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Concepts of Project Management - A Study

University: BPP University School of Business and technology

  • Unit No: N/A
  • Level: High school
  • Pages: 36 / Words 8915
  • Paper Type: Assignment
  • Course Code: BT7073
  • Downloads: 705
Question :

This assessment will cover following questions:

  • Develop an analysis of the challenges which have been identified in the assessment.
  • Discuss the characteristics of a Good Project manager.
  • Provide a maximum of ten risks that AF PLC are likely to face with a construction project of this nature.
  • Provide the relative importance of the various iron triangle parameters in setting the Overall Project objectives that will need to be managed by you as the AF PLC project manager over the course of the project, and how they may inter-relate to each other.
Answer :

INTRODUCTION

Project management may be defined as a practice which mainly includes five aspects initiation, planning, executing, controlling and closure. The main motive behind the adoption of project management is to meet goals within specific time frame by taking into account constraints. The present study is based on the case scenario of Automotive Futures which is involved in technology contracting, consulting and product/software development. Company has specialization in automation as well as wide range of new products. In this, report will provide deeper insight about the aspects of project life cycle. Besides this, it will develop understanding about the extent to which risk register helps in managing projects effectually. Further, report also entails how gantt chart helps in monitoring the progress of project. It will also presents how earned value analysis can be used under project management for cost allocation and assessment.

MAIN BODY

PART A

1. a) Importance of the various iron triangle parameters in setting the Overall Project objectives

Iron triangle are the basic factor that are accounted for during planning and delivery of any project. three factors of iron triangle are well named as Scope, Schedule and Cost. There are many importance which are brought by the different aspect of the iron triangle to the project manager in conducting the different project as project triangle used to cover up almost all the aspect of the project management (Bronte-Stewart, 2015). Some of the importance which are brought by iron triangle are as follows:

Scope:

Scope refer to the total amount of the work which need to be done in the organization to deliver the project. This includes roles and responsibility which has to be performed by the different member in the team to deliver the project.

Efficiency of the work:

As all the project manger used to have the idea about the amount of the work which has to be complete to deliver the project it always improves the efficiency of the project. The biggest reason to support the same is that these element of the it used to reduce the duplicate of the work which eventually help the company in saving the amount of the resources which has been invested in the project. This eventually help the company in improving the efficiency of the project as there is a optimum utilization of all the resources at the time of completing the project. On the basis of the same the project manager used to set more specific objectives.

Cost:

Cost refer to the amount of the resources and the time which will be consumed by the organization to deliver the project. Importance of cost for the project manager.

Quality management:

It is one of the biggest importance which used to be brought by the Iron intangibility to the project manager. As the quality of any project is always measure on some basis such as value of the cost, efficiency and durability (Liu and et.al., 2016). As Iron triangle used to identify the cost under which the project need to be complete it help the project manager in keeping the close eye on the cost at the time of setting the project objective in the organization.

Schedule:

Schedule factor is the factor which used to estimate the time which has been allocated to the team to complete the project and deliver the same on time.

Clarity of thought:

As all the work in the project development is not done by the manager itself, they used to delegate the some sort of the work to the other member in the team. Scheduling aspect of the iron triangle helps the project manager to understand the workforce which will require for completing the project. On the basis of the scheduling aspect of iron triangle the project manager used to delegate the different responsibility to the other member in the organization to complete the task on the time. This eventually help the project manager in keeping the clarity of the thought in the organization and among the different team member in the organization.

b) risk register

Risk Management Register for Project

Risk Identification

Assessment

Response

Monitoring and Control

Reference

Event

Cause

Effect

Probability

Impact

P x L

Strategy

Trigger

Action

Responsible person/s

Review Frequency

Status date and general notes

1

Project specification not clearly outlined

Not having proper knowledge

Project delayed

4

5

20

Mitigate

Due to lack of time, Project manager did not clearly specify the outlines

One of the main risk associated with the project is that there is probability that project specification may not be clearly outlined. Many times, it happened that in planning phase client provide specification but they forget to make an idea about business future requirements and due to this reason cost increase at rapid pace because project specification was not as per company requirement due to which many loopholes remain in the final product. Ultimately, with origination of need again project get started. Thus, it can be said that due to lack of foresightedness such kind of mistakes are made.

In order to prevent such kind of things first of all managers must review their vision and mission as well as innovation which they intend to bring in the business. After such kind of assessment managers must draft project requirements.

Technical team manager

Monthly

14/07/19 register updated and loopholes are identified

2

Delay in project

Budget constrain

Leads to delay in project

4

5

20

Mitigate

Project manager did no identify the exact budget and also affect the entire project

Delay in project can cause due to several reason. In order to mitigate such kind of risks business intelligence systems can be used like Tableau. In these systems data can be fetched through the Google sheets. In other words, it can be said that entire data can be entered in to Google spreadsheet and Tableau can be connected to it. In Tableau like Excel already there will be calculated fields. Attractive charts can be prepared in the Tableau. By reviewing chart project manager will easily identify on daily basis whether task is completed at required pace or there is slowdown in project task performance. By taking action immediately pace of task performance can be increased and by doing so delay in project can be avoid.

Project manager

Monthly

27.07.2019. register updated and alternative sources are identified

3

Not receiving proper support from client employees

Not implementing proper communication strategy

Delay In project

2

5

10

Mitigate

Business development manager did not uses effective communication strategies and as a result, error establish

In any project it is normally a process under which client employees first of all prepare project requirement and then send same to the company that will carry out project. Usually, after commencement of project due to some reasons client employees failed to extent proper support due to some reasons. In such kind of situation there are chances of error. In order to solve such kind of problem there will be single representative from both sides and only they will interact with each other. By doing so in better way both sides can receive each other support.

Business development manager

Monthly

09.09.2019. register updated and immediately implement communication strategy

4

Elevation in cost of the project.

Not allocating proper budget

Project delay

5

5

25

Mitigate

Project manager fails to control budget

Cost of the project happened due to multiple reasons like lack of availability of resources, breakdown in machine or lack of coordination etc. In order to mitigate such kind of risk project manager in a day two times will hold meeting with relevant employees and by doing so it can get regular update. In case if project seems derail then project manager can take action immediately to handle the situation.

Project manager

Monthly

25/08/19. risk register updated and sources of fund identified

5

Penalty charged in case project get delayed.

Due to over budget and nit clearly specification

Increase the budget

5

5

20

Mitigate

Project manager did not use specific budget which is assigned.

Project cost can be elevated due to number of reasons if contract terms and conditions are taken into account. In terms and conditions, it is clearly mentioned that if after set deadline in 2020 if project get delayed then penalty will be imposed on each single day. Thus, to control elevation in cost of the project attempt will be made to cut down cost of the project so that if it get delayed beyond date then in that penalty paid can be offset by the savings that is done by cost cutting in the project. By doing cost can be controlled in the business.

Project manager

Monthly

2.09.2019 register updated and strategy is implemented

6

In case fault appear after construction, firm will have to pay more.

Because of overlooking of different suggestion which has been pass on by the employee during construction

Will increase the expenses of the organization.

4

5

20

Mitigate

Project manager was focused on the other program at the time of construction

It is one of the major risk that firm is facing. As per terms and conditions of the contract if fault is observed in plant then in that case client can deduct deposit amount or will pay all expense from the deposit amount. Hence, if any fault appear it will be loss for the firm. In order to avoid such kind of loss after completion of the project multiple time testing must be done. By doing so cost can be controlled in the business.

Project manager

Monthly

21.09.2019 risk register updated and alternative action are taken

7

Defect in the design of invertor provided by the client

Due to not proper checking of instrument at the time of collecting it

It will increase the time period require to complete the project

2

5

10

Mitigate

Project manager has not passed on the specific instruction to the worker

As per contract client engineering team will prepare invertor design and accordingly AF engineers will design entire machine. If there will be defect in the design then in that case entire project can go in the wrong direction. In order to avoid such kind of problems after receipt of the risk related details project manager of AF must also review design and must try to identify loopholes. Further, project manager must align project requirements to the future requirements that is communicated by the TTF. If both align then design must be given green signal but if opposite happened then in that case detail discussion must be carried out about it so that existing design can be modified.

Technical team

Monthly

27.09.2019 risk register updated and new inventor procure

8

Project schedule is not clearly defined

Due to the error in the scheduling process

Project will get delayed and less amount of clarity

5

5

25

Mitigate

Project allocater fail to ensure proper scheduling of the project.

In a project number of tasks are performed and many times it happened that project scheduling is not clearly defined. It is a part of human error. In order to mitigate such kind of risk project manager must time to time review sequence of the forthcoming activities. If there is any error in the sequence allocater then in that case steps can be taken on time to handle situation.

Project manager allocater

Monthly

29.09.2019 risk register updated and Alternative strategy was made

9

Improper distribution of resources

Due to improper knowledge about the resources available

Not optimum utilization of the resources in the organization.

4

5

20

Mitigate

Project manager fail to ensure proper allotment of resources at the time of planning and allotment

Sometimes department manager failed to distribute resources across project tasks. It happened that on some tasks abundant resources are employees and somewhere less resources are employed. Such kind of things lead to project delay. Thus, project manager must determine time that is required to perform each task and must estimate number of employees for that task. By doing so in better way resources can be utilized in the project.

Department manager

Monthly

10.10. 2019 risk register updated and proper distribution was made.

10

Lack of coordination between employees

Uncertainty about the role has to perform

Disputes and conflict

4

5

20

Mitigate

Leader are not able to maintain the good working environement

In order to promote coordination among employee’s department manager must time to time receive feedback. According to feedback communication policy or teak structure can be prepared and by doing so coordination can be promoted among employees at the workplace.

Department manager

Monthly

20.10.2019 risk register updated and Alternative strategy was made

2. Planning and cost

a. Activities and network diagram

Related Article:- Quality Aspects Of  Project Management

Table 1: Input for GANTT chart

Task Mode

Task Name

Start

Finish

Late Start

Late Finish

Free Slack

Total Slack

1

Project Initiation

Mon 08-07-19

Fri 12-07-19

Mon 16-12-19

Mon 23-12-19

21 wks

23 wks

2

Commission Design of Factory

Sat 07-12-19

Thu 26-12-19

Sat 07-12-19

Thu 26-12-19

0 wks

0 wks

3

Commission outline Design of Automation Equipment

Sat 07-12-19

Thu 19-12-19

Sat 07-12-19

Thu 19-12-19

0 wks

0 wks

4

Commission outline Design-Inverter Product

Sat 07-12-19

Thu 12-12-19

Sat 07-12-19

Thu 12-12-19

0 wks

0 wks

5

Detailed design of Factory

Mon 09-12-19

Fri 31-01-20

Mon 23-12-19

Fri 14-02-20

2 wks

2 wks

6

Detailed design of Automation Equipment and Inverter Product

Mon 09-12-19

Fri 31-01-20

Mon 09-12-19

Fri 31-01-20

0 wks

0 wks

7

Commission and develop Software for Automation equipment and Inverter Product

Mon 09-12-19

Fri 14-02-20

Mon 09-12-19

Fri 14-02-20

0 wks

0 wks

8

Manufacture Automation equipment

Mon 09-12-19

Fri 14-02-20

Mon 09-12-19

Fri 14-02-20

0 wks

0 wks

9

Manufacture Modular Factory Units

Mon 09-12-19

Fri 07-02-20

Mon 09-12-19

Fri 07-02-20

0 wks

0 wks

10

Transport and Construct Modular Factory on site in Germany

Tue 10-12-19

Mon 03-02-20

Tue 10-12-19

Mon 03-02-20

0 wks

0 wks

11

Test Automation equipment.

Tue 10-12-19

Mon 20-01-20

Tue 10-12-19

Mon 20-01-20

0 wks

0 wks

12

Transport Automation equipment to New Factory

Wed 11-12-19

Tue 07-01-20

Wed 11-12-19

Tue 07-01-20

0 wks

0 wks

13

Install Automation equipment in New Factory

Wed 11-12-19

Tue 21-01-20

Wed 11-12-19

Tue 21-01-20

0 wks

0 wks

14

Install Software for Automation equipment

Thu 12-12-19

Wed 08-01-20

Thu 12-12-19

Wed 08-01-20

0 wks

0 wks

15

Install software for Inverter Product Line

Thu 12-12-19

Wed 15-01-20

Thu 12-12-19

Wed 15-01-20

0 wks

0 wks

16

Test Inverter Production line

Fri 13-12-19

Thu 23-01-20

Mon 06-01-20

Fri 14-02-20

0 wks

3.2 wks

17

Handover and Train TTF engineers in Automation process and Product production

Fri 13-12-19

Thu 23-01-20

Mon 06-01-20

Fri 14-02-20

3.2 wks

3.2 wks

18

Project Close out

Mon 16-12-19

Mon 16-12-19

Fri 14-02-20

Fri 14-02-20

45 days

45 days

 

Figure 1: GANTT chart

Network diagram is given above in which critical path is given. Critical path refers to the activities that cannot be delayed in terms of performance. It also refers to the longest time period for which the project will be carried out. Critical path for the current project is 2+6+11+13+16+18 all other activities will be covered while performing this task. 23 weeks or 201 days will be required to complete the project. Thus, it can be said that within 6 months this project can be completed. Float is the one of the most important concept of the project management because it indicates the duration by which project activity can be delayed. In the project management there are always some activities which need to be performed and completed on time. On other hand, there are few tasks that can be delayed by few hours and days and this will not lead to elevation in cost of the project. Thus, scheduling of the tasks is done in such a way that benefit of extra time can be taken. It can be seen from the table given above that slack of 21 weeks is available in case of project initiation stage and 17th and 18th activity which are Handover and Train TTF engineers in Automation process and Product production and Project Close out. In both these tasks slack of 3.2 weeks and 45 days is available. Thus, these tasks can be delayed but if same thing is done in case of other tasks then in that situation project cost will increase at rapid pace.

(B) Gantt chart

 

Figure 2: GANTT chart with label

3. Managing progress and spending

Table 2: Total profit on bonus

Start date of project

08-07-19

Completion date

25-09-20

Days for project

445

Time in which project will be covered

223

Extra days

222

Bonus

50,000

Total

11100000

 

 

Total cost

48,500,000

Target value

58,500,000

Surplus

10,000,000

Total gain

21,100,000

It is expected that expenses will remain in control and due to this reason bonus of $11100000 will be earned. Target value of the project is 58,500,000 and actual expenditure made is 48,500,000. Hence, total gain made on this side is $10,000,000. Overall, gain made on bonus and surplus amount is equal to $21,100,000.

4. Earned value analysis

 

Standard

Actual

Variance

Standard cost as per the completion

Actual progress to date (%)

Planned value

Earned value

CPI

SPI

PI

0.2

0.2

0

 

100

90

0.2

1

0.0022222222

A

2.8

2.91

-0.11

 

100

90

2.8

0.9621993127

0.0311111111

B

1.6

1.72

-0.12

 

100

80

1.6

0.9302325581

0.02

C

1.5

1.53

-0.03

 

100

25

1.5

0.9803921569

0.06

D

3.8

4.08

-1.04

3.04

80

45

3.04

0.7450980392

0.0675555556

E

5.4

5.97

-0.57

 

100

65

5.4

0.9045226131

0.0830769231

F

3.4

1.32

-0.13

1.19

35

75

1.19

0.9015151515

0.0158666667

G

6.5

2.76

-0.485

2.275

35

80

2.275

0.8242753623

0.0284375

H

4

2.75

-0.75

2

50

40

2

0.7272727273

0.05

Earning value analysis is that method which is allowed the manager to measure the amount of work that is actually perform on the project in order to analyse the amount of cost and schedule report. This also shows that whether the project is go in better direction or not (Chen, Chen and Lin, 2016). From the above, it has been calculated that the variance is calculated by subtracting the actual amount with the standards. Further, there are many values which will comes in negative that means there is a need to make proper cost control and it can be done only when the project manager uses advance techniques. Further, it is also analysed that the project manager also incur extra cost and it must be control such that in order to complete the task D, project manager allocated only 3.8 million but unfortunately, they spend 4.08 so the difference arises i.e. 3.04. Therefore, it is clear that there is a need to make proper measure in order to control the cost as well.

On the other side, it is also analysed that Cost performance index is another ration which measure the financial effectiveness of the project such that it is the term which is calculated by dividing the cost of work performed by the actual cost of the work performed. Therefore, project initiation is the first task and its value if 1 which means that there is a good result of the project (Eirgas and et.al, 2019). on the other side, it is also analysed that task A, B, C , E, F are also nearby 1 which means that the project is good with this allocated budget and as a result, it will be more beneficial to generate best results as per required. On the other side, as per the task, D , G , H are the task which is not nearby 1 that means these task may be over budget or under budget. Therefore, it is clearly realized that when the CPI is less than 1 then the project is over budget and there are some task which are over budget and there is a need to take control on these by applying effective techniques.

In addition to this, SPI is the schedule performance index which means that it is very powerful measure of the amount of work which is actually required in order to complete the project. Therefore, it is the part of the earned value management techniques. Therefore, as per the above mention table, it is analysed that the overall task which included form PI to H, all are not nearby 1 and these are less than 1 that clearly states that the team is accomplishing the less work from the planned work. Therefore, it is analysed that if the team is achieve the work i.e. SPI > 1.0 then all the con- critical path activities are performed. Though there is a variance, which state that for every given task, the team is required around 0.88 hours so that they will be easily attain the defined aim and objectives (Bryde, Unterhitzenberger and Joby, 2018). From the Gantt chart it is clear that the project is completed by 14 February but it takes more time to complete the project and it is so because there is a negative deviation and in order to complete the same, it is necessary for the project manager to apply effective techniques so that it will not be easily affect the project in negative way. Thus, it is clear that the project manager, should take better and corrective actions in order to minimize the cost incurred.

PART B

Reflection

Module has helped me in improving variety of the skill and also gaining the knowledge. As module has asked me to drive myself to do many new and the challenging activities which was not performed by me in the past. As a result it has helped me in improving the personal as well as professional skill. At the same time there were many challenges which was faced by me at the time of completing the module.

Interpretation of the Data:

This was the issue which was faced by me and my team on the regular basis. As module has asked us to go through the good amount of the financial data and interpret the same to carry out the outcome of the Module. It was very difficult to interpret the data in the module as the data which need to be gather is to be gathered with the help of the proper understanding of the module. As all the student were having the different opinion in the team it was getting difficult for the team to interpret the data. To overcome the same issue the team has always hear the issue and the concern of all the student. On the basis of the same the best decision used to take place in the team regarding the interpretation of the data.

Reliability of the outcome:

This is one of the biggest challenge which was faced by me and my team. As it was always difficult for us to understand the reliability of the outcome which has been found by us, as it was difficult to find out the proper measure to check out the reliability of theoutcome which has been ascertain by the team. As it is very important to check the reliability of data before building the further data on the basis of the same it was always proving difficult for us to find out the proper measure to check the reliability. At that time the senior professor and the tutor has helped us to check the reliability of the data as we used to cross check the data with them and try to implement the different feedback from there side in the data.

Coordinating:

with the other member in the team was another big issue which was faced by me. As in the team all the member was given the separate roles and duties which need to be followed by them to carry out the outcome of the module. It was getting difficult for me to communicate and coordinate with them. To overcome the same issue we have taken the help of the different communication tool which has helped us in improving the efficiency as well as coordination in the team.

Module has also helped me in developing variety of the personal development skill in mine. As with the help of the module I am able to develop my communication skill as module has asked me to communicate with the variety of the authority and team member to find out the best outcome (González, Coronado and Casas, 2016). Module has helped me in developing my sourcing skill as well. As to interpret the different data and find out the best outcome out of the assessment it has always asked me to source the variety of the information internal and external which has helped me in developing my interpretation skill. Another skill of mine which has seen a good amount of the progress is interpretation skill as module has asked me to interpret huge amount of data.

After conducting the module and completing the assessment it has been understood from my side that the good project manager is always require to have a good communication skill. As they are the one who used to interact with all the team member on regular basis and try to fix out the different concern which are faced by the team. Also another characteristic of good project manager is that all the project manager used to have a good leadership and team building skill as it is the responsibility of the project manager to build the good working environment in which all the team member can work together (Kariuki, 2015). Project manager also used to have the good and the clear vision about the future and on the basis of the same different decision are taken in the organization. Project manager are also good decision maker as they are the one who is having the responsibility to take the different decision in the organization.

CONCLUSION

By summing up above report it has been concluded that for AF Plc project, different iron triangle parameter are used such that cost, schedule, scope that helps the firm to manage the work as per needed and they all are interrelated to each other, further, report also concluded that there are different risk which are identified which the project manager is actually face with such that Elevation in cost of the project, Not receiving proper support from client employees, Delay in project etc. further, report also provide the Gantt chart and network diagram in order to make sure that the all the critical task are identified such that the project required 201 days in order to complete the project. Lastly, report also concluded that CPI of the project is almost nearby 1 that means the project is in progress and on the other side, SPI is negative which means that there is a need to minimize the cost and take initiatives in order to control the cost.

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