can be used for planning and development as well for meeting global challenges. It can help in integrating geographical intelligence into planning processes which can further help organizations in decision making.
- It can also be used by organizations for managing their transportation issues as well as with the help of this tool or application both topical and environmental data can be used for transportation planning.
b) Reason because of which internet has made competitive rivalry more intense
This question will help in explaining the reason because of which internet has made competitive rivalry much intense.
This is mainly because internet technology is completely based upon some universal standards and already existing data that can be used by an y person or organization. With the help of this data, organizations can easily compete with their rivals on the basis of price or any other information which is available on internet. This information is also useful for new competitors as they can use these standards and data and can easily enter into the new market.
a) Define ‘database’ and three ways that explains why database are better as compared to flat files
This question will help in explaining what is database and ways in which database is much better than flat files.
Database in simple language can be defined as a systematic collection of data. It is a kind of system in which data is organized, collected, stored and can be accessed easily from computer systems. Reasons because of which database are much better than flat files are as follows:
- Data security is one of the best reasons because of which database are much better as compared to flat files. It is much easier to apply any kind of constrains to improve security in databases (Clough and Barrett, 2016). These constraints also help in restricting access to the data stored. Not only this in order to improve security all the users of database have different kind of access to the data so that data theft, manipulation etc can be reduced.
- Database have backups because of which its recovery is much easier in case of failure or any other issue.
- Database systems are much more flexible as compared to flat files.
b) Define ‘database’ and explain below diagram in relation to database
This question will help in explaining below diagram in a brief manner. Data within database is stored in a structured way in table format.
Above diagram explains Three-Schema Architecture. This architecture helps in explaining database schemas at three different levels
- External level: This level of database helps in describing part of database which is related to individual users of the database. It is also known as user view of database.
- Conceptual level: This level helps in explaining t kind of data is stored within database and also explains relationships among data. It explains that data stored according to the way perceived by programmers or database administrators.
- Internal level: This level explains the way actual data is stored within database.
a) Difference between Data Warehouse and Data Mart
This question will help in explaining main different between data mart and data warehousing.
It is a large repository of data that are collected from various departments of an organizations or data of various organizations (Sohrabi and Ghods, 2016).
It is a sub type of data warehousing which is designed to meet requirements of certain group of people.
It is a centralized system
It is a decentralized system
In this slight denormalization take place in this.
High level of denormalization take place in this
It helps in taking strategic decisions
It helps in taking tactical decisions
It is a top down model and is a bit difficult to build
It is a bottom up model and is quite easy to be build.
b) Analyse below diagram and explain what type of IS it is and what level in organization it is used.
This question will help in explaining below diagram and what type of information system it is an at what level of organization it is used.
Above shown diagram is a transaction processing system for payroll processing diagram. TPS is a computerized system which helps in recording and performing all daily routine transacrtions of an organization. This type of system is used at operational level of an organization. Above TPS payroll processing system helps in capturing all kinds of employees payment transaction informsation. Output of the system includes both hard copy and online reports that would be used by management for employees paychecks.
a) Information system that an organization can use to determine poor sales
This question will help in explaining type of IS system that can used to determi9ne poor sales of retail home improvement chain.
- For this operational level TPS system can be used. This system will help the organization to check whether product is getting stocked and restocked.
- MIS system can also be used to check overall sales level according to the location or any other factor so that it can be identified what factors are affecting sales (Abdullahi and Ngadi, 2016).
- Other than this ESS system can also be used to check whether sale product is being sold out by competitors or not and if yes then at what price it is being sold out.
- But one of the most important one of DSS system as it can help the organization to increase their sales as this system will help in analysing issues or problems that are affecting the same and will also help in finding out solution for the same.
b) Is cloud computing environment much safer as compared to in-house network
This question will help in explaining which is better cloud computing environment or in-house network.
No cloud is not a safer and secure computing environment as compared to in-house network this is mainly because cloud computing as compared to in-house network is highly distributed. Most of the cloud applications are present or are stored in large servers and data centres where work is distributed globally. Because of this it becomes quite difficult to understand where and exactly at what location one’s own data is stored as a result it becomes much more difficult to understand where and exactly at what location data is being used and if any kind of unauthorized activity take place then it becomes difficult to track location of hackers. Because of these reasons in-house networks are much more secure.
a) Two benefits of enterprise system and three types of integration in below diagram
This question will help in explaining benefits of enterprise system and types of integrations shown in EIS system.
Two main benefits of enterprise system are as follows:
- It helps in increasing better flexibility and productivity: it makes jobs of employees as well as managers much easier. This system helps in increasing employees’ productivity by automating various repetitive business processes (Voronkova and et.al., 2017). Other than this it also helps in organizing key and important information together regardless of their location.
- Improved compliance and record keeping: Data collected and stored in enterprise systems are more secure that is at least risk or getting lost. These systems can also be used when there is requirement of proof to check business performance and it also helps in fulfilling requirements related to management and investment.
Below diagram shows four main business process that are integrated with each other:
- Enterprise system
- Knowledge management system
- Supply chain management system
- Customer relationship management system.
b) Competitive strategies that can be used and explain one that would be difficult to be executed
This question will help in explaining types of competitive strategies that can be used by oner of small shop ABC and identifying strategy which would be difficult for execution
There are various kinds of competitive strategies that can be used by owner of ABC shop such as:
- Low cost leadership: it is one of the strategies that would be difficult for ABC shop owner to execute as they would face issues in competing against top manufacturers or who provide warranty services to their customers. They can provide lower cost products to their customers but they cannot compete with their competitors who have already established themselves in this business and are providing lower cost services and products to their customers.
- Product differentiation: ABC shop owner can add some more services to their products so that they can differentiate their products from others.
- Focus on market niche: they can take advantage of being a local store and can focus on a niche market to sell their products.
- Supplier and customer intimacy: Being a small shop they have an advantage that they can develop relationship with their customers and develop- customer intimacy.
This case study had focused on different types of security issues that UPS might encounter with tracking technology, strategic business objectives of Information Systems that can be applied to UPS, activities of Information Systems that can be applied to UPS’s Tracking Information System and 3 Dimensions of Information Systems that can be applied to UPS’s Tracking Information System.
Three different types of security issues that UPS might encounter with tracking technology that they have and ways in which they would protect itself
There are various kinds of security issues that can be faced by UPS that they might encounter with tracking technology, but one of the main security issue they might face is- If customers data stored with their data pool is not encrypted and then stored data can het hacked or manipulated by the hackers (GrudzieÅ„ and Hamrol, 2016). These data can be viewed and misused by the hackers which would be harmful for both UPS and customers. They can protect themselves from this kind of issue by focusing on enhancing security of their system and storing customers data after encryption so that even if data is hacked, hackers a not understand it.
How strategic business objectives of Information Systems apply to UPS
Based on the six strategic objectives of information system UPS would apply only providing best customer services to all of their customers. it has been analysed that UPS spend more than 40 percent on providing best customer service to their customers and for this they also focus on their operational excellence by focusing on enhancing their overall performance and efficiency in a better manner.
3 activities of Information Systems to the UPS’s Tracking Information System
Three main activities of IS that can be applied to UPS’s Tracking Information System are: record, processing and track. These activities will be explained in following manner. following ways:
- Record: this will contain bar code label of the parcels or packages. These labels will be consisting of senders and receiver’s information, parcel information, destination.
- Processing: in this parcel information will be send to destination centre through the software so that parcel can be delivered in an appropriate manner.
- Tracking: this this package’s live location will be tracked by delivery person co that it can be delivered at correct time and at correct place.
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3 Dimensions of Information Systems to the UPS’s Tracking Information System
Three dimensions of UPS’s Tracking Information System are: technology, management and organizational dimensions.
- Organizational dimension: In this inventory management is focused on, packages are tracked and various other required information is provided to the system related to parcel or packages (Hwang, Lin and Shin, 2018).
- Technology dimension: It consist of all the network, software’s, systems that are used by UPS.
- Management dimension: This focuses on sending packages, tracking or checking delivery status of the parcel or packages.
From the above case study, it has been analysed that there are various kinds of security issues that can be faced by UPS and it is important for them to focus on such issues in order to overcome those. It has also been analysed that there are three main activities and dimensions of IS that can be applied to UPS’s Tracking Information System in order to explain its working.
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