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Psychology for Health and Social Care

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Introduction to Psychology

Psychology is the study of human behaviour, thoughts and emotions. Psychology in health and social organisations consists of various kinds of theories and approaches for the treatment of patients. Some sets of beliefs and behaviours are not good for humans which leads to illness and other disorders. Psychiatrists analyse the lifestyles of people and their behaviour towards the problem and then try to recover them accordingly (Agarwal and Zeephongsekul, 2013). The present report consists of theories of lifespan development, social and biological factors of human behaviour, the importance of social roles, psychological theories and principles affecting change. In the end, the conclusion consists of a summary of the key findings of the study.

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TASK 1

1.1 Psychological Theories Relate to Different Life Stages in Health and Social Care

The relation of various psychological theories with different life stages in health and social care are as follows.

Behavioural Psychological theory: This theory is also called behaviourism which helps in understanding the behaviour of individuals. In health and social care organisations, psychiatrists can observe the behaviour in terms of the responses of patients to certain stimuli. This theory helps in understanding infants and toddlers by their behaviour. If they get proper attention and care from their parents then it leads to developing good behaviour towards things, people and the environment (Guha, 2012).

Cognitive Theory: It is the study of the mental processes of individuals by paying attention to their language, perception, memory, thinking, etc. Doctors of healthcare firms focus on the mental processes which affect the behaviour of patients. This theory relates to the adult age of people in which they learn new things, handle various problems, and share various ideas and thoughts. All these activities help them create their morals, values and perceptions. They start following their role models, and ideal people and like to be like them.

Psychodynamic theory: This theory explains human behaviour with respect to conscious and unconscious forces. This theory is based on past experiences which make individuals behave, feel and react accordingly (Lerner, Lamb and Freund, 2010). By analysing the past life of patients social care firms can find out the reasons behind their behaviour and reactions. For example, some people have a fear of flying which can be due to any past incident, and some people have a fear of heights which can be due to bad experiences.

Humanistic Theory: This theory consists of self-actualization in which individuals realize and express their own capabilities and creativity. As per this theory, the developmental process of individuals should be healthier and it is only possible by thinking positively and good about ourselves and others as well (Kershner and Farrell, 2009). This theory is applicable at the young adulthood stage where individuals try to interact with others and make good relations with them by their good behaviour. This leads to strong relations and forms strong bondings between them.

TASK 2

2.1 Explain social and biological factors that influence human behaviour in the case study above

In the given case, Sam is a patient suffering from Alzheimer's disease for 6 years and placed in a care home for proper treatment, The social and biological factors that influenced the behaviour of Sam which led to Alzheimer's disease as follows explained below.

Social Factors: Sam is an uneducated person who did not complete his studies due to the poor economic condition of his family. Due to a lack of skills and knowledge, he was not eligible for any good job. He was suffering from a financial crisis and this made him feel shy among his relatives and friends. Their family used to shout and criticise him due to his condition and work which made him feel stressed and irritated (Akoumianakis, 2014). He started living with the wrong people and adopted bad habits which resulted in bad effects on his health. Their high status as neighbours and relatives creates a complexion for him which later results in shame and this makes him use verbal abuse to the neighbours and other family members.

Biological factors: Alzheimer's is a progressive disease which affects and destroys the memory and other mental functions of the individual. This results in a loss of intellectual and social skills. This is a genetic disease and occurs due to hormonal changes. There are chances that either Sam got this disease from his parents or improper formation of hormones leads him to suffer from it. In this first stage, the individual starts taking stress related to any problem and then with progress in disease patient starts facing other problems related to the language, etc. All these factors affect the health of Sam and make him suffer from Alzheimer's (Boyd and Bee, 2011). As Sam has been facing this for the last 6 years it means that he is at a late stage and due to this he facing the problem of speaking, abuse, anxiousness and poor ability to think.

2.2 Importance of social roles in the context of health and Social care settings

In the given study, Sam is going through a critical situation and for recovering him it is important to have social support. In the treatment of Sam, social factors play a very important part. The support of family and friends helps him recover fast and leads to less stress. Proper behaviour of doctors helps them in forming good relations which leads to effective communication. Doctors and nurses need to properly diagnose his case and provide him with effective treatment (Bornstein, Vandell and Rook, 2010). From time to time checkup and update them about health and improvement of Sam. They should prescribe him effective medicines which help him in improving his condition. Treatment with love and care leads to positive thoughts and maintaining good relations. This helps him improve his communication and prevents him from using abusive language.

Support of family and relatives motivates Sam to fight the disease and bring hope of recovery. Parents' love and care help in influencing the behaviour of Sam which leads to improvement in him. By facing and dealing with various people and friends, Sam tries to improve himself. By providing private space and freedom of choosing food, dress, etc. staff members make him independent. Social workers can conduct various activities and games to distract Sam from negative thoughts and stress which makes him create suicidal tendencies. By meeting with various people Sam tries to cooperate and coordinate with them which improves his condition. Family support and friends gathering increase the morale and confidence of Sam which gives him a ray of hope for improving his health (Freud, 2008). They can teach him lessons related to communication, behaviour, etc. which helps in his improvement.

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TASK 3A

3.1 Application of psychological theories in relation to individuals

In the given case study, Karen is a 45-year-old lady who has one daughter and one son suffering from disorders. His husband is also suffering from schizophrenia and is an alcoholic. Due to all these factors, she is feeling stressed and worried. The applications of psychological theories in the aspect of individuals in the given case are as follows.

Behaviour Theory: Karen is a 45-year-old lady whose son and daughter are suffering from disorders ad husband is also suffering from schizophrenia. She is facing all these problems alone as there is not any support for her. The economic condition of the house is also not good due to which Karen is unable to provide her family a better treatment. She is the only working lady in her house and even does not have the support of her husband. These all factors tend to cause her stress related to the economic condition and treatment of her family (Boyd and Bee, 2011). She starts thinking negatively which leads to thoughts of the breakdown of marriage and losing the job. This brings a change in behaviour of Karen as she becomes irritated, depressed, stressed, tensed, etc.

Cognitive Theory: The bad condition of the family leads to a change thinking of Karen. She starts thinking negatively which creates fear of losing her job and the breakdown of marriage. Unhealthy children and their husbands make her feel depressed which affects her work. All these factors lead her to seek counselling as she feels that her condition is not good. There is not a single member in her family with whom she can share her feelings and emotions to decrease her stress and worries. She starts feeling lonely and depressed as per its results she starts losing hope (Jarrett, 2011). She needs proper care and support so that she can share her stress and worries and improve her mental condition.

3.2 Behaviour disturbances in relation to psychological theories

Karen is facing various problems and issues in her life which results in behaviour disturbances. Various behavioural disturbances which Karen is facing in relation to psychological theories are as follows.

Depression: Karen is going through depression as she is continuously facing the problems alone and not getting the expected results. After providing proper treatments to so and daughter there is no improvement in their health and the husband is also an alcoholic and gambler who spends all her money on useless things (Hozak and Olsen, 2015). These all factors take her to the situation of depression and this behaviour of Karen relates to the cognitive theory of psychology.

Stress: The economic condition of Karen's family is not good and his husband is also not supporting her to improve the condition. Instead of it, he spends all his money on gambling and drinking without thinking of his children and wife. The health of children is also not improving and it needs more money to provide better treatments. All these factors create stress and worries in Karen's mind. This stress leads to the problem of headaches, overthinking, and sleeping problems which affect the health of Karen. This stress and the factors causing it are related to the behavioural theory of psychology.

Negatively: Due to the economic problem and unhealthy family Karen starts overthinking which leads to stress and worries. These stress, worries, and depression results to create negativity in Karen. Due to this negativity, Karen starts thinking of losing their job and the breakdown of their marriage. This negativity makes her insecure which affects her life and health(Denmark and Paludi, 2008). This factor causing the negativity in Karen's life is related to the cognitive behavioural theory of psychology.

TASK 3B

1.1 how psychological theories inform understanding of mental disorders

Psychology refers to the study of understanding the behaviour and mental processes of humans. There are various mental disorders which are understood by doctors and psychiatrists by studying various psychological theories. Mental disorders affect the daily functioning of an individual's life. Health and social care houses are for providing proper care and treatment to those individuals who are suffering from various mental disorders and other disorders. The reasons behind mental disorders are many such as damage to the mind, stress, ignorance, poor economic conditions, relationships, etc. It is better to treat them at the first stage as it is quite difficult to recover mental disorders in the middle or late stage (Apostolopoulos, 2010). Psychological theories such as behavioural theory, cognitive theory, psycho-dynamic theory and humanistic theory help doctors and staff members understand the behaviour and mental processes of patients. This also helps them in providing treatment according to the problem and disease.

As per these theories, staff members treat their patients accordingly so that they can bring improvement in their behaviour. By treating them well and with love healthcare houses can make patients feel comfortable and satisfied (Greifeneder, 2013). For understanding the stress and conflicts doctors can use behavioural theory. By focusing on the behaviour of the patient and through the pattern of his responses doctors can analyse the thought process of the patient. Similarly, for different issues, doctors can apply different theories which helps them in finding appropriate treatments.

In the given case study, I attended the conference held by a world-renowned psychiatrist, psychologist and Neuroscientist and represented my hospital at the Mental Health Conference (Guha, 2012). The psychological theories explained by psychologists and neuroscientists help in increasing my knowledge and update me about the current scenario. Their experiences help in understanding mental disorders with appropriate solutions for dealing with them.

1.2 Application of psychological principles affecting behaviour change

The applications of psychological principles affecting behaviour change in health and social care settings are as follows.

Socialization

  • People need a sense of belonging and by working only at home some people feel unhappy and lonely due to the lack of sense of belonging.
  • Individuals can improve their belonging by communicating and giving attention to each other.
  • The sounds from the surroundings remind individuals in reminding that they are not alone (Yolles, 2009).

Identity

  • The main thing for any individual is his identity. To create a sense of identity individuals decorate their houses with various things along with family pictures.
  • By belonging, interacting with others, and praises of others people increase their sense of identity.
  • The identity of people is also related to their family, friends, relatives and the company in which they are working (Max and Ballereau, 2013).

Control

  • Individuals need a sense of control over them.
  • Sense of control increases by various factors such as certainty, predictability, etc.
  • So many choices decrease the sense of control which leads to an increase in confusion and uncertainty.

Stimulation

  • Stimulation in people makes them more creative and productive.
  • A changing and interesting environment stimulates individuals.
  • Individuals are stimulated in their conversations and various actions (Lerner and Overton, 2010).

1.3 Psychological Theories for Understanding Relationships in Health and Social Care.

Psychological theories help social care organisations in enhancing their relationships with patients and other staff members. By studying these theories, doctors and staff members get the knowledge to understand the behaviour and other factors of the people. This knowledge helps them in treating patients according to that. The cooperation and coordination among the team members leads to strong relationship bonding which creates trust and loyalty in them (Jarrett, 2011). This feeling of cooperation and coordination improves the working environment of health and social care firms. It also leads to providing better and quality services to the service users. By understanding the perception, behaviour and choices of patients, staff members treat them accordingly which leads to creating good communication among them. Proper communication helps in maintaining relations which satisfies service users and makes them feel comfortable. By allowing families and friends they try to decrease the stress and worries of patients and make them divert their mind towards different things which they like to do. With the proper support of family, patients feel relaxed and this leads to removing their stress. Social workers organise various activities and games to distract service users and make them happy. The love and care towards the patients help them bring hope and think positively (Kershner and Farrell, 2009). Poor relations between doctors and patients sometimes do not aware doctors of the hidden part of the disease by making good relations and attachments they can able to know the reasons behind the problem which helps them understand the case more properly.

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Conclusion

The above file concludes the implication of theories and techniques of psychology in helping and motivating the patient to receive treatment for the disorder. The research shows how the stages of life impact the psychology of a person which may trigger points that cause a mental breakdown in a patient. Biological and social factors, as discussed in the file are the key elements that hamper the treatment process of an Alzheimer patient. The social and personal behaviour of friends and family are helpful in generating growth and motivation in the patient. Finally, it can be said, that the patient requires utmost care and psychiatric assistance in effective treatment.

References

  • Agarwal, N. and Zeephongsekul, P., 2013. Psychological pricing in mergers & acquisitions using prospect theory. Studies In economics and Finance.
  • Akoumianakis, D., 2014. Boundary spanning tactics and “traceable” connections in cross-organizational virtual alliances: A case study. journal of enterprise information system.
  • Apostolopoulos, A. C., 2010. Coastal bridges and the 120 Life Span - the RioAntirio case study. International Journal of Structural Integrity.
  • Bornstein, H. A., Vandell, L. V. and Rook, S. K., 2010. Lifespan Development: Infancy Through Adulthood. Cengage Learning.
  • Bowers, A., 2015. Category Expectations, Category Spanning, and Market Outcomes, in Giovanni Gavetti, William Ocasio. Advances in Strategic Management.
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