Techniques For Organisational Auditing


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Marketing plan is referred as the document that is devised by company leaders as well as marketing professionals. The tools are effective in providing guidance to the marketing department of Ford Motors regarding the steps that are essential to align pre-defined marketing objectives as well as strategies. The major purpose of marketing plan is to set specific course of marketing for the organization. With the assistance of marketing plan, company leaders can monitor as well as devise the expectations for other functional areas. Certain facets of the marketing plan are related to accountability (Gilmore, 2010). The plan is general commitment from leaders of organization and marketing staff for the purpose of taking organization in a particular direction.

With the increase in competition as well as to wide spread the business cultures, the traditional marketing techniques have started to submerge. The marketing concept has developed several scope of creating an edge over businesses in the market. The concept of sustainable marketing approach laid emphasis on spreading awareness regarding the changing perspective of market as well as of environmental factors. The capability of Ford Motors would be reflected through effectiveness in product portfolio, image of the brand as well as supply chain. With efficient supply chain, organization can create a stronger reputation in the market place.         


1.3 Examining techniques for organizational auditing and for analysis of external factors that affect marketing planning

There is a significant role of organizational audit for the firm like Ford Motors. The firm is sensitive to the changes within organization as well as to the business environment. The globalized operations of business make it entirely responsive towards the same. The methods that can be used for organizations audit includes:

  • Swot analysis: This tool is effective in carrying out review of internal environment in the firm. This presents the factors which can be controlled by Ford Motors. This assists the business in making analysis of its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities as well as threats. With this, management gains subjective idea in relation to the corporate strategies and their potential impact on the revenue (Jahdi and Acikdilli, 2009). The future threats are being determined and are worked upon so as to avoid negative impact.  
  • Pest analysis: Through this auditing tool, Ford Motors can realize the impact of external environment in the practices of firm. Such offers company with suitable ideas regarding uncontrollable factors that affect the operations of organization. The analysis is comprised of political, social, technological and economic factors that have their impact of the activities of company.     

1.4, 3.1 Organizational auditing and analysis of external factors that affect the marketing planning within Ford Motors

SWOT analysis of Ford Motors:


  • Stronger position in US market
  • Sound financial performance
  • Effective growth within China market


  • Possess ineffective environmental record
  • Has a high structure of cost


  • To launch green vehicles
  • Achieving growth in the market by means of acquisition (Ford Motors, 2015)
  • To comply with the new standards of emission  


  • Increase the price of raw material
  • Greater competition in the market
  • Rise in the prices of fuel  

Pestle analysis of Ford Motors:

  • Political: The executive of company has decided to develop advertisement for its new car that possess attribute of cost effectiveness. The advertisement of business will be influenced in situation when regulatory authority decides on increasing the rate of tax that is involved in production. With this, firm would not be able to sell its product at the reasonable prices.
  • Economic: The global financial crunch has affected automobile sector in an adverse manner. Further, it is forcing certain automobile makers in the world of bankruptcy. The economic environment at present is hard for Ford Motors though it is recovering with time (Parrish, 2010). The firm is required to adjust into current economic condition in order to survive and plan to come back in the period of boom.     
  • Social: Company has decided to develop non electronic means of advertisement in order to reach at large number of customers. This decision of the firm will be influenced in case if the target market would prefer to purchase through traditional means or through presence on social networking sites such as Facebook and Twitter.  
  • Technological: There is presence of technological trend in the motor vehicle industry across the globe in order to manufacture safer vehicles that are economical in terms of fuel usage. There is increased awareness among the customer’s fuel consumption of vehicles. Due to this, Ford Motors is required to carry out technological research for meeting such demand.
  • Legal: The legal factors that company is required to understand and comply with are in relation with labour laws that are changing frequently. These laws are becoming stricter in several countries and require good compensation to workers of the firm.  
  • Environmental: The environmental factor that is influencing Ford Motors is in relation with the increased need to minimize the pollution in environment through clean exhaust from motor vehicles (Rosenbloom and Dimitrova, 2011). This in turn forces certain countries to come up with the laws that are effective in governing environmental pollution.  

After carrying out SWOT and Pestle analysis; it has been gained that Ford Motors stronger position in US market. Further it has stronger financial performance that can assist it in making investment further in other ventures as well. This would result in building sound image of the brand. The company is making effective growth in China which would act as an aid in increasing in reputation in the market. This has resulted in increasing the sales of the organization to a significant level. The firm has the opportunity to enhance its market by the means of acquisition as this would provide it a competitive advantage. From external factors analysis it has been gained that company is making advertisement of new car that possess cost effectiveness as an attribute. It is important for the firm to adjust into current economic condition in order to survive and plan to come back in the period of boom. This is because it is hard for Ford Motors at present to manage its function in cost effective manner. It has been viewed that at present the customers are becoming more aware regarding the fuel consumption. Thus there is greater need for the company to bring advancement in the technology so that it can meet the needs of the customers in an appropriate manner. The environmental factor that is affecting Ford Motors is with respect to increased need to minimize the pollution in environment through clean exhaust from motor vehicles. In addition to this the concept of green vehicle has emerged that need to be implemented by Ford Motors.        


2.1, 2.2 Assessing barriers to marketing planning

There are significant barriers in relation with marketing planning that affects the adoption of policies to a greater extent. These are as follows:

  • Organizational barriers: The inefficient leaders as well as managers can create flaws in the process of communication. With this, delay is caused in the circulation of information. This results in causing situation of confusion and chaos within organization. This acts as a barrier of the firm.   
  • Lack of knowledge and skills: With the ineffectiveness in handling of work by the employees, performance of company is affected significantly (Czinkota and Ronkainen, 2012). The presence of lack of knowledge and skills within employees demonstrates the flaws in policies of human resource. The inefficient manager can guide team towards wrong direction and thus, results in misleading it.  

Ways of overcoming the barriers are enumerated below:

  • Effectiveness in organizational structure: With the assistance of organizational policies, greater assistance can be provided to the management towards defining the roles and responsibilities in the firm (Dziri, 2013). This results in effective leadership. Thus, the chances of mistakes would be reduced to a greater extent.
  • Defining objectives clearly: The manager of company faces major trouble in deciding what is required to be done in situation when the objectives are unclear and misleading. With clarity in objectives, management can perform the business functions in an appropriate manner.   

McDonald has provided ten S frameworks that assist in obstructing the barrier in an effective manner. The following are the key factors that need to be complied with by the organization such as Ford Motors.

  • Techniques before strategies
  • Arrangement of advertising inside operations
  • Imparted values about advertising
  • Structure around advertising
  • Filtration of earth completely
  • Outlining of data on SWOT examination
  • Abilities and information
  • Systematize the methodology
  • Grouping destinations
  • Style and society     


3.1 Objectives (Introduction of the product)

Company like Ford Motors possess a wide range of products. The firm is carrying out its operations successfully in the domestic as well as international market. It has been determined that the Ford does not have car that is environmental friendly. In this respect, the new product that would be developed by Ford will be Ford Eco. There are wide ranges of features possessed by the new product. It is comprised of usage of non toxic fuels that includes bio-diesel as well as natural gas. This is because such emits less carbon components while it’s run. This product would greatly benefit the society.    

3.3 Techniques for new product development for Ford product

Ford Motors is one of the world's largest automotive manufacturers in domestic and international market. Company makes use of technique such as Ansoff matrix for the purpose of new product development. With this, the firm is able to examine its current position in the market. It measures the level of risk in the market with differential strategies. The firm can focus on new product development strategy which possesses medium risk factor. Here, Ford Motors can develop new product in the existing market. Through greater research, the preferences as well as needs of customers can be determined and thus, product ideas can be developed in order to gain edge over competitors.

3.1, 3.4 Pricing policy, distribution and communication mix for new product

The price of new product that is Ford Eco would be determined in accordance with the conditions prevailing in the market. For instance, in case if there is greater competition among the firms manufacturing eco friendly cars, thus, in such situation, the pricing would be based on competitive tactics. In the similar manner, the prices of products need to be established in accordance with the objectives of business. In case if company desires to attain huge amount of profitability then it can adopt the strategy of penetration pricing. Pricing strategy needs to be in accordance with the competition prevailing in the market in relation to the eco friendly vehicle. In the present era greater efforts are being made by the organization towards reducing pollution this can be done by launching eco friendly vehicle. It is important for the company to provide products at reasonable price as there is greater demand regarding usage of this product in an effective manner.     

There is presence of several kinds of strategies for distribution that can be used by Ford Motors in order to distribute its new product in the market. Direct distribution can be done by organization through opening of firm's website (Lilien, Rangaswamy and Bruyn, 2013). This is effective in providing greater convenience to the customers. Further, indirect distribution strategy can also be used under which it can carry out distribution through opening more than one outlet at varied geographical locations. It is important for the Ford Motors to distribute its product online and through outlets as such is effective in establishing interaction with the customers in an appropriate way. Further it has greater advantage in meeting the demand of the prospective buyers on time.    

Promotion of new product is important as this assist the organization in creating awareness in market. Further the ways in which product can be used is known to the customers in an effective manner. Effective promotional strategy assists the business in providing information regarding features of product. Thus this results in increasing demand of the product. The communication regarding new product can be done through techniques such as advertisement in television and by using personal selling approach. The technique would be effective in creating awareness among large number of customers in an effective manner.     


4.1, 4.2, 4.3 Ethical issues that might influence the plan

Ford motors have adopted several ethical practices in an effective manner so as to prevent its image. There are several ethical issues that can affect the marketing plan to a greater extent. These include:

  • Product: The ethical practices of firm assist the organization in stating its policy in relation to quality of products and the economic process of manufacturing it (Marshment, 2009). This presents the key characteristics of the product. Further, it demonstrates the need of consumers.   
  • Price: The policy of pricing follows several measures and techniques. With the inclusion of ethical practices, there is greater demand for the organization to adopt fair as well as efficient means of pricing.
  • Place: The channels of distribution and delivery of product is an essential task that needs to be analyzed by the firm. With this, company can determine the effective means of attaining raw materials and superior quality products for organization.  
  • Promotion: The unethical practices related with promotion like fake data representation as well as misleading advertising are not practised by Ford Motors. The firm complies with fair promotional strategy in order to create awareness in the market.  

Ways such can be addressed

  • Advertising ethics: Company like Ford Motors can take into account the ethical practices for advertising with an aim to achieve the target of firm. The policy of organization seeks to check the honesty of products and the message. By resolving the above issues, the firm can gain trust of customers and can put an example within society.  

Consumer ethics and its impact on marketing planning 

  • Fair pricing: Company like Ford Motors has determined the products and services that are based upon the analysis of demand and supply (Strategic Marketing Planning: Theory and Practice1, 2006). The firm believes in cutting down the labour cost, raw material and expenses with an aim to offer products at reasonable prices. The firm offers value based pricing that is beneficial for the organization to a greater extent.  
  • Ethical buyer is the shoppers who take into account natural issues, creature issues as well as moral issues that include harsh administration while shopping. It is essential that organization needs to keep in mind the end goal in order to continue with decent advertising and it must also account privileges of buyer as well. In case of being unethical in item deals and item buy such may result in causing greater consequences. For instance, in situation when the client accessing the product is illegal then Ford Motors will not consider client as good fit for the deal. This would specifically affect business. Thus it is essential for Ford Motors to consider various factors and issues relating to morality and ethical issues.    

3.1 Budgets

Budget for Ford Motors has been presented in the manner below:

Table 1: Budget for Ford Motors

Budgeted cash flow for Six months (000$)








Opening balance














Total Cash Available (A)







 Expenses for promotional campaigns







Cost of market research







Advertising expenses







Total Cash Expenses (B)







Closing Balance (A-B)







The above budget presents the projected sales as well as cost of promoting the product. It has determined from the above analysis that the budget is the best fitted to the organization. This is due to the reason that expenses of Ford Motors in each month is declining. However, its revenue is increasing significantly. This is due to increasing awareness in the market regarding new product.   

3.1 Implementation

Activities of marketing plan



Information input

The initial step of marketing plan is information input that includes determination of objective, market size and marketing environment as well as other related factors.

1-2 weeks

Customer motivation and marketing segmentation

Further, after this, another major step is related with investigating the segmentation basis for the organization. This also includes examining the strategy for positioning and targeting for the potential customers.

3-4 weeks

Financial marketing and customer objectives

Later, the financial resources in order to carry out the marketing plan are being determined in order to accomplish the activities in an effective manner (Relationship between Strategic Planning & Marketing Strategies, 2015).

4-6 weeks

Marketing strategy

The strategy of marketing is determined following the previous stage. Under this, the manner in which product would be promoted is investigated so that better understanding can be developed among the customers regarding product.

5-7 weeks

Elements of marketing mix

At last, elements of marketing mix that is product, place and promotion and distribution is evaluated.

7-9 weeks

Audit activities

Further auditing of activities is done. This involves monitoring of the plan and its effectiveness.

10-12 weeks

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  • Chua, K. Y. A. and Banerjee, S., 2013. Customer knowledge management via social media: the case of Starbucks. Journal of Knowledge Management. 17(2). pp. 237–249.
  • Czinkota, M. and Ronkainen, I., 2012. International marketing. Cengage Learning.
  • Dibb, S. and Carrigan, M., 2013. Social marketing transformed: Kotler, Polonsky and Hastings reflect on social marketing in a period of social change. European Journal of Marketing. 47(9). pp. 1376–1398.
  • Dziri, R., 2013. Avoiding Strategic Drifts in a Hypercompetitive Market. GRIN Verlag.
  • Gilmore, 2010. Reflections on methodologies for research at the marketing/entrepreneurship interface. Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship. 12(1). pp.11–20.
  • Jahdi and Acikdilli, 2009. Marketing communications and corporate social responsibility (CSR): marriage of convenience or shotgun wedding? Journal of Business Ethics. 88(1). pp.103-113.
  • Lilien, G. L., Rangaswamy, A. and Bruyn, A. D., 2013. Principles of Marketing Engineering. 2nd ed. DecisionPro.
  • Marshment, J. L., 2009. Political Marketing: Principles and Applications. Routledge.
  • Parrish, E., 2010. Retailers' use of niche marketing in product development. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management. 14(4). pp.546 – 561.
  • Rosenbloom, B. and Dimitrova, B., 2011. The marketing mix paradigm and the Dixonian systems perspective of marketing. Journal of Historical Research in Marketing. 3(1). pp.53– 66.
  • Online
  • Ford Motors. 2015. [Online]. Available through: <>. [Accessed on 14th October 2015].  
  • Relationship Between Strategic Planning & Marketing Strategies. 2015. [Online]. Available through: < marketing-stategies-22561.html> [Accessed on 14th October 2015].
  • Strategic Marketing Planning: Theory and Practice1. 2006. [Online]. Available through: <>. [Accessed on 14th October 2015].

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