Questions- This assessment will cover following questions:
- Evaluate the evolution of management practice before the industrial revolution.
- Determine early development of management practice as a scientific discipline at the time of industrial revolution.
- Develop an understanding of the growing sophistication of management practice in the post-industrial era.
- Evaluate possible developments in the practice of management in the light of current and potential changes in the future in the operating environment of organisations.
Management practices involve the effectiveness as well as innovative methods adopted by manager in order to improve the working conditions and empower the skills of staff. Business entity generally implement the suitable idea as well as concept in order to support the internal organisational processes. Thus, adequate functioning of the viable management practice assist the firm to incorporate the effective decision and carry out suitable routine functioning in order to remain competitive (Bowdin and et. al., 2012). This essay cover topic like evolution of management practices before the industrial revolution. Along with that focus is given to the growth as well as development of management practices at the time of post industrial era are covered in report.
Evolution of Management Practices before Industrial Revolution
Management practices before the industrial revolution involve the contribution of resources and manpower in order to produce and deliver the desirable goods and services in the market. During this phase more preference was given to the quantity rather than quality due to which with the help of monotonous activities focus was given to produce the standardised products. Manager used to assume that stability within the internal functioning is better rather than adopting the usual changes (Drucker, 2012). Reason being existence of few competitors and lack of awarenesses amongst the internal as well as external stakeholder. Business entities used to focus more on the labour intensive technique rather than capital intensive techniques. Further, emphasises was given to exploit the existing advantage that derive the short term thinking ability which does not involve much attention in terms of delivering attention to the shareholder's requirement. Prior to the revolution of industries the owner of company have the centralised decision making power and engage in the practices like planning, coordinating, procurement of resources, coordinating as well as controlling. Based on which large trading and construction companies exploit the labour in terms to perform either skilled or unskilled work at minimum wage rate (Management’s Three Eras: A Brief History, 2014). But with the existence of economist like Adam Smith gave insight about the division of worker on the basis of their skill, knowledge and productivity which can further increases the productivity of firm.
With the strong influence of thinkers like Adam Smith in 20th century that involve the tenure from 1910-1940, the Management as Sciences practices was developed. It involve the operations where business entities concentrated to enhance the productivity due to division of labour which leads to better standardisation. The strong working culture that involve top to down management approach involve the strict control that assist the people as well as internal process to dominated across industries. Similarly, from 1950 to 1960 which is a decade laid to the prominent growth as well as development of enterprises due to the emergence of HR activities. This tenure played significant role in terms to evolve the management practices. The manager rather than just focusing on its abilities and objectively slightly paid attention to the human factor. It involve activities like preparation of job description, conducting performance review as well as goal setting that improve the overall productivity as well as profitability of firm. Thus, the end of the 1960s set to the emergence of industrial revolution that largely changes the economy as well as working criteria within United Kingdom (The Evolution of Management, 2013).
Development of Management Practices as a Scientific Discipline During the Time of Industrial Development
The development of industries was the transition phase for the enterprises of whole European union in terms of shifting from the manufacturing system to the factory system. Here the development of management practices encompasses the practices like planning, coordinating, resource allocating, controlling as well as concentrating on the innovative techniques. This led to the huge growth and development of factor system by depending upon the capital intensive techniques and adopting new scale technologies. During this phase the company realised the essence to concentrate on the significant values as well as beliefs of firm that enormously generate welfare for the personnel. From 1960 onwards, UK experienced the enormous change in terms to prepare then strategic planning for both long as well as short term. Along with that successful firms used certain frameworks like SWOT analyses in order to articulate the significant strategy and develop suitable plan for the better performance of firm (Easterby-Smith, Thorpe and Jackson, 2012). Moreover, in the passage of years like 1980 the business environment increasingly become competitive in terms to gain the advantage of core competencies. Usage of certain tools and technique like lean management and total quality management helps to minimise the chances of wastage as well as continuously work to develop the quality of product. Better skills in form of training and development session was provided to the employees so that they maintain significant relation with customer and collect the relevant data in terms to bring the business in favour of company. The main similarity in the management practices during as well as before the industry revolution was that the decision making authorities rest on the top level of management. Additionally, only the certain authorities and few management staff have the privileged to select the best alteration as per the changing pattern and dynamic environment. Furthermore, with the passage of frequent years like 1990 and 2000s the company bought up immense changes in their management practices where they focused to upgrade their performance by setting benchmark. This practice help to maintain the balance sheet of company and encourage the personnel to attain best possible outcome. Subsequently from 2000 forwards the industry understand the relevance to maintain data for which advance technology was used to derive the potential data in order to generate value for existing as well as potential customers (Rothaermel, 2016). Along with that by this time company give priority to the decentralised decision making approach where even the employees gained opportunity to put forward their valuable idea as well as opinion. It further promote the creative thinking ability in order to boost up organisational processed and inspire other to work in favour of company (Fayol, 2016). This preferably assist the firm to remain competitive in order to carry out effective functioning and gain core competencies.
Growth of Management Practices in the Post Industrial Era
Thus, the enormous growth of the management practices at the time of post industrial era helps diverse firms to meet significant standard in order to incorporate the better decision making process. This whole process of the evaluation in the development of Industries which continued from the beginning of 1970 completely change the perspective as well as process to carry out the business. Like, shift from hierarchical communication and decision making order to brainstorming method assist the company to enrich the capabilities of employees. Earlier employee was treated as the single entity to whom directions were offered in order to get the work done. In exchange of it the company paid them the fixed amount so they used to give less priority on the human practices (Fleischman and Parker, 2017). But after post industrial revolution due to immense competition manpower is considered as an essential resources to whom the manager constantly pay attention. There exist various ways by which an organisation in the post industrial phase enhanced the management practices. Explanation of some of the ways that led to the significant changers are determined below.
Investment in training and development sessions for the existing as well as new employees assist the organisation to enrich the abilities of manpower and inspire them to better incorporate the management practices. This help in building the competitive or challenging team that remain self reliant in order to face the competitive pressure due to the improved skilled, capability as well as quality (Lloyd-Jones and Lewis, 2014). Along with that Participatory method even assist in landing up the innovative solution by generating the job security amongst workforce. Such collaborative techniques amongst the team member not only enhanced the personal growth but also help the firm to attain the collective target effectively.
Moreover, optimum use of innovative technology assist prevailing company to accommodate the needs of potential market and mitigate the negative impact often globalisation that is increase in competition rate. Although customer or ultimate user gets benefited due to the globalisation because they get the wide alternatives in the market (Hill, 2018). But on other side the domestic industry can get affected due to the intervention of MNCs. So with the help of employees the company try to maintain the long term relationship with customer through physical store or retail outlet.
Therefore, digital media has suitably help the industry to remain connected with the mass customers and get the result at real time. Thus, the business entity need to adopt the adequate management style and invest in changes to gain the competitive advantage over others.
Development of Management Practices to Successfully meet the Current as well as Potential Changes of the Future to meet the need of Operating Environment.
The modern management practices comprises of the involvement of complex changes that assist personnel to posses the adequate amount of talent as well as practices in order to develop the existing management practices. The manager as well as top executive level significantly build up the strategy in order to exploit the untapped opportunity that helps to improve the business operations. Such participation and foresight vision assist the company to cater the current as well as potential changes in the management practices effectively. Enriching the efficiencies of employees helps in the long term engagement of employee which widen the productivity for the currents and future perspective (Laudon and Laudon, 2015). Along with that involvement of the digital media in the existing management practices is valuable to meet the interest of existing and potential candidate. Further, continuously learning pattern in terms to study the market trend and anticipate competitive analysis assist the company to undergo radical learning for the long term development of an organisation. Generally large and multinational company gains the advantage of immense capital and resource but it is not necessary that the start up cannot not commence its business even in tough competition. So the new venture can access digital media and communicate the values to the potential target market. This drop down the unnecessary expenditure of company in comparison to the traditional media. Thus, it is necessary for the company to remain innovative and make the creative decision with the involvement of the team members. Application of such group decision method help to analyse the internal and external operating environment based on which firm need to develop the management practices (Weske, 2012). Therefore, redesigning the organisation culture helps the organisation to gain the advantage of long term sustainable development.
From the above report it has been determined that due to the dynamic environment and constant innovation management concept as well as practices are continuously evolving. Based on the smooth and potential internal functioning like planning, staffing, coordination as well as controlling their exist huge revolution in the current management practices at the stage of pre as well as post industrial revolution. Like, earlier few industrialist had the monopoly rights due to which they used to focus on production of particular product or services which they can manufacture. But in modern era the manager focuses to identify the need and changing trend and accordingly they bring alterations in their offerings. Therefore, in the current management practice due to wide competitive pressure most of the successful entity give prime preference to the requirement of main stakeholder that is customer for sustainable growth and development.
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