Effectiveness and Innovative Methods Adopted by Manager


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  • Level: High school
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Question :

Questions- This assessment will cover following questions:

  • Evaluate the evolution of management practice before the industrial revolution.
  • Determine early development of management practice as a scientific discipline at the time of industrial revolution.
  • Develop an understanding of the growing sophistication of management practice in the post-industrial era.
  • Evaluate possible developments in the practice of management in the light of current and potential changes in the future in the operating environment of organisations.
Answer :


Management practices involve the effectiveness as well as innovative methods adopted by managers in order to improve the working conditions and empower the skills of staff. Business entities generally implement suitable ideas as well as concepts in order to support the internal organisational processes. Thus, adequate functioning of the viable management practice assists the firm in incorporating the effective decision and carrying out suitable routine functioning in order to remain competitive (Bowdin and et. al., 2012). This essay covers topics like the evolution of management practices before the Industrial Revolution. Along with that focus is given to the growth as well as development of management practices at the time of the post-industrial era are covered in the report.


Evolution of Management Practices Before the Industrial Revolution

Management practices before the Industrial Revolution involve the contribution of resources and manpower in order to produce and deliver the desirable goods and services in the market. During this phase, more preference was given to quantity rather than quality due to which with the help of monotonous activities focus was given to producing the standardised products. Managers used to assume that stability within the internal functioning is better rather than adopting the usual changes (Drucker, 2012). The reason is the existence of few competitors and lack of awareness amongst the internal as well as external stakeholders. Business entities used to focus more on labour-intensive techniques rather than capital-intensive techniques. Further, emphasis was given to exploiting the existing advantage that derives the short-term thinking ability which does not involve much attention in terms of delivering attention to the shareholder's requirement. Prior to the revolution of industries, the owner of the company had the centralised decision-making power and engaged in the practices like planning, coordinating, procurement of resources, coordinating as well as controlling. Based on which large trading and construction companies exploit the labour in terms of performing either skilled or unskilled work at a minimum wage rate (Management’s Three Eras: A Brief History, 2014). But with the existence of economists like Adam Smith gave insight about the division of workers on the basis of their skill, knowledge and productivity which can further increase the productivity of the firm.

With the strong influence of thinkers like Adam Smith in the 20th century that involved the tenure from 1910-1940, Management as Sciences practices were developed. It involves the operations where business entities concentrate on enhancing productivity due to the division of labour which leads to better standardisation. The strong working culture that involves to top-down management approach involve strict control that assist the people as well as internal processes to dominate across industries. Similarly, from 1950 to 1960 which is a decade led to the prominent growth as well as development of enterprises due to the emergence of HR activities. This tenure played a significant role in terms of evolving management practices. The manager rather than just focusing on its abilities objectively slightly paid attention to the human factor. It involves activities like the preparation of job descriptions, conducting performance reviews as well as goal setting that improve the overall productivity as well as the profitability of the firm. Thus, the end of the 1960s set to the emergence of the industrial revolution that largely changed the economy as well as working criteria within the United Kingdom (The Evolution of Management, 2013).

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Development of Management Practices as a Scientific Discipline During the Time of Industrial Development

The development of industries was the transition phase for the enterprises of the whole European Union in terms of shifting from the manufacturing system to the factory system. Here the development of management practices encompasses practices like planning, coordinating, resource allocating, and controlling as well as concentrating on innovative techniques. This led to the huge growth and development of factor systems by depending upon capital-intensive techniques and adopting new scale technologies. During this phase, the company realised the essence of concentrating on the significant values as well as beliefs of a firm that enormously generates welfare for the personnel. From 1960 onwards, the UK experienced an enormous change in terms of preparing then strategic planning for both the long as well as short term. Along with that successful firms used certain frameworks like SWOT analyses in order to articulate the significant strategy and develop suitable plans for the better performance of the firm (Easterby-Smith, Thorpe and Jackson, 2012). Moreover, in the passage of years like 1980 the business environment increasingly became competitive in terms of gaining the advantage of core competencies. The usage of certain tools and techniques like lean management and total quality management helps to minimise the chances of wastage as well as continuously work to develop the quality of the product. Better skills in the form of training and development sessions were provided to the employees so that they maintain significant relations with customers and collect the relevant data in terms of bringing the business in favour of the company. The main similarity in the management practices during as well as before the industry revolution was that the decision-making authorities rested on the top level of management. Additionally, only certain authorities and a few management staff have the privilege to select the best alteration as per the changing pattern and dynamic environment. Furthermore, with the passage of frequent years like the 1990s and 2000s the company brought up immense changes in their management practices where they focused on upgrading their performance by setting benchmarks. This practice helps to maintain the balance sheet of the company and encourages the personnel to attain the best possible outcome. Subsequently from 2000 forward, the industry understood the relevance of maintaining data for which advanced technology was used to derive the potential data in order to generate value for existing as well as potential customers (Rothaermel, 2016). Along with that by this time company gave priority to the decentralised decision-making approach where even the employees gained the opportunity to put forward their valuable ideas as well as opinions. It further promotes the creative thinking ability in order to boost up organisational processes and inspire others to work in favour of the company (Fayol, 2016). This preferably assists the firm to remain competitive in order to carry out effective functioning and gain core competencies.

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Growth of Management Practices in the Post-Industrial Era

Thus, the enormous growth of the management practices at the time of post post-industrial era helps diverse firms to meet significant standards in order to incorporate the better decision-making process. This whole process of evaluation in the development of Industries which continued from the beginning of 1970 completely changed the perspective as well as the process to carry out the business. Like, a shift from hierarchical communication and decision-making order to the brainstorming method assists the company in enriching the capabilities of employees. Earlier employee was treated as a single entity to whom directions were offered in order to get the work done. In exchange for it, the company paid them a fixed amount so they used to give less priority to human practices (Fleischman and Parker, 2017). But after the post-industrial revolution due to immense competition manpower is considered as an essential resources to whom the manager constantly pay attention. There exist various ways by which an organisation in the post-industrial phase enhanced its management practices. Explanation of some of the ways that led to the significant changes are determined below.

Investment in training and development sessions for the existing as well as new employees assist the organisation to enrich the abilities of manpower and inspire them to better incorporate management practices. This helps in building a competitive or challenging team that remains self-reliant in order to face the competitive pressure due to improved skills, capability as well as quality (Lloyd-Jones and Lewis, 2014). Along with that Participatory method even assists in landing innovative solutions by generating job security amongst the workforce. Such collaborative techniques amongst the team members not only enhanced personal growth but also helped the firm attain the collective target effectively.

Moreover, the optimum use of innovative technology assists the prevailing company to accommodate the needs of the potential market and mitigate the negative impact often globalisation which is an increase in competition rate. Customers or ultimate user gets benefits due to globalisation because they get a wide range of alternatives in the market (Hill, 2018). But on the other side, the domestic industry can be affected due to the intervention of MNCs. So with the help of employees, the company try to maintain long-term relationships with customers through physical stores or retail outlets.

Therefore, digital media has suitably helped the industry to remain connected with the mass customers and get results in real-time. Thus, the business entity needs to adopt an adequate management style and invest in changes to gain a competitive advantage over others.

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Development of Management Practices to Successfully Meet the Current as well as Potential Changes of the Future to Meet the needs of the Operating Environment.

Modern management practices comprise the involvement of complex changes that assist personnel to possess an adequate amount of talent as well as practices in order to develop the existing management practices. The manager as well as the top executive level significantly builds up the strategy in order to exploit the untapped opportunity that helps to improve the business operations. Such participation and foresight vision assist the company to cater for the current as well as potential changes in the management practices effectively. Enriching the efficiencies of employees helps in the long-term engagement of employees which widens the productivity for the current and future perspective (Laudon and Laudon, 2015). Along with that involvement of the digital media in the existing management practices is valuable to meet the interest of existing and potential candidates. Further, continuously learning patterns in terms of studying the market trend and anticipating competitive analysis assist the company in undergoing radical learning for the long-term development of an organisation. Generally large and multinational company gains the advantage of immense capital and resources but it is not necessary that the start-up can not commence its business even in tough competition. So the new venture can access digital media and communicate the values to the potential target market. This drops the unnecessary expenditure of the company in comparison to the traditional media. Thus, it is necessary for the company to remain innovative and make creative decisions with the involvement of the team members. Application of such group decision method helps to analyse the internal and external operating environment based on which firm needs to develop the management practices (Weske, 2012). Therefore, redesigning the organisation's culture helps the organisation to gain the advantage of long-term sustainable development.


From the above report, it has been determined that due to the dynamic environment and constant innovation management concepts as well as practices are continuously evolving. Based on the smooth and potential internal functioning like planning, staffing, coordination as well as controlling their exists a huge revolution in the current management practices at the stage of pre as well as post-industrial revolution. Like, earlier few industrialists had monopoly rights which they used to focus on the production of particular products or services which they could manufacture. But in the modern era, the manager focuses on identifying the needs and changing trends and accordingly, they bring alterations in their offerings. Therefore, in the current management practice due to wide competitive pressure, most of the successful entities give prime preference to the requirement of the main stakeholder which is the customer for sustainable growth and development.

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