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Employees are the integrated part of an organisation. But appoint those employees in the proper position is also very important, as it helps them to utilise their potential within an organisation. No product or service can be produced without the aid of a human being. Human resource management is the process of recruiting and selecting employees, providing orientation, induction, training and development. HRM practices of an organisation also help to improve the skills and knowledge of an employee. To create a required HRM, it is important to understand the basic structure and function of human resource management is necessary. There is no proper definition of human resources management, but HRM can be defined as a range of circumstances that has a large effect on the employment and contribution of people. HRM is the process of increasing the utilisation of available skilled labour. Use of existing human resource in the organisation is another essential purpose of human resource management.
According to some experts, there are three parameters of human resource management such as sills enhancing, opportunity-enhancing, and motivation-enhancing. Human capital and motivation are known as proximal organisational outcomes, voluntary turnover, operational results are known as distal organisational issues (Dessler, 2017). Among these dimensions, skill-enhancing practices are positively related to human capital but are less positively related to employee motivation than motivation-enhancing practices and opportunity-enhancing practices. These three aspects of human resource management are also related to financial outcomes. HRM is concerned with both organisational performance and employee well-being, that means any assessment of an HR Manager's contribution must include both organisation's and employee's perceptions. Contribution to individual wellbeing relates to employee attitudes and behaviours. If an HRM belongs to a high-level performance, then it can benefit that organization, as employees respond to their HRM initiatives which is linked to their job performance and ultimately to organizational performance. Some outcomes are considered after evaluating HRM performance, these are:
Adaptability: It means those HRM strategies that affect the organizational flexibility. Innovation and creativity encouraged, knowledge is recognised as a crucial asset and the organization uses candidates with from different background and beliefs here in this stage.
Competence: HR Managers retains, motivates and develops employees with the abilities, knowledge, skills and expertise with their policies. It helps the HR department to achieve the goals for the sake of organizational profits.
Co-effectiveness: Sometimes, HRM policies cause to reduce employee-related costs, helps properly shape the firm, reduce compensation and benefit costs, reduce labour turnover and absenteeism, increases employee health and safety, improve employee productivity and avoid costs from litigation and least efficient public relations (Deadrick and Stone, 2014).
Commitment: If HR department of a company has promised something to their stuff, then they have to meet and fulfil those promises under any circumstances. It can result from loyalty, increases teamwork and reduced labour turnover, along with a greater sense of employee self-worth, psychological involvement, dignity and feeling of being essential to the company.
Motivation: HRM Practices and policies encourage employees to achieve a designated goal. Employees will work hard, come to work on time and give their full effort to the assigned task if they are highly motivated. Motivation is an essential outcome of human resource practices.
Job Satisfaction: Generally, pay scale, promotion opportunities, appraisal system, fringe benefits, supervision, job conditions, job security, working environment affects the job satisfaction of an employee. If a staff is satisfied with his job, then there will be no absenteeism from his end, will make active efforts toward his tasks, and will have positive feelings towards the organization (Deadrick and Stone, 2014). That's why job satisfaction is an essential outcome of human resource management.
Performance: If the policies of an organization are planned correctly, then the working environment of that organization will be comfortable for the employees. It will help the employees to improve their performance in the workplace. HR department is responsible for the fulfilment of the employees. Hence it is known as an important outcome of human resource management (Harzing and Pinnington, 2015).
Every program defines and collects data on learning goals, statements of the knowledge, skills and attitudes that people have to figure out. The specific learning outcomes of human resource management are as follows:
Human resource management is known as the fast paced department of an organisation (Harzing and Pinnington, 2015). Human resource management seeks leadership and training as well to achieve skills linked with hiring executives. Human resource department deals with several employee issues as well as challenges of an organisation. It is also very essential for a human resource manager to advise people I handling different situations. Human resource manager of a firm helps the employees to resolve the issues they are facing within the organization. Human resource management has emerged as a primary function of an organization (Zhang, 2012). HRM department of an organization deals with hiring, organizational development, performance management, administration, compensation, safety wellness, communication, and employee motivation, etc. Employees will be more valuable to the organization if the hiring and development program is planned in a disciplinary way. There are some factors that an HRM includes:
These are essential contents of human resource management.
The human resource manager is responsible for the administration of all human resources activities and policies. Some objectives of human resource management are as follows:
Social Objectives: An HR manager is responsible for the societal needs and challenges that an organization can face. HR management helps to reduce the risks of the negative impact upon the organization. Society’s rules can affect the result of an organization’s performance, as societies pass such laws that can cause the HR department to limit their performance (Kramar, 2013).
Organizational Objectives: HR department primarily assists an organization with its goals. The department exists to serve the rest of the firm. If an HR department is more or less sophisticated than the needs of an organization, then resources can be wasted. The committee should serve and perform according to the needs of the organization.
Personal Objectives: This helps the employees to achieve their personal goals. It can be done if the workers are maintained properly. Employee's performance and satisfaction may decline, and they may leave the organization if the goals do not enhance the individual's contribution to the organization.
Human resource management works to put right people's effort into the right tasks. They also ensure whether the employees can meet the organization's challenges and goals or not (Kramar, 2013). A business function is incomplete without the human beings, as they are the great resource of a business function. And use those human being in a proper manner and assign them to the right work is the responsibility of a human resource department. Human resource management is responsible for how an employee is being treated within an organization (Ivancevich and Konopaske, 2013). It is important to manage individual's abilities, time and potential to increase the organizational productivity. In some small organizations or firms, human resource department cannot be seen. But in larger organizations HR departments are very essential, and they directly report to the chief executive officer of the organization. Training and development activities are crucial to international human resource management, as international HRM is wide-ranging (Ivancevich and Konopaske, 2013). Sometimes, when certain candidates for upper management posts are being recruited, there are various options as to whether choose a candidate from the organization’s parent-country nationals, their host-country national or even third-country nationals.
Roles of human resources management is to ensure that management deals effectively with everything concerning the people resource of the organisation, people development and managing the relationships between the management and the employees (Gerhart et al., 2015). HRM ensures that all plans for changing in conduct will have a sufficient time and resources to take effect. Human resource plans and policies should be related to the organization's business strategy (Gerhart et al., 2015). HRM must provide tools to conduct these strategies and control the processes and systems. Capability and knowledge of the HR professional can improve their performance. It helps to decrease the employee’s dissatisfaction towards the job. Before planning the strategies, an HR professional should decide long term and short term needs. Human resource management involves management functions like planning, organizing, directing, and planning. It helps to achieve organizational, social and individual objectives (Perrewé, 2011). Human resource management is considered as a multidisciplinary subject that includes the study of management, communication, psychology, economics and sociology. Human resource management is a continuous process which involves procurement, development and its maintenance. Team spirit and team work are involves in the human resource management process.
HRM is closely related to the business strategy of an organization. Sometimes private sector human resources are promoted to a position where the organization looks and treats them as a competitive advantage, then the HRM department becomes strategic (Perrewé, 2011). Most companies prefer a reactive management approach within their human resources. The integration of HRM and business strategy means at which level the HRM issues are considered. It plays a significant role in the formulation of business strategies. Several organizations concentrate on various types of integration. The response to integrating human resources and strategic plans can limit the level of subordinations of strategic planning in consideration of human resource preferences. There is an association between high performing human resource management and organizational performance. Some firm’s beliefs that they are in an environment where workforces with the type of competencies that they need are in short supply. It is crucial to the success of the business to retain the best people.
HR management is helpful for coordinating in the organizational activities, without the coordination the world famous company like Tesco cannot run their business successfully. The human resource manager should take the responsibilities of the organizational coordination through the various practices of Human Resource Management. If the management team is unable to perform their responsibilities, then the total company may face a serious difficulty in the market and the employees of the organization may feel dissatisfied. The HR management helps to promote positive behavior in the firm, create a flexible working place for the employees. The team also develop their employees in the company through training process. The HR manager motivates the workers as they can perform well for the company production and make the firm successful.
The Human Resource Management gives their staffs some benefits to find and keep them for developing their productivity. To keep the liable employees, the company provides various policies like group insurance, retirement benefits, sick leave, daycare, non-paid and paid vacation, alternative and flexible work arrangements etc. The HRM practices help to provide a pleasant workplace for the employees as they can complete their task with full peace of mind. If the staffs receive various facilities in the company, they feel a sense of superiority in their manager.
Different HRM practices help to raise organizational profit and productivity of the company. The company provides varieties types of training session through which the employees can develop themselves. The well trained trainees or workers help the company to increase their productivity in order to make successful business for the company. The well trained staffs also help to communicate within the different types of stakeholders to satisfy the management team of the organization. HRM practices have the power to motivate the workers within the organization and this motivational force helps the workers to perform well for the company. Different types of benefits and facilities that have been provided to the workers for supporting and providing help to the staffs and that help the company for raising productivity and organizational profit.
There are some factors that can influence the human resource management of an organization; those are as follows:
HR managers constitute the distinctive approach of HRM. Human resources management function provides significant support and advice to line management. The attraction, preservation and development of people can cause to the benefit of an organization. Here an organization should treat their human resources department in resolving issues strategically. HRM sometimes misunderstood by individuals. But this is a crucial part of a management (Zhang, 2012). Employees are the essential asset of an organization. A composed human resource department can help the organization to prioritise their organizational and business strategies. HRM attract and retains competent employees. While applying human resource policies organizations faces some challenges such as:
Human resource management is no more a supporting function. Human resources management is based on some factors such as:
The organisation should obey the principles set by human resource department. Employee engagement is another important approach which helps to build the positive relationship with the organization. Human resource department is determined to meet the challenges in this competitive market. They are the strategic partners of an organization (Zhang, 2012). Human resources department has to be innovative as they play a significant role in company's success. Human resource professionals should remember these points as they are beneficial and would put them towards success. HR information is managed professionally. Not only should that but the organizational design also be favourable for its development.
It is very much important to maintain the good relationship with the employee for ITV. This good relationship also shows its effect in their HR decisions. It is suggested that the success and failure of an organisation depend on the relation, which is shared among the employees. The employees of ITV share the cordial relationship in the organisation. The HR plays the key role in making the employee together. Employee relation mainly depends on the engagement of the employee. The engagement process of an employee is done by the collection of few methods- collective bargaining, consultation with the selected representative of employee and direct engagement. Engagement is observed as being crucial to get the success of the company. Employee engagement refers to the achievement of business aim; financial returns depend on the delivery by the front line employees. The interest of the employee increasing has reflected the anxiety to understand the behaviour of the employee. Collective bargaining of ITV refers to the new working practices with the secure employment agreement. It suggested that the significant changes occur in the management due to the delivery of collective relationships that benefits the company. It helps to respect the employee’s interest by assuring them. Individuals engaged through the direct communication method used by the ITV. ITV's intranet termed as the water cooler, which provides a regular online update. ITV run a weekly intranet project for the employee those who are offline. Good employee relation has an effect on the human resource decision. Employee relation doesn't have the same receiving as other human resource functions cause that is no more held together through the solid facts.
A key objective of employment legislation in the workplace like ITV needs to maintain rules and regulation of the organisation. ITV is also associated with the law which is maintained by the employees as well as the human resource managers. These are meal break, hours of work, overtime, sexual harassment, termination, maternity leave, annual leave.
Meal break: during the working hours meal break is necessary for every employee. The break may for 45mnts or 1 hour. The meal break is also mandatory in ITV as other organisation.
Working hours: In any organisation, there are fixed hours of work for all workers. One employee is engaged with his/her work 8-10 hours. Mainly one employee has to do duty for 8hours. Like all company, ITV also maintains that rules.
Overtime: if one employee was doing the overtime then the organization has to pay him extra money. Overtime is applicable while the payment is given to the employee.
Sexual harassment: Sexual harassment is a punishable offence for any employee in the workplace. So organisation should take the percussions for that on behalf of their employee.
Maternity leave: Maternity leave is a mainly offer to the female employee. During the maternity, leave payment is paid by the company. It is a universal rule that is obeyed by all the company.
Termination: it is a process when employee associated with some wrong work he is terminated by the company. The guilt person removed from the by termination.
Above mentioned key element of employee legislation has the effect on the HR management of the ITV. Example: according to the mother's condition Dell offers the leave to the employee. Leave is of 3-5months. During this maternity leave the salary paid to the employee.
P7: illustrate the application of HRM practices in a work related context, using specific examples.
There are different types of HRM practices cope by the organisation in order to be best in their specific filed. Some of the practices cope by the organisation such as ITV –
Organisational design: the ITV use to apply few standardise operating methods in addition to perform their working, chain of command, different laws and regulations. These steps are mainly for shape or design organisational structure. By this process management look after the decision making methods, check out how the responsibilities performed in ITV organisation.
Staffing: by the utilisation of this process management perform responsibilities like selection, recruitment. New employees are appointed by the management of ITV organisation.
Employee and organisational growth: through this process employees are exercise or trained by the trainer or skilled person. Development referred as the growth of a proper team building, enhancing the employee’s skills. All these development programmes are inter related to the organisational development.
Reward systems, benefits: different type of incentive systems are available for the employees of ITV. Due to those reward facilities employees show their efficiency and encouragement to their work. That helps to increase the growth of the organisation named ITV.
To develop and retain the rhythmic relation between the labour or workers and the management. It is very much essential for an industrial progress through the high productivity. ITV maintain all the safeguard of labours or workers as well as the managements by saving the mutual understanding and the kindness. Avoid every type of industrial or organisation conflicts or misunderstanding. Maintain the peace among the worker. Government Sponsorship is needed to protect the employment when the company was running with losses. Company maintain the healthy relationship with all the clients and the workers. Employee legislation and the employee relation has an effect on the human resource management of ITV. If employees are not ready to cooperate with each other, that means they are not comfortable with each other. Human resource management of ITV is responsible for managing or looking after the employee relationship. The issues like conflict of employees, issues to take the leaves, working hour’s related problem are concerned about the human resource management of ITV. Human resource got affected when the employee relation and the legislation ratio got disturbed. When employees are not satisfied with the legislation system, then the human resource management of ITV got affected.
Human resource management suggests the strategy how to manage the relations of the employees. To understand the employees need is another aim of human resource of an organisation like ITV. HRM are the consultants they advised the other how to decrease the conflict between the employees and the upper-level officer of the ITV. The necessity of the employees like maternity leave, break, overtime, sexual harassment, termination, etc. are control by the manager in the order of HRM. If these needs are not fulfilled organisation got damage because of the dissatisfied employees. Here the ITV’s HRM takes good care of these demands and their necessity. The HRM take good decision to improve the relations among the employees. In these way, the relationships of employees and the legislation show its effect in the decision-making process of ITV’s human resource management. The ITV's HRM handled all the law and regulation that arise up for the employee’s legislation. All these elements help to make the right decision of the human resource management of ITV.
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