Management activities like understanding, predicting and influencing individual behavior in an organization that further examine structure of workplace and suggest ways in which the organizational processes and operations can be improved (Ashkanasy and Humphrey, 2011). In this report, organizational behavior will be thoroughly analyses to address issues like workforce motivation, incentives, team-building and business environment in context to 4Com Plc which serves in telecommunication and aim to improve the communication services of all SME market in UK. However, this report also highlights influence of organization’s culture, politics and power on individual and team performance as well as different theories that help in motivating employees within 4Com Plc. In addition, it also carries efficiencies of effective team in an organization and suggests different methods that help in building effective team. Various philosophies and concept of organizational behavior that help to meet changing requirements of business environment at 4Com Plc will also be discussed in this report.
P1 Influence of organization’s culture, politics and power
Factors such as organizational culture, politics and power are key to success in a workplace, as weak organizational factors provides low motivation, employee fraud and bad behaviors in the workplace. Managers of 4Com Plc need to focus all these factors like motivate employees, make rules to avoid fraud, design programs for training and development etc. in order to get successful workplace environment and low employee’s turnover rate.
Organization Culture: Through it 4Com Plc identify and evaluate its productivity and employees performance, it also provide guideline on customer care and services, product quality and safety, punctuality. The influence of cultural differences at 4Com Plc can be thoroughly explained by Hofstede’s model of cultural factors which contribute in the culture of organization as well as influences employee’s behavior (Bolino and et. al., 2013). According to Hofstede there are five major factors that influence the culture of respective workplace such as:
Power Distance: It refers to the differences in culture as per the power delegated to employees at 4Com Plc, this shows openness among employees as well as management which influences organization environment. If respective company do High power distance and do not conduct open communication among employees and management due to which employees feel hesitated in performing their task and share problems to superior as well as this increases employee’s turnover ratio which leads to a decrease in productivity and affect company profit and growth. Whereas low power distance at a company provides more openness to employees and make them feel valued there in organization.
Masculinity vs. Feminity: At 4Com Plc. The company provides equal opportunities to both men and women according to their skills and qualifications which assist the company to accomplish their goals more successfully (Podsakoff and House, 2013). This leads to motivated and better working environment for all employees as well as management because through it employee get motivated that they are getting equal importance and also by it conflict can reduce and avoid in respective organization.
Individualism vs. Collectivism: Working on a common interest at 4Com Plc includes having same goals and objectives among employees, management as well as organization as whole which assist them to achieve their goals with more efforts and consumes less resource as well as support team work activities and assures good quality of work. This also provides enough space to their employees to think out of the box and participate with more innovative and profitable ideas and suggestions (Carpenter, Berry and Houston, 2014).
Uncertainty avoidance: It refers to a culture and tolerance power of employees of 4Com Plc, that how employees respond proactive in unpredictable situation which arise in their organization uncertainly. The respective company try to avoid this situation but when it comes to the responsibility of the employer and employee to handle this situation effectively and efficiently.
Long-term vs. Short-term Orientation: Organizations such as 4Com Plc. which focuses on futuristic goals and have long-term relationship with their employees, they motivate and make them loyal so that their employees fell connected to them and consider organizational objective as their objective and make efficient efforts to fulfill it. But there are some organization whose main objective is to earn profit and they didn't pay any attention to employees engagement these type of company have short term objective, their main aim is to earn profit (Colquitt and et. al., 2011).
Organization Power: It is the ability to influence individual behaviors to make them work according to the needs of management and organizational benefits. In 4Com Plc there can be five sources of power such as:
Legitimate Power: It refers to the power originated from one’s organizational role or designation. In 4Com Plc. Managers have the power to sign the work to their subordinates and assures they complete that work with full coordination within the time by achieving given task goals.
Reward Power: In 4Com Plc management grant rewards to their subordinates or employees in from of pay, perks, attractive job assign, bonus etc. to them whose performance level is up to the mark or satisfactory.
Coercive Power: This is the ability of management to punish employees in 4Com Plc for their bad or poor performance by taking back some beneficial opportunities from them. This power is often used to produce or complete work form employees which they usually refuse to perform or hard to attain.
Expert Power: This power is hold by experts at 4Com Plc who have knowledge, skills and expertise in specific field and who can provide better solutions for particular problems regarding that field.
Referent Power: In 4Com Plc this power is hold by those who have personal characteristics or good relations with company’s CEO or other designated staff (DuBrin, 2013).
Organizational Politics: It refers to a variety of activities associated with those tactics which are used to improve personal and organizational interests. Bad politics at 4Com Plc will increase dissatisfaction among employees as well as destruct pleasant business environment. Whereas good organizational politics at 4Com Plc. will allow employees to develop their individual as well as organizational abilities and make them more participative in organizational profitability and success.
P2 Content and Process Theories of Motivation
Management theories play very crucial in an organization and contribute in employee as well as customer satisfaction. At 4Com Plc content and process theories of motivation assist their various operations in following manner:
This theory is commonly known as need theory and in 4Com Plc it is generally associated with identifying, valuing and fulfills those needs which motivate individuals to perform and do work at different situation with respect to time and experience (Pinder, 2014).
Maslow’s Hierarchy Theory: This theory was proposed by theorist Abraham Maslow who was an American psychologist. Maslow has suggested about the existence of hierarchy of needs among each individual and these needs are progressed from lower order needs through higher order needs and consists of five different levels in the hierarchical model which is demonstrated in shape of a pyramid. According to this model, 4Com Plc has to target and employee’s basic needs such as their food and shelter. After satisfactorily getting basic needs employees need safety and security needs for which they want to earn and invest in insurance or fixed deposits for the betterment of their life as well as family life. After fulfillment of these needs people at an organization need family love and feeling of belongingness for which they feel motivated to earn more and maintain a good social life. This theory says after fulfilling these three deficiency needs satisfactorily organizations must conquer growth needs of employees that is self esteem and self-actualization. To maintain a good image at and have a well designated job make an employee motivated and togetherness with the organization and their jobs. They feel motivated to perform better so that their good image will be balanced within the organization as well outside the organization. Recognitions, benefits, promotions etc plays a very important role here in motivating employees. After self-esteem employees urge for self-actualization and they are motivated to earn for their own satisfaction only by which they can invest in recreating their life and enjoy good time with their family after the job (Fisher and To, 2012).
In 4Com Plc process theory is use to identify and analysis how motivation occurs and what kind process can implement through which employees can get motivated (Wagner III and Hollenbeck, 2014). The respective company use Vroom's expectancy theory of process theory to increase motivation among its employees, which is describe below:-
Vroom’s Expectancy Theory: The main aim of this theory in respect to 4Com Plc. is to engage employees in various activities that motivate them and produce desired outcomes. It help respective company in realizing that an employees performance id based on its individual factors like personality, skills, knowledge, experience and ability. This theory contains three factors which are describe below:
Expectancy: In respect to 4Com Plc it is the belief of management if they make more efforts to motivate employees, it will directly result in an increase in workers' performance. In respective organization it may affected by things such as having right resource, right skills and necessary support to do job done.
Instrumentality: In the respective company, there is an environment which make employees believe that if they perform well they will receive valuable outcome for it, by this they get motivated and do work in effective and efficient way.
Valence: It is a best motivational idea for 4Com Plc to identify what their individual employees value and what are their personal need are, it might be money or a day off. The company can use this to get work done from their employees by giving them options to do it.
With this theory, three different outcomes may arise at 4Com plc such as:
- If a person does not find connection between efforts and performance then expectancy will be zero.
- If an employee can’t establish link between performance and rewards then it will generate zero instrumentality.
- For those employees who do not value the outcomes, rewards will have zero valance for them.
This expectancy theory help 4Com Plc in highlighting individual differences in motivation and shows various factors that assists in understanding and increasing motivation among employees. However this theory also implies equity and significance of consistent rewards of employees or worker in the respective company (Judge and Kammeyerâ€Mueller, 2012).
P3 Explain what makes an effective team as opposed to an ineffective team
Effective teams contribute and participate beneficially in success of organization’s goals and objectives. These teams are group of individuals at 4Com Plc.that are self-motivated and participative as well as they do not need extra push to get involve in business activities or success. On contrary ineffective teams are those group of individuals who are lacking with effective leadership as well as they are not motivated enough to participate in any business operation or success. They always run from opportunities and responsibilities which affects their performance as well as business growth. These ineffective teams at 4Com Plc can be converted into effective teams by providing them proper leadership, training as well as by adopting different team building strategies at the company such as:
Belbin’s Theory: This model was designed to use talents and personalities of team members to improve its performance by working together more effectively. With this theory 4Com Plc can identify and use psychological diversity of its team at its full potential (Osland and Turner, 2011). All the team members are differentiated on the basis of their style, attitude, temperament as well as personality in the following mannerism at 4Com Plc:
Plant: It is the creative thinker in the team at 4Com Plc who is innovative and need space to think extraordinarily solutions to complex business situation that may arise at this telecommunication company.
Resource Investigator: They are identified by their cheerful, extrovert personality with lots of contacts within as well as outside the team at 4Com Plc. They are enthusiastic, adventurous and open-minded as well as innovative people who are naturally good at developing and maintaining contacts (O'Boyle, Forsyth and O'Boyle, 2011).
Coordinator: They initially look for the procedure, help team members by support and provide guidance to them at 4Com plc. Coordinators are well aware of how to utilize talents and information of other team members to their fullest. They easily trust others and delegates work to others easily with a tendency to leave too much work for other in a team.
Shaper: These are willful and passionate personalities in a team at 4Com plc. who have strong urge to perform, look for different challenges and run smooth business operations. Shaper decides deadlines and makes sure that goals are met within a specific period successfully. They may get aggressive and frustrated or react emotionally to make their task completed within the deadline.
Monitor: They are the sensible, thoughtful, and critical person who also plays as an analyst of the team at 4Com Plc. Their judgments are rarely wrong and they always thoroughly analyze the situation arises within the company.
Team Worker: Most sensitive member of the teams who is helpful, accommodating and focused on creating a pleasant atmosphere and sense of togetherness in 4Com Plc. as well as maintain balance and stay close to others. They face difficulty with conflicts in team and may have trouble taking decisions at critical times in team working (Luthans, Luthans and Luthans, 2015).
Implementer: The practical organizer within a team, who is disciplined, task-oriented and put their plans or ideas into execution of task easily at 4Com Plc.
Complete-finisher: Person having talent to find out errors or issues in process and one who leads thoroughly, checking and rechecking, and have tendency to perfectionism. A complete finisher may monitor the quality and safety. They also become overprotective at times which becomes obstacle in delegating work to others.
Specialist: This is an expert or a source of knowledge in specific field or task as well as act as an advisor who are consulted by other team members at 4Com plc. and specialist have to provide beneficial knowledge and technical skills which will be their contribution to their team.
Tuckman’s Theory: This theory of forming, storming, norming and performing plays very crucial in understanding and explaining team development and behavior of individuals at an organization. This theory is given by Dr. Bruce Tuckman has given this model in 1965, in which it is explained team development process can be established maturely and it must establishes relationship among the team members as well as leaders (Miao and et. al.,2013). At 4Com Plc. this process begins with a directing style, move through coaching, then participating and finishes by delegating the work. This model of Tuckman’s can be explained as following:
Forming: In this stage, high dependence on leader is there for guidance and direction. Here individual roles and responsibilities are unclear whereas leader is prepared to answer lots of questions about the team's purpose, objectives and external relationships. In forming stage processes are often ignored and the leadership is taken is generally situational (Moore and et. al.,2012).
Storming: As the decisions within the group do not come easily, team members compete for a position as they attempt to establish themselves in relation to other team members and the leader. In storming stage clarity of purpose increases although uncertainties are still there. The team needs to focus its goals to avoid distractions by relationships and emotional issues.
Norming: In this stage an agreement is formed within the team, to assist leaders, as well as roles and responsibilities of each member within the team, are very clear here. Important decisions are made by group agreement whereas smaller decisions may be delegated to individuals or small teams within the group. Commitment and unity is strong. Within this stage the team may get engage in fun and social activities as well as discusses and develops its processes and working style (Miner, 2015).
Performing: The team is more strategically aware here and knows clearly about task and processes. With this step, team has a shared vision and is able to stand on its own feet with no interference or participation from their leader.
P4 Concepts and philosophies of organizational behavior
Organization behavior is based on a few fundamental concepts which revolve around the nature of people and organization at 4Com Plc. some organizational concepts are:
Concepts of Organizational Behavior:
Individual Differences: Every individual is different probably in a million ways. This individual difference comes originally from the psychology of individuals at 4Com Plc.
Motivated Behavior: To fulfill various needs, an individual has to perform well in an organization for which some motivations are necessary to enrich the quality of work. A path toward increased need fulfillment is a way that leads to quality of work.
Mutuality of Interest: This concept can be represented by saying that organizations need people and people also need organizations. People need organizations as a source to help them reach their goals whereas organizations need people to help achieve organizational objectives. This concept helps to fulfill goals and objectives of company in a better way (Morgeson and et. al., 2013).
Involvement: Every employee is actively seeking opportunities as well as performs better to get involve in decision-making problems. They try to participate and share their experience and knowledge within a team and this urge make their meaningful involvement which bring mutual benefit for both employees as well as the company. For make these individual satisfied and perform better organization should provide them a chance to express their opinions, ideas, and suggestions for decision-making problems (Nahavandi and et. al., 2013).
In this report, it is concluded that organizational behavior help in managing all the dynamics of changing business trends within and outside of a company. Effective organizational behavior helps in individual development as well as team building in an organization. In addition to this, effective culture, good politics and correct use of power in a company help them to bring out best work from their employees as well as provide the employees an opportunity to develop their skills and learning in different business situations. To keep the employees motivated, this report has highlighted various motivational theories that targets needs or employees or processes of the company. This report also contains various team building strategies that contribute in effective team development as well as task distribution within a team. However, report also contains various concept and philosophies or organizational behavior that effectively flashes understanding of individual behavior and psychologies within a company.
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