Introduction to Meal Frequency
Meal frequency is defined as the number of times in a day a person eats a meal or snack. Each kind of macronutrient be it protein, carbohydrate or even fat is in a requirement of varied amounts of energy so as to break down and process (Optimal Meal Frequency – How Many Meals Should You Eat per Day, 2013). This is regarded as a thermic effect of food and is considered to act as a metabolic boost that has been found to come with eating. The magnitude as well duration of the boost is dependent on what quantity of food is being eaten (Farshchi and et.al., 2004). Hence, consumption of a small meal is likely to cause a metabolic spike that may not last for longer duration (Meal Frequency and Energy Balance, 2014). On the other hand, a large meal will produce larger spike that is mostly likely to last for long time.
Many nutritionists have been advising the clients to eat on a more frequent basis throughout the day. The idea is that this eating schedule has been found to be better as it controls blood sugar, cravings and hunger. The basic trend followed by individuals while consuming meals has been of 3 meals per day (Hill and et.al., 2008). Studies dating back to 1964 had suggested that being overweight has been found to be inversely related to number of meals that have been consumed on a daily basis (Crookes, 2006). Scientists have further observed that individuals that had the tendency of nibbling everyday showed a presence of lower body weight (Meal Frequency & Weight Loss, 2008). This was in comparison to those who were in a habit of gorging. Observational and interventional studies have measured body mass index in relation to meal frequency. They have observed that subjects with lowest BMIs were the ones who consumed more meals in a day in comparison to those who ate less often (Decker and et.al., 2007).
OBJECTIVE OF PROPOSAL
The aim of the proposal is to find out what meal frequency is the most effective for weight loss. It will also focus on assessing how increased meal frequency can help reduce obesity. The objective is to undergo systematic review of scientific medical literature in order to identify as well as appraise the evidence given on the present research topic.
The methodology selected for the given study is secondary research. Here, there will be searching of databases such as Pub med, Science Direct and Cochrane Registry in order to identify the studies. The key words to be used in search will be meal frequency, obesity, weight loss. There has been an inclusion of randomized trials, cross-sectional, observational as well as interventional studies on the relation between increased meal frequency and reduction in body fat. Reference list of studies were further checked to identify if they can be used for evaluation.
Meal frequency has been thought to have a greater influence on overall weight of body . In this regard, the studies had previously revealed that smaller meals rather than less large meals helped in spreading out the daily calorie intake and also resulted in increased metabolism of body (Smeets and Westerterp-Plantenga, 2008). As per study done by Arciero, P. J., and et.al., 2013, it has been found that if individuals increase their overall meal frequency then they should enhance the protein intake. As Consuming protein more frequently throughout the day causes a decrease in body fat and abdominal body fat. It further increases lean body mass (Arciero and et.al., 2013). In the same way, study was carried out on physically active individuals in terms of impact of meal frequency by La Bounty, and et.al., 2011. It was found that an increased meal frequency did not bring a favorable change in body composition for sedentary populations.
However, it assisted in decrease of hunger followed by improving appetite control (La Bounty and et.al., 201). Results by Ma, Y., and et.al., 2003 have further depicted that increasing the eating episodes on a per day basis will led to decrease in overall risk of obesity (Ma and et.al., 2003). Research study carried out by J.D. Cameron has concluded that increasing Meal may not promote greater body weight loss under the conditions described in study (Cameron, 2011). Study by Flores, 2012 have depicted that consuming a low calorie but nutrient intense diet with presence of moderate carbohydrates and proteins, low fat and increased frequency but in smaller portions may aid in controlling appetite thereby reducing obesity (Flores, 2012).
Some research studies have further suggested that eating small meals on a frequent basis over entire course of day provided for a more metabolic advantage in terms of weight loss (What's Best, 3 or 6 Meals Per Day?, 2013). In one of the study, for dieting people it was found that there have been more chances of success if they consumed seven meals each day. This was different in comparison to individuals who consumed three meals per day (Leidy and et.al., 2011). However, some other studies have failed to replicate this phenomenon in terms of meal frequency. The studies have suggested that increased meal frequency may not have an impact on weight loss or provide for added metabolic advantage (Stote, 2007).
In spite of the 40 years research that has been carried out in this field, there seems to be a paucity ofz long term studies with a huge sample size that investigates the effect of meal frequency on weight loss. Hence, there exists no strong evidence to suggest that increasing meal frequency may lead to weight loss. However, most of the studies favor smaller meals followed by increasing the frequency (Leidy and et.al., 2010). Here, the number can be fixed from 3 to 6. In this respect, it has been found that meals should have more protein content, moderate carbohydrate and low in fat so as to reap the maximum benefits. In this regard, eating three meals a day also seems too effective as it avoids the chances of underrating. Hence, these should be spaced at a distance of every 5 hours. This will aid in providing for good time between insulin and glucagon. This tendency would further assist in resetting of hormones followed by stimulating fat loss (Meal Frequency, 2013).
- Arciero, P. J., and et.al., 2013. Increased protein intake and meal frequency reduces abdominal fat during energy balance and energy deficit. Obesity.
- Cameron, J.D., Cyr, M.J., and Doucet, E., 2010. Increased meal frequency does not promote greater weight loss in subjects who were prescribed an 8 week equi-energetic energy-restricted diet.
- Crookes, P.F., 2006. Surgical treatment of morbid obesity. Ann Rev Med.
- Decker, G.A., and et.al., 2007. Gastrointestinal and nutritional complications after bariatric surgery.
- Farshchi, H.R., and et.al., 2004. Decreased thermic effect of food after an irregular compared with a regular meal pattern in healthy lean women. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord.