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Psychological and Biological Analysis of Patient Suffering From Mental Disorders

INTRODUCTION

Diagnosing mental illness is a crucial function of health care organisation which requires critical patient centric decision making. The report will be focused on psychologist approaches to serve care practices of patient suffering from depression and schizophrenia. It will outline psychological and biological analysis of patient suffering from mental disorders. Further, it will focus on identifying reliability, validity and cultural issues which are faced by care workers at the time of treating person with mental disorders. Thus, it will determine use of DSM-IV-TR in diagnosing mental

TASK 1

P1. Biological and psychological explanation for mental illness

Biological disorder related to mental illness is known as neurobiological disability which is case due to genetics and biological transfer. It comprises disorders like obsessive compulsive condition, schizophrenia, bipolar state, etc. Apparently, psychological mental illness can be caused to various reasons such as environment, society, genetic, biological factors, etc. (Keyes, Dhingra and Simoes, 2010). It comprises diseases like anxiety, panic, depression, Schizophrenia, substance abuse. Difference in biological and psychological explanation is described in the table below:

BIOLOGICAL MENTAL ILLNESS

PSYCHOLOGICAL MENTAL ILLNESS

  • The exact cause of biological illness is unknown but it has been stated that the person suffering from disability is due to biological transfer and genes.
  • It is caused due to heredity of depression and schizophrenia/psychotic disability.
  • Genes comprise function of every cell in body which is responsible for body functioning. The connection helps the person in reacting, acting and feeling certain emotion to different situations.
  • In addition, mental illness due to biological transfer is due to abnormal; balance of chemicals in brain which are known as neurotransmitters. However, imbalance of chemical impacts the working ability of person where brain of person is unable to transmit message which creates hindrance in body functioning (Angell, 2011).
  • Biological disorder cannot be prevented but can be controlled by appropriate medication, psychotherapy, proper medication and cognitive therapies.
  • The cause of psychological mental disorders is generally surrounding of person. The situation around people generally impact mental condition such as social restrictions, family violence, exclusion, etc.
  • It is caused due to environmental conditions around the person.
  • Brain cells are very sensitive to changes and the uncertain conditions around person impacts the ability to process information. Due to these changes, person panics and suffers from mental situations like, depression, isolation, Schizophrenia etc.
  • Further, psychological trauma such as physical, sexual and emotional abuse to person in early ages are the other causes which reflect disabled condition of person due to psychological conditions.
  • Environmental triggers like dysfunctional family conditions, changing schools and work life and substance abuse are another risky conditions which develops mental disorders.

M1. Comparison between biological and psychological explanation for mental illness

Biological and psychological mental conditions are related and having similar consequences to health and mental condition of person. However, the causes of disorder are completely different where biological illness is in genres of person and cannot be prevented but can be treated whereas, psychological neurological disorder can be controlled by protecting surroundings around the person (Howard, Barley and Thornicroft, 2010). In both conditions, the patient is unable to related, feel and act to different situations like every other normal person. Nevertheless, it can be said that the major sources of metal disability are family relationships, environmental triggers, substance abuse, societal exclusion and restrictions.

On the other hand, it can be said that person suffering from biological depression and Schizophrenia suffers from loss of interest, enjoyment, lack of energy, ideas of guilt, unworthiness, etc. whereas patient going from psychological mental disability goes through lack of confidence, self-esteem, isolation, panic, reduced concentration, attention, etc. In accordance with condition of both types of patients, it can be outlined that service users face problem in concentrating, performing, information processing and tiredness (Mental Illness Basics, 2018).

As per biological theories, it can be said that Schizophrenia is related to genes where the coordination of cells plays an important role. However, coordination between cells of human body needs to be 50- 50 percent in order to derive stability. If in case the coordination is 46 and 50 percent than the situation reflects cases of depression and Schizophrenia due to biological transfer. Nevertheless, psychological disorder is cause to dynamic functioning of brain cell due to uncertain conditions and environmental stressors around the person. Thus, the major similarities between both the illnesses are neurochemicalimbalances and cognitive process.

TASK 2

P2 Methods to diagnose mental illness in UK

Methods to diagnose mental illness

It is important for NHS trust to ensure safe and proper diagnostic as well as care practices for the patients in order to encourage their recovery. In accordance with recovery, it is essential for practitioners and professionals to analyse the uses and methods to diagnose Schizophrenia and depression in service users (Hyman, 2010). To diagnose mental illness, the professionals will focus on following factors experienced by person:

  • Experience of service users plays an important role in diagnosis because it helps the physicians in developing understanding over individual’s feelings, physical and behavioural changes, and involvement in different situations.
  • Check over individual experience and time period of mental disorder helps in analysing different of disability on the basis of biological and psychological factors.
  • Impact of disorder on individual life helps the physician in analysing seriousness of disability in order to derive preventive measures and suitable medication.

In addition, the proper diagnosis of mental disorder in NHS comprise following test which are same for every person regardless of their cultural background, beliefs, values ethnicity etc. The methods followed by trust are described below:

  • Lab Test: It is done in clinical setting where the doctors aims at assuring the disorder and its causes and its level of seriousness. The testing comprise, brain scan through MRI that is Magnetic Resonance Imaging, blood test with the help if sample which assist in determining about the substances uses (Rasic, Hajek and Uher, 2013). These are the basic test which are conducted in trust in order to evaluate mental and physical condition of services users. It is the base on the basis of which medication and treatment is planned by professionals.
  • Mental health history: In this physician aims at developing understanding over patients physical and mental symptoms in different environmental conditions. Further, it involves knowledge over the symptoms and time period from how long the service user is experiencing illness (Borus, Howes and Livingston, 2017).

In addition, it also focuses on psychiatric treatment, past medication and medical history of family. It is generally checked to differentiate between biological and psychological metal illness in order to draw reliable and valid medication and treatment plans.

  • Mental Evaluation: In this the focus of physicians is to analyse feelings, behaviours and emotional status of service users in different situations. Further, in this the focus of doctor swill on analysing the impact of illness on individual person life and decision making process. The evaluation over these factors will assist in developing critical understanding over the seriousness of mental disability.
  • Cognitive Evaluation:It is based on mental reasoning ability, understanding and processing of information, decision making for daily responsibilities. The cognitive evaluation in trust is based on valuing individual’s cultural beliefs and values where the services users are treated on same grounds but according to their comfort zone (Henriksson and et.al., 2013).

M2 DSM-IV-TR and its uses for diagnosing mental illness

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition (Text Revision) which is launched by American Psychiatric Association. It is used in NHS to derive clear description of diagnostic categories on the basis of validity, reliability for different service users. It assists the physicians in deriving the best clinical and medication setting to frame individual treatment plans according to mental disability of different service users. However, in case of depression and Schizophrenia disorders the method offers different diagnostic criteria to professionals that is on the basis of depressed mood of person in a day, lacking interest in day to day activities, unintentional weight loss and gains, sleeping disorder that is insomnia, fatigue, feeling of guilty and worthlessness.

For instance, if in case a boy suffering from depression visit trust for which has been diagnosed on five different domains in multiaxial diagnosis. The five axis for the boy in NHS will be followed which are described below:

  • Clinical disorders: Axis I- It comprises disability such as major depression, trauma, environmental triggers etc. In this situation the services users suffers from lack of growth of mind, reading and learning disabilities and arithmetic disorders. This illness is experienced by person in episodes that is in specific interval of time.
  • Mental retardation or Personality disorders: Axis II-It comprises psychiatric disorder which generally are diagnosed in person after the age of 18. It is the situation disability in intellectual functioning with lacking adaptive behaviour (Do we need a diagnostic manual for mental illness?, 2013).
  • Physical and mental conditions: Axis III- It is the situation where the professional will focus on analysing side effects of medication on individual's health. It is the situation where the person behaves vulnerable and impulsive in regular routine. This reflects side effects of medication which is hampering stability of mind.
  • Psychosocial factors or environmental triggers: Axis IV-In this the professional will focus on analysing the experience and sounding of boy. Apparently, developing understanding over environmental stressors will assist the professional in deriving medication and effective diagnostic step for treatment plans. However, it is basically related to individuals person life situations.
  • Global Assessment of Functioning: Axis V-With the helps of this assessment the psychologist in trust will focus on evaluating individuals ability to function in different conditions. Thus, with the helps of this diagnosis the physicians will be able to make adaptive daily living environment for the boy who has been diagnosed with depression (Howard, Barley and Thornicroft, 2010).

Thus, from example and discussion over diagnosis method it has been outlined that NHS trust is focused on promote valid and reliable identity. Moreover, diagnosis of mental illness does not differentiate between individual cultural backgrounds and ethnicity.

TASK 3

D1 Effectiveness of systems in diagnosing mental disorder

As a lead psychologist for health care trust, it is important for the individuals to deal with assigned cases in order to manage successful and stable functioning of diagnostic process. It is the crucial aspect of trust because it related to service user's medication and treatment plans. The case of young black male who has been diagnosed with Schizophrenia. In accordance, it ha been analysed that the family of patients has claimed care organisation for wrong diagnosis where leading psychologist is assigned duty to collect evidence for proving right and wrong of the situation with the motive of dererving effectiveness of methods of diagnosing mental disorders (Do we need a diagnostic manual for mental illness?, 2013). However, to prove effectiveness of methods the individuals will focus on collecting documentation of medical record of Winston Jarvis. The medical documentation is the diagnostic proof which is recorded by physicians to maintaining ethics of informed consent. Further the person will focus on analysing recovery details and patient. Showing details of recovery and comparison of past and present condition is another strategy which can helps in providing diagnosis.

Further, standardization of billing and coding in care trust organisation with the help of DSM helps the organisation in maintaining proper record for therapies and medical treatment of patient. The record will the most prominent asset of psychologist for proving the effectiveness and of diagnosis according patient (Rasic, Hajek and Uher, 2013). However, diagnostic process of organisation can not be proved wrong because the clinical test and physical examination of patient health is done with prior concern.

In addition, the use of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual avoids the chances of guesswork and helps in maintaining proper guide to diagnostic criteria which reduces the barrier in between of medication and treatment plans. However, it is another evidence which will helps the psychologist in proving claim wrong against the trust. Further, the lab test details which comprise brain scan and blood test report are another evidence which will help the care organization in providing claim wrong. The test are record of physical examination which demonstrate about the internal functioning of human body. The lab test record is the clinical examination where the brain functioning and process of Winsten is being checked to develop clear understaffing over his actual condition (Henriksson and et.al., 2013). Apart from this, in DSM, Clinical disorders of Axis I will help the record of the situation which was experiences by the male which dragged him to mental illness. The details of clinical disorders involve The situation of disabilities which were faced by Winston Jarvis when he was presented in hospital.

Apparently, Axis II of DSM comprised Mental retardation and Personality disorders which were experienced by Winsten when he was presented in hospital for check-up. These details and documentation will be another evidence to psychologist as it involved knowledge over Jarvis cognitive ability and personality functioning in different and uncertain situations. In addition, record of physical and metal conditions of Jarvis when he was presented in hospital with mental illness holds detailed analysis over his medication situation which is the clear diagnosis statement which proves effectiveness of diagnostic system of NHS trust care organisation.

On the other hand, classification and categories of different diagnostic method for diagnosis mental illness is the proof that the firm do not offer wrong medication for any disorder (Rasic, Hajek and Uher, 2013). It reflects the complexity of diagnosis process under observations where the signs, feelings, reactions and symptoms of person are recorded on prescription in order to frame appropriate medication with regard to medical condition of patients. Thus, this record of data and DSM diagnosis is a complete and accurate report of Winsten Jarvin which will be the evidence of NHS care trust organisation for proving the claim wrong.

Thus, from the discussion, it can be outlined that maintaining detailed record of diagnostic reports and medication of patients plays an important role in managing effectiveness of health care operations and functioning with regard to awful claims.

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CONCLUSION

The report summarized about the diagnosis of mental illness which is complex medical condition for which the professionals and psychologist needs to focus on effective diagnostic methods and observation on patient's sign and symptoms. It specifically discussed about two mental disorders that is depression and Schizophrenia. It outlined the comparison of biological and psychological metal illness where biological is related to genital transfer and psychological disorder occurs due to environmental triggers. Further, the report discussed about methods to diagnose mental illness and uses of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-fourth edition in diagnosing actual mental condition of patients. Thus, the report concluded by determining diagnostic tools and medical examination which can assist psychologist in providing the claim of patient wrong.

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REFERENCES

  • Angell, M., 2011. The epidemic of mental illness: why. The New York Review of Books. 58(11). pp.20-22.
  • Borus, J.F., Howes, M.J. and Livingston, W.W., 2017. Primary health care providers' recognition and diagnosis of mental disorders in their patients. General Hospital Psychiatry.10(5). pp.317-321.
  • Henriksson, M.M. and et.al., 2013. Mental disorders and comorbidity in suicide. American journal of psychiatry. 150. pp.935-935.
  • Howard, L.M., Barley, E.A. and Thornicroft, G., 2010. Cancer diagnosis in people with severe mental illness: practical and ethical issues. The lancet oncology.11(8). pp.797-804.
  • Hyman, S.E., 2010. The diagnosis of mental disorders: the problem of reification. Annual review of clinical psychology.6.pp.155-179.
  • Keyes, C.L., Dhingra, S.S. and Simoes, E.J., 2010. Change in level of positive mental health as a predictor of future risk of mental illness. American Journal of Public Health. 100(12). pp.2366-2371.
  • Rasic, D., Hajek, T. and Uher, R., 2013. Risk of mental illness in offspring of parents with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder: a meta-analysis of family high-risk studies. Schizophrenia bulletin. 40(1). pp.28-38.
  • Regier, D.A., Farmer, M.E. and Goodwin, F.K., 2010. Comorbidity of mental disorders with alcohol and other drug abuse. Jama.264(19). pp.2511-2518.
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