Contract Cleaning in South Africa Sample


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Contract cleaning

Chapter 1: Introduction

Contract cleaning in South Africa was constituted in 1987, with the development of the National Contract Cleaning Association (NCCA). This association is committed to setting and developing appropriate standards for the contract cleaning industry. The main aim of NCCA is to act as a controller to the whole industry by striving to form a professional environment through coordinating and assisting industry activities, providing excellent services, maintaining a national platform and manipulating the environment to achieve the desired benefits for its members and for the whole community.

the research is aimed at examining and recommending avenues for stakeholders to consider as and when the empowered contract cleaner is terminated due to the end of term with the client.

  • Current Legislation: Labor Relation Act Section 197 makes provision for securing employment from in-house to outsourced companies classified as an ongoing concern. The section protects employees in two ways: firstly, by preventing employers from relying upon the transfer of any part of a business to another organization as a basis for retrenching and secondly, by protecting those transactions which cannot be used to reduce terms and conditions of employment. However, no legislation is made to protect employment from contract cleaning companies securing new contracts and losses within the outsourced arena.
  • Research Problem Statement: While examining the Contract Cleaning Industry in South Africa there are many issues and challenges regarding protection of employment during outsourcing, calculation of minimum wages as prescribed by the organization and issues related to guidelines and framework of the Contract Cleaning Industry.
  • Importance and Value of the Study: The Contract Cleaning industry (CCI) employs in excess of 120 thousand employees. Employees in house cleaning exempt from sect oral determent estimated at 100 thousand of which 90% is occupied by black female employees of South Africa who might or might not be sole breadwinners.
  • The study will contribute to a limited body of knowledge of this industry and will assist legislators, leaders, management and the unsung cleaner to have a voice of securing a sustainable strategy for the industry into the future emphasizing the security of industry and employment. The industry accounts for a meaningful percentage of the working population in South Africa.

Research Aims and Objectives: To examine stakeholders' views of cleaning contract employees' retention in the contract cleaning industry in South Africa through a case study that would academically recommend a strategy for stakeholder consideration.

  • To find out the sufficiency of present Legislation in assisting the Development and Retention of cleaners in the industry.
  • To examine the retention dilemma of cleaners in the industry.
  • To know the impact of retention in rural and metro cleaners in terms of their leadership and legislation.

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Chapter 2: Literature Review

In terms of the variable of the problem statement, it would be apt to discuss the intent of the research namely.


The following represent the legislation applicable and has a bearing on the understanding of the regulation which is the Skills Development Act, Labor Relations including Basic conditions of Employment Act and South African Qualifications Authority. The industry is regulated at 75% membership through the NCCA which assists in ensuring membership complies with Legislation and bargaining Councils. Jeffrey et al 2011:3 posit that labor-intensive industries with limited skills present policy opportunities which need to be nurtured by stakeholders to remain competitive and sustainable.

Manufacturing is a proponent of services sector creation in the '70s and '80s and technology has also stimulated the cleaning service sector in terms of standardizing scientifically the productivity ratios. P. Mead 2008: 64 exploits that flexible employment contracts restrict training and investment in unskilled employees enforcing ANC Secretary General Gwede (Matashe, 2005) to state “The law of land allows for the unchecked use of exploitative labour practices which trumps profit over people”. The current Labor Relations Act protects permanent in-sourced employees through section 197 but does not protect outsourced employees of job security.

Further, the Current Wage Regulation in the industry has three rates and conditions of employment for one work category namely:

  • KZN Industry Bargaining Council
  • Rural Gazetted Sectoral Determination.
  • Metro Gazetted Sectoral Determination.

Chapter3: Research Design

  • Research Approach: The qualitative research approach is adopted for the proposal and case study so that systematic inquiry can be undertaken. This approach is suitable because it contains a limited body of knowledge. By observing and interacting with the individuals the researcher would appear within the cleaning companies within the industry. Due to the large number of employees in the industry only a small amount of subjects are identified. At the time of study, research will be conducted in the workplace and unstructured questionnaires and interviews will take place to identify the stakeholders and the industry legislators. The population crowd in the case study will be the sample associated with the interviews of the particular company (Bhorat Kanbur and Mayet, 2012).
  • Data Collection Technique: For legislation references primary data can be utilized like in the Labor Relations Act. The sources of identifying the effect of legislation on stakeholders are the interview process, questionnaires and secondary data. In a semi-structured process, the interview of legislation and leadership will take place. The interview of management and labour will be in a structured process with structured questionnaires. The strength of the company is that the company has a willingness to participate in the legislation and in the cleaning companies. And the weakness is that limited material is available on a particular study (Swanepoel, 2008).
  • Analysis of data: The crystallization Qualitative Approach is used for the different methods of data collection developed by the data collection technique. This approach makes the topic easy to understand because it includes a theory and suggestions for understanding the topic easily. The analysis of data will be according to the research design in terms of dependent variables and independent variables (Mitchell and Jolley, 2012).
  • limitations of the study: Working in the industry for 13 years the research in the industry identified the competitiveness of the industry. The research topic is successful at the industry level not at the company level. The interview of the leadership and the legislators was easy to enter (Maxwell, 2005).
  • Ethical considerations: The ethical considerations in the business are that the respondents are confident, and no conflict arises in the organization. Due to existence of the green paper in the industry, a limited body of knowledge was provided. It will provide support to increase the knowledge within the industry and the stakeholders of the company (Salkind, 2010).


Legislation helps in developing the industry. The NCCA regulates the laws and policies within the industry. Stability of the employment and the presence of the risk help to integrate the labour in the industry. At a cleaner level, employment retention and development and performance of the employees are not safe.

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  • Duarte, M. P. B. and Saraiva, M.P., 2010. An optimization-based framework for designing acceptance sampling plans by variables for non-
  • conforming proportions. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management. 27(7). pp.794 - 814.
  • Esoglu, G. S. and Meric, B., 2007. The analysis of personal and delay allowances using a work sampling technique in the sewing room of a clothing manufacturer. International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology.19(2). pp.145 - 150.
  • Martin, S. C. and Guerin, A. D., 2006. Using research to inform design solutions. Journal of Facilities Management. 4(3). pp.167 - 180.
  • Odom, L. and Green, T. M., 2003. Law and the ethics of transformational leadership. Leadership & Organization Development Journal. 24(2). pp.62-69.
  • Thomas, A., 2002. Employment equity in South Africa: lessons from the global school. International Journal of Manpower. 23(3). pp.237-255.
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