Organizational behaviour is the field of study in which employers as well as managers can comprehend the behaviour and attitude of employees through different aspects (Barrow and et. al., 2009). The present research study has been made on City College and Enterprise Rent – A – Car who manages different work processes according to organizational structure and cultural values. Further, researcher has also discussed the use of diverse leadership and motivational styles for managers and employees both.
At the same time, discussion has been made on relationship between organizational structure and culture and its impact on organizational performance and work processes. Moreover, researcher has also stated the use of technology for the organization from both team and organizational perspective. Leadership is regarded as a crucial aspect for the organization as that helps in reaching towards the goals through specific directions of leader. In respect of organizational culture, Edgar Schein's Iceberg model has been stated.
a) Compare and contrast organizational structure and culture and use different modes for structure and cultural aspects (1.1)
Organizational structure is the way of delegating roles and responsibilities to the employees according to their job profiles.
· Tall structure is useful for large and complex organizations who have long chain of command. As the organization grows the number of management level increases and the structure grows taller (Waltz, 2009).
· Tall structure have more management levels as compared to flat structure. Enterprise has been following tall structure since the organization has many department and work processes to be followed.
· Flat structure has fewer management levels and each level is controlled by a broad area or group. The structure focuses on empowering the employees rather just giving them the command to follow (Brunsman, DeVore and Houston, 2011).
· This structure has been followed at City College which assists the employees to encourage autonomy so enhance the degree of innovation and creativity.
Long chain of command
Short chain of command
· Long chain of command follows various hierarchies at the time of reaching towards a specific task or goal. It consumes time and resources both due to involvement of different department in the chain of communication. Span of control is also larger in this chain of command (Twomey, 2002).
· In short chain of command, organization do not need to follow several hierarchies because of involvement of fewer people (Greenberg, 2003). This also enhances organizational communication process in which information can be easily communicated among different departments.
Broad breadth of control
Narrow breadth of control
· As per the structure, manager of the organization have wide range of controlling authority over the employees and their work processes.
· Appropriate chain of command is also required to be followed under the structure.
· Managers are not required to regularly monitor the practices of the employees due to constrictive controlling requirements (Taormina, 2008).
· At the same time, it ensures freedom for the employees.
Organizational culture deals with values, norms, beliefs and philosophy which organization manages for the purpose of protecting the employees from exploitation and discrimination. In this respect, Charles Handy's model is being discussed for specifying organizational cultural values:
- Power culture: Power culture is held by just a few individuals whose influence spreads in the entire organization. It is usually a strong culture; hence Enterprise has been following such cultural values (Shahzad and et.al., 2012).
- Role culture: People can clearly delegate authorities through a highly defined structure. Power is derived according to the level of job roles and positions.
- Task culture: Teams are formed for the purpose of solving complex organizational problems in this cultural facet. Power can be attained through team expertise.
- Person culture: As per the culture category, people believe themselves to be superior to the business as power lies in each group of individuals (Nash and Hwang, 2012).
Elements of Edgar Schein's Iceberg model
The model states that organization do not adopt a single culture as due to changing environment, organizational environment keeps on changing the cultural values and beliefs.
- Artifacts: This shows the attributes of the organization which can be easily viewed and heard by individual efforts collectively. Thus, City College has been focusing on departmental structure so as to manage different activities.
- Values: Along with City College, Enterprise is also required to consider values of the employees so that they can be retained for longer time span. Employees are involved in all the organizational matters (Organizational culture model by Edgar Schein.2014).
- AssumedValues: The third level is the assumed values of the employees which cannot be measured but it makes a difference to the culture of the organization. Thus, this aspect states that all the aspects of the organization are valuable.
b) Explain the relationship between organization's structure and culture and its effects on organizational performance (1.2)
Organizational structure as well as culture both are interrelated to each other and both highly impacts performance of business in different ways. Changes in structural aspects leads changes in the behaviour and attitude of the employees; hence this similarly changes the performance level which impacts productivity of organization. Thus, it is that organizational structure and cultural values are interlinked to each other (Pauleen, 2003). Structure and culture both are dependent on different factors which directly transforms organizational performance. Structure always affects behaviour of individual because it is concerned with roles and responsibilities of the employees; thus this has a wider impact on the way of working.
City College has been following flat structure with fewer management skills; therefore this assists the organization to develop friendly culture in the organization. Apart from this, other organization that is 'Enterprise' is emphasizing on tall structure where in employees have to follow diverse hierarchies and this increases their span of control as well. Therefore, it is clear that centralized structure is being followed at Enterprise; hence employees have less authorities in work delegation (Phillips and Dessler, 2007). However, the management is more concerned about organizational leadership and training programmes as it helps the employees in amending their skills.
c) Evaluate various factors that might influence the way individual behave at work (1.3)
- Organizational environment and cultural values: Organizational environment as well as cultural values play crucial role in influencing individual behaviour at workplace and this also transforms the level of employee performance.
- Motivational benefits: Employee behaviour is highly affected with motivational aspects and they contribute in development facets when they get all sorts of benefits from the management. At Enterprise, employees are motivated through monetary benefits; thus they contribute more in success and growth aspects (Nash and Hwang, 2012).
- Leadership style: In order to influence the employees, it is essential for the leaders to opt prominent leadership style. Leadership is the most important factor that influences individual behaviour at City College. It is required for the leaders to focus more on employee coordination so that fruitful results can be acquired.
- Intelligence and aptitude of employees: Employee behaviour generally changes when other shows dominance due to intelligence and aptitude level. This is one such aspect that affects individual behaviour at City College and as a result hampers overall organizational productivity (Shahzad and et.al., 2012).
a) Compare the effectiveness of different leadership styles and consider how each style would impact on the two organizations (2.1)
- Autocratic leadership style: In this style, leader has all the authorities to direct others and information is communicated to the entire team through leader only. Subordinates to leaders are not allowed to make decisions on behalf of leaders.
- Democratic leadership style: Democratic style is the one under which leader allows all the employees to participate in decision making process (Murphy, 2008). The style seems to have great impact on employee motivation and encouragement level.
- Laissez faire leadership style: Under this style, leader delegates the responsibilities to others and they can take decisions on behalf of leaders. Thus, leader play inactive role in decision making system; however all the responsibilities remains with him.
City College has been emphasizing on Democratic leadership style in which the managers always allows the employees to present their views and opinions in decision making process. At the same time, it is also beneficial in motivating and satisfying the workforce (Leadership Traits. 2010). However, on the other hand, Enterprise is following Autocratic leadership style under which leader only takes all the organizational decisions. Thus, from the discussion it is clear that both the style have diverse impact on employee motivation.
b) Explain how organizational theory is linked to the style of management (2.2)
Organizational theories are regarded as vital because when it is applied in practice, it highly affects overall performance of the business organization. The theories are significant as that analyses interrelationships of organization with that to the environment.
- Systems approach: The main aim of adopting systems approach is to ascertain the behaviour and attitude of individual and groups at Enterprise. The approach is highly significant in formulating supportive relationship with the society. Thus, along with social relationship, proper coordination can be developed amid the employees (Greenberg, 2003).
- Human relation approach: Strong relationships are required to be developed in the organization so that aims and objectives can be met prominently. At City College, Human relation approach is being followed so that organizational employees can carry out their activities with mutual understanding. Most important part of this approach is the way of managing organizational complexities in effectual manner (Waltz, 2009).
c) Different approaches to management and leadership theories used by both the organizations (2.3)
- Situational approach: Situational approach states that management of Enterprise should transform the style of approaching people. There should be more concern towards employee interest so that they can contribute in organizational development. As per the situations, leaders and managers both should change the way of dealing with the employees. This is required as no such style is beneficial all the time for the leaders and managers (Management Theories. 2013).
- Management approach: According to this approach, City College has been managing all the organizational dimensions in successful manner. The theory contends that direct coordination of management with conceptual frameworks is vital for managing norms and values of the business. This is useful in underpinning all the aspects of management.
d) Discuss the impact that leadership styles are likely to have on the behaviour of staff at City College and Enterprise (3.1)
Leadership styles are crucial for the employers and employees both as this directs people to carry out their activities as per organizational aims and objectives. With the help of democratic style, leader of City College is able to encourage and motivate the employees and at the same time, it also enhances employee's capabilities and decision making ability.
Moreover, with the help of such style, leader is able to influence the employees for better productivity and efficiency (French, 2011). On the other hand, autocratic style sometimes have a pessimistic impact on employee behaviour and as a consequence, it generates several issues in the organization. Democratic style of leadership is effective because it maintains disciplinary aspects in the organization and reduces the opportunities of errors and problems.
e) Compare the application of different motivational theories that both the organizations can adopt and discuss its effects on respective workers (3.2)
At Enterprise, Theory X & Y is applied so as to control different aspects of the organization also to manage diverse needs of the employees. With the help of this theory, manager can motivate the employees in prominent manner and this can also encourage people to contribute more in solving organizational problems. The style is also useful for the purpose of enhancing employee skills and capabilities; hence appropriate services could be delivered to the customers. Along with this, Enterprise also emphasizes on different techniques of motivation so that employees can assist in amending customer satisfaction aspects (Buchanan and Huczynski, 2010).
Additionally, staff members are also recognized through Enterprise newsletter and through Enterprise membership club. This denotes concern of management towards employee motivation and encouragement. At the same time, City College is focusing on Herzberg two factor theory in which organization analyses all the forces that leads to employee motivation and employee demotivation (Phillips and Dessler, 2007). Motivators and hygiene factors are two major dimensions that are included in the theory; hence according to that diverse needs of the workforce can be fulfilled and met.
f) Application of motivational theories in both the organizations (3.3)
The above mentioned theories are useful for the organizations as this can enhance overcome issues related to employee turnover and dissatisfaction. Theory X & Y is useful for Enterprise in many ways and amid all, it is typically useful in empowering the workforce towards better productivity and performance. With the help of motivational theories, Enterprise is able to identify all the issues employees are facing in the organization. City College has been emphasizing on Maslow's theory of motivation in which all the needs of employees are placed on a hierarchical pyramid and according to the requirements, benefits are delivered to the employees.
Under these aspects, employees are motivated through financial and non-financial benefits. Hence, it can be articulated that benefits like employee satisfaction and employee retention can be acquired through the appropriate application of motivational theories (Brunsman, DeVore and Houston, 2011). Motivated employees always carry out their activities and operations in prominent manner and this reduces issues related to job satisfaction and other facets. According to the techniques, monetary and non-monetary both the methods can be utilized for the purpose of motivating organizational employees. Concluding, it can be said that there should be specific application for motivational theories.
g) Explain the nature of groups and group behaviour in City College and Enterprise (4.1)
Groups are formed at City College and Enterprise for different purposes and that mainly categorises into formal and informal ways. Formal group is the one which is developed by City College for managing team work according to any specific work or task (Booth, 2004). At the same time, informal groups are developed when people share things mutually with each other. Informal groups are significant as they enhance employee engage in organizational matters. In general terms, group is a association of people in which people work together for a common goal.
Different people work together in a team; thus this increases the opportunities of creativity and innovation. However, at the same time, team aspects sometimes creates more issues because of difference of opinion from the workforce (Bienstock and et.al., 2003). Thus, it can be said that groups are significant for the purpose of managing team building aspects and also for improving employee coordination level. The use of technology is increasing in the organizations; therefore this is another facet that drives Enterprise to develop numerous sorts of team.
h) Identify the factors that could make a team effective and also those factors that threaten the success and effectiveness of a team (4.2)
Factors that make a team effective
Factors that threaten the success of a team
· Team coordination and team building aspects both plays crucial role in developing a effective team. At City College, people support each other; therefore this develops the opportunities of team work in the organization.
· Enterprise needs to have talented work pool so that challenging work processes can be managed in optimum manner. Hence, this is one factor that generates the requirements for team work (Bhatt, 2002).
· At Enterprise, people are skilled and talented; thus they posses the ability to work in a team. Hence, this drives the business more towards team work.
· People have difference of opinion in all the matters; thus sometimes this generates conflicting situation for the organization (Barrow and et. al., 2009).
· Lack of support from the managers and leaders threaten the success of a team at City College.
· Improper information and lack of knowledge affects team work and at the same time, it impedes the value of organizational work processes.
· At Enterprise, teams are developed for the purpose of managing critical tasks; thus sometimes improper arrangement of resources impact the entire process.
i) Explain the role of technology in the success of both the organization (4.3)
Technology is essential for City College and Enterprise in different ways and through this efficiency and productivity of the organizations is also enhanced. City College has been using technological sources so that all the three departments (teaching, human resource and administration) can manage their work processes in prominent manner. At the same time, technology can also assist Mr. Wakefield to introduce new devices and tools in the college for student's education and learning (Allio, 2013).
Apart from this, Enterprise can also get maximum benefits from technological sources such as better services can be delivered to the clients through online sources. Currently, the business is using Enterprise Service Quality Index for the purpose of measuring quality of the services; thus it can be said that Enterprise is making use of technological aspects in higher extent (Akan, 2005). Further, employees can also use technology for improving organizational decision making power. At the same time, the chain of communication can be improved through this. Extensive use of technology can reduce organizational challenging and complex aspects.
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On the basis of the above study, it is concluded that City College and Enterprise both have to emphasize on motivational theories so that to enhance employee efficiency and also to retain them for longer time span. The research work has also made it clear that team coordination is required in the organization so that to get the work done through employee efforts. Further, it has also been analysed that motivation has a direct impact on employee's performance and productivity level and it also helps the workforce to reduce organizational issues and constraints. City College is also required to emphasize on group formation so as to complete the team work in best possible manner. Researcher has also analysed the role of managers and leaders in employee motivation; hence this is clear that all the aspects of organization have a direct impact on employee behaviour and attitude.