Introduction to Psychology
Psychology is the study of human behaviour, thoughts and emotions. Psychology in health and social organisations consists of various kids of theories and approaches for the treatment of patients. Some set of beliefs and behaviours are not good for human which leads to illness and other disorders. Psychiatrists analyse the lifestyles of people and their behaviour towards the problem and then try to recover them accordingly (Agarwal and Zeephongsekul, 2013). The present report consists of theories of lifespan development, social and biological factors of human behaviour, importance of social roles, psychological theories and principles affecting change. In the end, conclusion consists of the summary with key findings of
1.1 Psychological theories with relate to different life stages in health and social care
The relation of various psychological theories with different life stages in health and social care are as follows.
Behavioural Psychological theory: This theory is also called as behaviourism which helps in understanding the behaviour of individuals. In health and social care organisations, psychiatrist can observe the behaviour in terms of the responses of patients to certain stimuli. This theory helps in understanding the infant and toddlers by their behaviour. If they get proper attention ad care of parents then it leads to develop a good behaviour towards things, people and environment (Guha, 2012).
Cognitive Theory: It is the study of mental processes of individuals by paying attention to their language, perception, memory, thinking, etc. Doctors of healthcare firms focus to the mental processes which affects the behaviour of patients. This theory relates to the adult age of people in which they learn new things, handles various problems, share various ideas and thoughts. All these activities helps them I creating their moral, values and perception. They start following their role models, ideal people and like to be like them.
Pshycho-dyamic theory: This theory explains the human behaviour in respect to the conscious and unconscious forces. This theory is based on the past experiences which makes the individuals to behave, feel and react accordingly (Lerner, Lamb and Freund, 2010). By analysing the past life of patients social care firms can find out the reasons behind their behaviour and reactions. For example, some people have fear of flying it can be due to any past incident, some people have fear from height which can be due to any bad experiences.
Humanistic Theory: This theory consists of self-actualization in which individuals realize and express their own capabilities and creativity. As per this theory, developmental process of the individuals should be healthier and it is only possible by thinking positive and good about ourselves and others as well (Kershner and Farrell, 2009). This theory is applicable at young adulthood stage where individual try to interact with other and make good relations with them by their good behaviour. This leads to strong relations and form strong bondings between them.
2.1 Explain social and biological factors that influence human behaviour in the case study above
In the give case, Sam is a patient suffering from Alzheimer disease from 6 years and placed in care home for proper treatment, The social and biological factors that influence the behaviour of Sam which leads to Alzheimer disease is as follows are explained below.
Social Factors: Sam is an uneducated person who did not complete his studies due to the poor economic condition of his family. Due to lack of skills and knowledge, he was not eligible for any good job. He was suffering from financial crisis and this makes him feel shy among the relatives and friends. Family used to shout and criticises him due to his condition and work which makes him feel stressed and irritating (Akoumianakis, 2014). He started living with wrong people and adopts bad habits which results to bad effects to his health. High status of neighbours and relatives creates complexion for him which later results to shame and this makes his to use verbal abuses to the neighbours and other family members.
Biological factors: Alzheimer is a progressive disease which effects and destroy the memory and other metal functions of the individual. This results to loss of intellectual and social skills. This is genetic diseases and occurs due to hormonal changes. There are chances that either Sam got this disease from his parents or improper formation of hormones leads him to suffer from it. In this at first stage, individual starts taking stress related to any problem and then with progress in disease patient starts facing other problems related to the language, etc. All these factors effects the health of Sam and makes him to suffer from Alzheimer (Boyd and Bee, 2011). As Sam is facing this from last 6 years it means that he is at late stage and due to this he facing the problem of speaking, abusing, anxiousness and poor ability to think.
2.2 Importance of social roles in the context of health and Social care settings
In the given study, Sam is going through a critical situation and for recovering him it is important to have social support. In treatment of Sam, social factors plays very important part. The support of family and friends helps him in recovering fast and leads to take less stress. Proper behaviour of doctors and uses helps him in forming good relations which leads to effective communication. Doctors and nurses needs to properly diagnose his case and provide him effective treatment (Bornstein, Vandell and Rook, 2010). Time to time check up updates them about the health and improvement of Sam. They should prescribe him effective medicines which helps him in improving his condition. Treatment with love and care leads to bring positive thoughts and maintaining good relations. This helps him in improving his communication and prevents him from using abusive language.
Support of family and relatives motivates Sam to fight with the disease and bring hope of recovery. Parents love and care helps in influencing the behaviour of Sam which leads to bring improvement in him. By facing and dealing various people and friends, Sam tries to improve himself. By providing private space and freedom of choosing food, dress, etc. staff members makes him independent. Social workers can conduct various activities and games for distracting Sam from negative thoughts and stress which makes him to create suicidal tendency. By meeting with various people Sam try to cooperate and coordinate with them which improves his condition. Family support and friends gathering increase the morale and confidence of Sam which gives him a ray of hope for improving his health (Freud, 2008). They can teach him the lessons related to the communication, behaviour, etc. which helps in his improvement.
3.1 Application of psychological theories in relation to individuals
In the given case study, Karen is a 45 year lady who has one daughter and one son suffering from disorders. His husband is also suffering from schizophrenia and is alcoholic. Due to all these factors she is feeling stressed and worried. The applications of psychological theories in aspect of individuals in the given case are as follows.
Behaviour Theory: Karen is a 45 years old lady whose son and daughter are suffering with disorders ad husband is also suffering from schizophrenia. She is facing all these problems alone as there is not any support to her. Economic condition of house is also not good due to which Karen is unable to provide her family a better treatment. She is the only working lady in her house and even does not have support of her husband. These all factors tends to take her stress related to the economic condition and treatment of her family (Boyd and Bee, 2011). She starts thinking negative which leads to create thoughts of breakdown of marriage and losing the job. This brings change in the behaviour of Karen as she becomes irritating, depressed, stressed, tensed, etc.
Cognitive Theory: The bad condition of family leads to change thinking of Karen. She starts thinking negative which creates fear of losing job and breakdown of marriage. Unhealthy children and husband makes her feel depressed which effects on her work. All these factors leads her to seek a counselling as she feels that her condition is not good. There is not a single member in her family to whom she can share her feelings and emotions to decrease her stress and worries. She starts feeling lonely and depressed as per its results she starts losing hope (Jarrett, 2011). She needs proper care and a support so that she can share her stress and worries and improve her mental condition.
3.2 Behaviour disturbances in relation to psychological theories
Karen is facing various problems and issues in her life which results to create behaviour disturbances. Various behaviour disturbances which Karen is facing in relate to psychological theories are as follows.
Depression: Karen is going through depression as she is continuously facing the problems alone and not getting the expected results. After providing proper treatments to so and daughter there is no improvement in their health and husband is also alcoholic and gambler who spends all her money in useless things (Hozak and Olsen, 2015). These all factors takes her to the situation of depression and this behaviour of Karen relates to the cognitive theory of psychology.
Stress: The economic condition of Karen's family is not good and his husband is also not supporting her for improving the condition. Instead of it, he spends all money in gambling and drtinking without thinking of his children and wife. The health of children are also not improving and it needs more money to provide better treatments. All these factors create stress and worries in Karen's mind. This stress leads to the problem of headache, over thinking, sleeping problems which effects the health of Karen. This stress and factors causing it are relates to the behavioural theory of psychology.
Negatively: Due to the economic problem and unhealthy family Karen starts over thinking which leads to stress and worries. These stress, worries, depression results to create negativity in Karen. Due to this negativity, Karen starts thinking of losing job and breakdown of marriage. This negativity makes her insecure which affects her life and health(Denmark and Paludi, 2008). This factor causing the negativity in Karen's life are related to the cognitive behavioural theory of psychology.
1.1 how psychological theories informs understanding of mental disorders
Psychology refers to the study of understanding the behaviour and mental process of human. There are various mental disorders which understands by doctors and psychiatrists by studying various psychological theories. Mental disorders affects the daily functioning of individual's life. Health and social care houses are for providing proper care and treatment to those individuals who are suffering from various mental disorders and other disorders also. The reason behind mental disorders are many such as damage in mind, stress, ignorance, poor economic condition, relationships, etc. It is better to treat them at the first stage as it is quiet difficult to recover mental disorders at the middle or late stage (Apostolopoulos, 2010). Psychological theories such as behavioural theory, cognitive theory, psycho-dynamic theory and humanistic theory helps doctors and staff members in understating the behaviour and mental processes of patients. This also helps them in providing treatment according to the problem and disease.
As per these theories, staff members treat their patients accordingly so that they can bring improvement in their behaviour. By treating them well and with love health care house can make patients feel comfortable and satisfied (Greifeneder, 2013). For understanding the stress and conflicts doctors can use behavioural theory. By focusing on the behaviour of patient and through the pattern of his responses doctors can analyse the thought process of the patient. Similarly for different issues doctors can apply different theories which helps them in finding appropriate treatments.
In the given case study, I attend the conference held by world renowned psychiatrist, psychologist and Neuroscientist and represent my hospital in Mental Health Conference (Guha, 2012). The psychological theories explained by psychologist and Neuroscientist helps in increasing my knowledge and updates me about the current scenario. There experiences helps in understanding mental disorders with appropriate solutions for dealing with them.
1.2 Application of psychological principles affecting behaviour change
The applications of psychological principles affecting behaviour change in health and social care setting are as follows.
- People need sense of belonging and by working only at home some people feel unhappy and lonely due to the lack of sense of belonging.
- Individuals can improve their belonging by communicating and giving attention to each other.
- The sounds from the surroundings makes individuals in reminding that they are not alone (Yolles, 2009).
- The main thing for any individual is his identity. For creating the sense of identity individuals decorate their houses with various things along with the family pictures.
- By belonging, interacting with others, praises of others people increase their sense of identity.
- The identity of people are also related with their family, friends, relatives and the company in which they are working (Max and Ballereau, 2013).
- Individuals need sense of control over them.
- Sense of control increases by various factors such as certainty, predictability, etc.
- So many choices decrease the sense of control which leads to increase in confusion and uncertainty.
- Stimulation in people makes them more creative and productive.
- Changing and interesting environment stimulates the individuals.
- Individuals are stimulating in their conversations and various actions (Lerner and Overton, 2010).
1.3 Psychological theories for understanding of relationships in health and social care.
Psychological theories helps social care organisations in enhancing their relationships with patients and other staff members. By studying these theories, doctors and staff members get the knowledge of understanding the behaviour and other factors of the people. This knowledge helps them in treating patients according to that. The cooperation and coordination among the team members leads to strong relationship bonding which creates trust and loyalty in them (Jarrett, 2011). This feeling of cooperation and coordination improves the working environment of health and social care firms. It also leads to provide better and quality services to the service users. By understanding the perception, behaviour and choices of patients, staff members treat them accordingly which leads to create good communication among them. The proper communication helps in maintaining relations which satisfies service users and make them feel comfortable. By allowing families and friends they try to decrease the stress and worries of patients and make them to divert their mind towards different things which they like to do. By the proper support of family, patients feel relaxed and this leads to remove their stress. Social workers organise various activities and games for distracting service users and making them happy. The love ad care towards the patients helps them in bringing hope and thinking positive (Kershner and Farrell, 2009). Poor relation between doctor and patients sometimes does not aware doctors about the hidden part of the disease by making good relations and attachments they can able to know the reasons behind the problem which helps them in understanding the case more properly.
The above file concludes the implication of theories and techniques of psychology in helping and motivating the patient to receive treatment or the disorder. The research shows hoe the stages of life impact on psychology of a person which may trigger points that causes mental breakdown in an patient. Biological and social factors, as discussed in the file are the key elements that hamper the treatment process of an Alzheimer patient. Social and personal behaviour of friends and family are helpful in generating growth and motivation in the patient. Finally it can be said, that patient requires utmost care and psychiatric assistance in effective treatment.
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