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INTRODUCTION

Human resource management is an organizational function which helps in improving employee’s performance at workplace. It is a process which helps in managing employees in a firm in thorough and structured manner. It also includes the selection of employees, process of recruitment, providing training and development, motivating, maintaining employee’s safety and providing proper benefits and compensation (Armstrong, 2012.). This report is about Marriott International Inc. which is the world’s leading lodging firm and has about 4200 properties located at 79 countries. This report covers different functions of human resource management that are contributing to the organizational purposes. Further, it also covers the effectiveness of reward system in different contexts of HRM along with the impact of legal and regulatory framework on employee's cessation arrangement.

2.1 & 2.2 Stages involved in Human Resource Planning and analyzing reasons for HRP in Marriott Hotels

It is a process through which right candidates are selected for the right job. Following are the five steps involved in Human Resource Planning. These are like:

Analysing organizational objectives: HRP is the overall planning for organization. Planning process starts with the analysis objectives which have to be achieved by the firm. Organization should include all the objectives form various fields like marketing, production, finance, sales and expansion (Barbeito, 2004). Objectives are very helpful in preparing the plans or path through which the firm can achieve their desired goals.

Scanning environment: Organization should identify internal and external factors that will affect the firm's capacity in meeting the objectives. External factors include labour market trends, changes in legislations, technological advancements, cultural and social values, current and projected economic conditions. On the other hand, internal factors include changes in policy platform, organizational structure, guidelines.

Identifying Gaps: Based on the first and second step, firm should determine the future and current human resource needs. All the possible shortages which may occur in specific occupational groups or potential needs should be identified. In addition to this, possible needs for succession planning and management should be identified (Bell, 2012). Further, it should ensure that firm has met all the obligations related to employment equity and diversity, providing proper training as well as learning and development to their staffs.

Development of plan: With the help of first, second and third step, firm should determine the priorities and strategies for major human resources so that the desired outcomes can be achieved. Plan should include key planning issues of organization and human resources priorities as well. Factors that will affect the budgetary considerations should be included in this plan. Human resource plan should be communicated with all the employees and stakeholders and managers should be engaged in implementing the plan.

Measuring progress: Key to successful implementation should be constantly measured, reported and monitored (Berke and Campanella, 2006). Firm should allow a process that allows for regular review, communication and adjustments of change.

Marriott Hotel performs all possible efforts and ensures that they would achieve the desired goals and will retain the employees. Following are the reasons for the use human resource planning at Marriott Hotel:

  • This plan is very helpful in reducing the adverse impact of the latest technologies at the workplace.
  • Helps in estimating the cost which will be incurred in achieving the objectives and it also undertakes the maximum use of human resource.
  • HRP is very helpful in the retention and recruitment process. Most of the firms focus on retention as it is always better to make existing employees stay than selecting the new ones.
  • Supports in assessing worker’s turnover and in making appropriate arrangements in reducing the turnover and in selecting appropriate candidates.
  • In also helps in evaluating the shortage or surplus of human resources and in taking appropriate measures according to the situations.

2.3 & 2.4 Comparing and evaluating the effectiveness of recruitment and selection process

Recruitment and selection plays a vital role in selecting the most deserving candidates for the vacant post in the organization. There are many steps involved like sourcing the candidates, making personal interviews, selecting the best and most suitable candidate (Brooks and Nafukho, 2006). Different firms can have different recruitment and selection methods. Following is the comparison for the recruitment and selection between Hilton and Marriott International Hotel.

Hilton hotel comes under hospitality firm and has about 4112 hotels around the world located in 91 countries. They conduct the recruitment frequently. They use both internal as well as external sources of targeting employees. They collect all CV's that applied for particular tasks and make intensive evaluation as well as screening is done regarding the candidates. Among those CV's, few are selected for interviews and those selected candidates are interviewed and psychological tests are conducted for them (Tomé, 2011). If they pass the interview and psychological test, then medical test is taken followed by it. Then at the final step, they are provided with contract terms and then trial period of job.

On the other hand, Marriott International Hotel is the world’s leading lodging firm and has about 4200 properties located at 79 countries. They also hire employees frequently and provide young people with job opportunities. In addition to this, they provide job opportunities around the world.  Recruitment process starts with filling the recruitment form and submitting candidates resume on company's official page (Christensen, 2006). Form the applied forms, few are selected. The forms are selected on the basis of various aspects such as education, personality, skills, communication skills, etc. Selected candidates are called for the intensive interview where questions related to candidates abilities; qualities and job position are asked. At last, they are given with the appointment letter.

Recruitment is a costly and time consuming process and it is the most crucial step which HR has to take for the organization. In both the firms, employees are the most important assets. Both the firms spend highly on recruitment process and there is a possibility of selecting unsuitable candidates during recruitment process. As it is the hospitality industry, it is important to know the candidate's communication skills and personality required for the job effectiveness. For this purpose, organization is required to take personal interviews and have proper screening before it finalize a candidate.

Hilton uses internal source as well to recruit the employees which is comparatively a cost efficient method (Cunha and et. al., 2003). By adopting this type of method, firm should be able to fulfil the purpose of appointing right candidates for the right job who will put efforts to achieve the desired goals and objectives of the firm.

3.1 Link between motivational theories and rewards

Motivation is a process through which the behaviour of individuals performs more effectively and this is done by satisfying all the needs and requirements. In addition to this, rewards are given to the employees so that they get motivated and perform more effectively. There are many motivational theories which are very helpful in encouraging employee and also help in increasing their efficiency and effectiveness. Workers tend to give in their best when they know that they will be rewarded for their work (Deb, 2006). Therefore, reward is the drive force that forces the employees to perform better and direct their behaviour towards achievement organizational objectives.

Rewards can be given to the employees in two forms, which are: Extrinsic rewards and Intrinsic rewards which are very helpful in motivating employees.

Intrinsic rewards: It is not a physical gift given to employee. It is intangible form of reward which a manager provides to employees according to level of performance. In fact it is related to providing employees with autonomy, empowerment, recognition, appreciation and getting challenging tasks.

Extrinsic rewards: It is related with providing the employees with, bonuses, pay/salary, promotions, fringe and benefits. It is a tangible or physical reward given to employees. It is very helpful in boosting up employees moral and they work with more enthusiasm and positivity.

Marriott Hotels can improve their employee’s performance by providing them with adequate rewarding system according to their performance (Lussier and Hendon, 2014). The management should focus on providing both intrinsic rewards as well as extrinsic rewards and should be given equal importance. Through this significant change can be seen on their performance. From this it is clear that employee's motivation has a significant impact by providing them rewards which help in increasing their job efficiency.

3.2 Evaluating the process of job evaluation

Job evaluation is a process which assess and analyses jobs systematically to understand the relationship with the organization. Following are the steps in job evaluation:

Job analysis: It is a process through which all the required information regarding various aspects of job can be determined. It has two dimensions:

  • Job description:Under this job information is made which includes responsibilities, duties and work conditions (DeSimone and Werner, 2011).
  • Job specification:This explains the specification which is required like knowledge, abilities and skills which are required in performing the job.

Job rating: It is using same methods to know the specification and job description. Methods like point rating factor comparison, ranking, etc. Job offered by firms have may different, job profile differs according to type of organization which has been selected. Accordingly, it is very helpful to position it easily.

Money allocation: In this process pay structure is determined for each job. In other words, it is the arrangement of compensation or rewards for each job with accordance with its value or worth (Rao, 2011). For each job there are different strategies through which employees are given incentives or are paid extra.

Job Classification: It is the final step of job evaluation. In this step it categorizes the job according to its pay scale. For instance, jobs which are highly paid will be placed at the top. Different organization would pay differently according to experience or skills which individual possess. According to pay scale, rating should be done and accordingly selection should be made.

3.3 Effectiveness of reward system in different context

Reward is very effective in boosting up the employees moral to perform beyond their capabilities. There are many benefits which a firm can get by giving rewards to the employees as it helps in motivating and encouraging. In addition to this cited firm that is Marriott International will be able to achieve their desired goals and objective easily (Ellinger and Ellinger, 2014). Following are the effectiveness of reward system:

Administering of reward program: It helps in overseeing that the rewards given to the employees were positively contributing towards the goals and objectives of Marriott Hotel or not. When employees work continuous, then they would get demotivated. Giving them with rewards is an effective strategy so as to motivate them.Coursework writing service available at affordable prices.

In retaining employees: Employee who are given rewards, they more often tends to stay long within Marriott International. Rewards provide a sense of satisfaction and it boosts up the employees moral. For example, proving employees with monitory rewards would help Marriott hotel in increasing job satisfaction and it would help in decreasing employees turnover.

Measures performance: Reward given to an employee is helpful in knowing the improvement in the performance of work done. When an employee receives a reward for this performance, then   next reward he will get only when he performs better than previous performance (Hafeez and Abdelmeguid, 2003). In this context, employees of Marriott hotel will make him perform more effectively in order to get reward. Rewards are very helpful in measuring performance level of employees.

Reduce expenses: The total amount of money spent on an employee over a specified time period this helps in building up total budget structure and amount can be calculated as total expenditure incurred by the Marriott International. When employees do not perform well or get demotivate, then providing them training is one of the strategies which can be adopted but for this purpose firm has to spend highly. With this respect to it providing them reward would help in reducing cost or expenses.