Key Approaches Of Operation Management And Role Of Manager

University: Regent college

  • Unit No: 4
  • Level: High school
  • Pages: 13 / Words 3319
  • Paper Type: Assignment
  • Course Code: N/A
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Question :

This assessment will cover further:

  • Elaborate the role of managers and leaders.
  • Give the functions of managers and leaders.
  • What are the operational functions of leader?
  • Give appropriate Relationship of management and leaders.


Answer :
Organization Selected : Marks and Spencer


Operation management is a field which is concerned with planning, organizing and supervision while producing or manufacturing of the services. It ensures that a company must successfully turns an input into output by using efficient means. It is related with the conversion of goods and material to maximize the profit that will enhance the value of the company (Balasubramaniam and et. al., 2016). The present assignment is based on Marks and Spencer which is a British Retailer company, situated in London and manufacturer of luxurious food and home products and clothing. This report includes the features and role of a manager and leader in different situations and conditions. Along with it, it involves several theories and approaches like situational, system and contingency. Key approaches of operation management and role of manager and leader is also discussed. At last, importance of operational management in achieving desired objectives along with impacts of roles played by leader and manager is discussed.


P1 Different roles and characteristics of a leader and a manager

Operational management includes the main purposes of the firm that supports in creating, managing and using the resources in a maximize manner. In this process, manager carryout various tasks such as plan, organize, control and monitor entire operations within the business. It benefits in delivering standardized products to the potential clients. In context of M&S, which is one of largest retailer in UK which carryout operational activities in many countries (Fayol, 2016). M&S adopts flat organizational structure which possess limited levels of management. This structure motivates the employees to take part in decision making. It reduces bureaucracy and enhances the skills and capabilities of employees because they are allowed to share their point of views freely. Communication among top management and lower level is good due to limited management level. It has a pyramidal shape but flatter due to reduced management levels. In this executive is at top and manager and head at lower level. In this, both leader and manager plays vital role to carryout operations of company.


A leader is a person who leads, commands and direct an organisation or a team. Person who leads or convinces other people to work towards a common organisational objective. There are some vital functions played by an effective leader which helps M&S to fight against rival organisation.


A manager is a person who take charge of certain group of task of a company. It is a person who manages organisational function and is responsible for a part of an organisation. Duty of a manager includes managing employees and company on daily basis (Giuliani and et. al., 2015). Manager must be a good communicator which results in better productivity outcome. It is very essential for Marks and Spencer manager to possess a great and effective managerial skills. It will help in generating more efficient result for organisation.

Roles and function of manager:

Manager of M&S plays several roles for managing the activities at workplace. Some of them are mentioned below:

Informational role:

It is an essential role where the M&S manager provides important information to both workers and leaders to achieve the goals within the predetermined period of time.

Interpersonal role:

To enhance the productivity of employees, manager of M&S needs to build a positive and friendly atmosphere within the company. Also, relation among employees is maintained by the managers.

Roles of leader:

Main task of leader is to lead employees to attain business objectives, to achieve this leader follows below mentioned functions:


Leaders in M&S have efficient communications skills which encourage worker to work in collaboration. Also, by interacting well, proper policies and strategies can be formulated which help in appropriate functioning within the firm.

Decision maker:

Leader with developed decision-making ability can help an organisation to achieve its objective effectively and efficiently. Leaders of Marks and Spencer can strengthen their ability to access the quality of their decision by having efficiency in leadership skills. It will enhance their strategic ability and implement a well-structured decision-making process in workplace.

Characteristics of manager and leader:


It is must for manager of M&S to have efficient interaction skills which supports the firm in maintaining relation among workers. It will also help in delivering important information related with objectives and goals. Manager must be efficient to take proper decisions which will benefit the firm in managing their positon within market.


Trustworthy and honesty are main features of leaders by which they influence the staff member to carry out their activities (Jørgensen and Zaccour, 2012). It is under the work task of leader to provide correct vision to employees which will maintain a good balance between staff and management.

Difference between leader and manager:

Main function of manager in M&S is to regulate policies which provides the firm competitive advantage and sustainability whereas the role of leader is to formulate those policies during work, by reducing the chance of failure. Manger calculated the performance of employees so that proper training must be given to them whereas leader works on to improve their weakness and enhance their strength.

P2 Analyze the role of a leader and the function of a manager apply in different situational contexts.

M&S deals in retail marketing sector in which it has faced various competitive aspects due to the presence of other rival companies. It involves firms like Aldi, Asda and Tesco. So, to maintain their acquired position within the market, the company has make up modifications in their tactics and strategies on a continuous basis (Kerzner and Kerzner, 2017). But, several situations take place in which different roles are played by both manager and leader. For instance, manager provide effective training to employees of M&S for improving the working efficiency and potential whereas the leader provides vision about the benefits of these aspects in improving the skills and knowledge level. Some other aspects in which the role of leader and manager's function differs are mentioned below:

Team building:

The most difficult task while carrying out efficient operations and activities within the organisation is to build a robust team. Different employees from different environment works together due to which several issues take place among them. So, in this situation, manager of M&S follows autocratic leadership and direct the employees to work as a group (López and et. al., 2015). In this, leader's task is to develop a sense of trust among workers so that they can maintain an effective relationship between them. This will help M&S in developing a strong team and attain their targeted goal in specified time.

Project management:

To make a business successful, it is must to handle every task appropriately. So, to manage work properly the manager manages formulate different tactics. It involves introduction of assets, time management, assigning of roles and responsibilities. The work of leader is to check the activities of individual employee and provide them training which will enhance productive level of both employees and company. Leader also provide precise vision to workers for carrying out tasks properly.

P3 Different theories and models of approach

For conducting operations within firm properly, several issues are faced. Some of them are employee resistivity, fights, change in trend and mismanagement. So, manager of M&S has implemented several leadership theories to manage these situations. Some theories are outlined below:

Situational Leadership:

In this model, leadership of a particular organisation is mainly depending upon various levels and positions. This models is further divided into three styles.i.e. authoritarian, democratic and laissez. In this context, Marks and Spencer can choose these styles of leadership in accordance to a particular situation. The authoritarian style can be used at a time of crises, democratic style can be used at a time when consensus is required and laissez style is useful when a leader of an organisation don't want to take control (McPherson and Pincus, 2017). It will help Marks and Spencer in identifying best leadership style to make their organisation productive.


It is flexible in nature due to which help in achieving desired targets easily.


This approach has more focus on short term goals rather than long term goals.

System Leadership:

In this leaders of an organisation have to create situation where people at all levels can work efficiently in accordance with their potential. It will help leaders of Marks and Spencer in identifying behaviour of their employee's that will make their workforce more efficient in a business environment. It will also give a tool to leaders of an organisation in creating a healthy competitive environment within an organisation. It is usually used by an organisation to understand behaviour of employees within an organisation.


It has focus on both organisational and individual goals.


Sometimes, this aspect results in slow decision making.

Contingency Leadership:

It includes happening of unknown events and their impact on an business organisation. It will help leaders of chosen organisation Marks and Spencer in preparing their staff members in facing future challenges arising due to uncertain events. It will also makes an business entity to retain its productivity in this competitive business environment for a longer run. It will help leaders of Marks and Spencer in making a good relation with its managers and subordinates. In this all power lies under leader and manager of an organisation they can compensate or punish their team members in accordance with an appropriate outcome arises due to the specific task assigned.


It maintains flexibility within firm and handles changing marketing condition effectively


Fails to deliver desired result when a firm changes its organisational structure.


P4 Key approaches to operations management and the role that leaders and managers play

Operation management is concerned with business practices to produce highest level of efficiency possible in management. It is the process of converting materials and labour into finished goods and services to satisfy consumer's needs. In this context, the manager and leader of Marks and Spencer also plays their roles and functions to achieve company goals and objectives. In addition to this, there are some key approaches of operational management which are as follows:

Lean production:

This is the process of minimizing waste along with ensuring quality. This key approach of operational management is beneficial for company as it helps to produce goods and products by cutting out wastes. The manager and leader of Marks and Spencer also adopt this approach to make their production effectively and systematically (Mendis, Muttaqi, and Perera, 2014). This helps company in increasing their sales and profitability margins along with maintaining quality of products.

Six sigma:

This approach is based on statistical and data analysis which helps company to detect errors in their products. It is an approach of continuous improvement in production process of goods. This method is also adopted by managers and leaders of M&S to improve their quality of products. This also assist company to increase their revenues and to take reliable decisions.

Queuing theory:

This approach is based on mathematical waiting lines or queues. This theory deals with issues involving waiting or queuing such as, waiting service in banks/ supermarket, waiting for response of computers, public transport etc. The leader of M&S also adopts this theory to deal with these problems. Through this process, leader can identify problems of queuing which are arising in organisation. It is beneficial for company in solving out problems and serve consumers easily.

Role of managers in organisation


In every organisation, managers have to play significant role of a trainer. They are also known as trainers as they provide training and development sessions to its employees. In M&S, the manager also plays role of a trainer and provide training to workers of company so that they can perform their activities and functions in a systematic order. This also helps them to accomplish goals and reach to business targets. Communicator: The another role which manager of company plays is communicator. It is the duty of manager to have strong communication skills so that they can easily communicate with workers of company. In M&S, the manager have appropriate communication skills which helps them to give information and details about projects to workers. They can also resolve issues of employees through appropriate communication channels.

Role of leaders in organisation

As a guide:

Leaders plays a dominant role in business enterprises to achieve growth and success of company. They are also known as guide because they provide message of how to do the projects. In M&S, the leaders of company help employees by giving directions to complete their tasks. They also motivate and encourages employees to perform well and accomplish tasks in allotted time frame.

Representative of the organisation:

The another role which leader of company plays is as a representative. In M&S, it is the role of leader to represent their concerns during discussion, seminars, meeting etc. This role of leader also helps company to accomplish their targets in time and increase their profitability margins (Thaler, Priest and Fuchs, 2016).

P5 The importance and value of operation management in achieving business objectives

Operation management is an important aspect in achieving business objectives. This system helps to improve the overall productivity and maintaining system used for production of goods. It also helps to satisfy needs and demands of consumers' by supplying effective goods and quality products. It is essential for every business as it allocate all resources properly by reducing wastages. This function is also suitable for M&S as it helps company to improve over all production process. Operation management also assists leaders and managers of company to accomplish goals and objectives. In this context, there are some process of operation management which helps M&S in achieving their goals.

  • Know the process:

This process of operation management helps manager of M&S to know and identify the process and to reach their goals and objectives in time.

  • Train within the process:

In this, the managers of company provide training to employees within process so that they can easily deal with problems and resolve it. Training is an important factor which takes place in organisation to improve overall structure of company.

  • Measure the process:

In this, the mangers of company measure process in which they have to work before starting project. It is important for them to measure operations to accomplish their goals.

  • Control and distribution systems:

In this, the managers of M&S takes control and distribution system under consideration. They monitors the work done by workers and control if there any issue arises. This helps them to accomplish goals with aim of increasing revenues and sales turnover.

  • Capacity management:

This is the last process of operation management which is considered by M&S so that they produce goods according to the demand and capacity. This will help them in reducing wastage of products and products do not produce more than capacities and limitations.

  • Raw materials into finished goods and services:

This process of operation management helps company in identifying needs and demands of consumers by research and marketing. Firstly they analyse the preferences of consumers and then production process takes place in which they translate raw materials into finished goods and services.

P6. The factors within the business environment that impact upon operational management and decision-making by leaders and managers

In this modern era, there are some external factors within organisation environment which has a wide impact on management operations and decision-making of leader and managers. These external factors include political, social, economic and technological, etc. In context of M&S, it is important for leaders and managers of company to deal with external factors and control them which are impacting upon operations and functions of management. Further, to overcome from these company uses the policy of CSR which means cooperate social responsibility (Handschin and Petroianu, 2012). This will help them to achieve their goals and accomplish their tasks in an effective and systematic manner. Some external factors which impacts activities of management and decision-making process are as evaluated below:


It involves rule and policies of management which helps company to reach their goals. In context of M&S, it is also important for to follow rules and policies of company to overcome from political issues. This will also help them to perform management operations and decision-making effectively.


These factors include economic conditions, demand and supply, fluctuations, etc. These factors can also affect company's operational management if economic conditions are not stable and fluctuating from time-to-time. So, it is important to have stable economic conditions along with maintaining proper balance between demand and supply to overcome from this issue.


The management operation and decision-making can also be affected by social factors such as, lifestyle, religion, believe, customs and society of people. It is important for company to produce goods according to needs and demands of consumers which helps them to overcome with this factor.


This is the another factor which affects business operations and decision-making of leaders and managers of M&S. Technological factors are concerned with advanced technology and strategies which company uses to overcome from these issues. It is important for company to involve new techniques and strategies while producing goods and products.

CSR policy:

In M&S, the company adopt this strategy and policy to give social and economic benefits to consumers. The implementation of this policy lead company to achieve their goals and tasks in allotted time frame along with increasing their sales and profitability margins. In addition to this, company should also use short term goals such as adjustments and compromises which lead company to make long term achievements. Thus, company should allocate all its resources properly and efficiently so as to reduce wastage and maximises level of production.

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As per the above discussed report, it has been concluded that operation management involves proper functioning within the company which supports them in using available resources optimally. It is also observed that out of several, contingency theory is best for the firm to achieve desired targets. It is also said that external and internal factors impact business atmosphere of firm as they are related with the overall productivity of work. 

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