Introduction to Sustainable Tourism Development
In the modern era, tourism is one of the most potential and growing sectors of the world. Further, the sector has ample opportunities for businesses in order to grow and develop in an effective manner. It can be stated that there are many economic opportunities for a country where tourism is developed. It provides benefits such as higher employment, rising income and balance of payment in the country. In this report, Cola Beach of Goa, India has been selected in order to develop it as a sustainable tourism development. In addition to this, it explains different tourism stakeholders of a country and the way in which they are benefited from the planning of tourism development. Other than this, the report also explains the manner in which sustainable tourism can be developed
1.1 The tourism stakeholders in chosen countries
Stakeholders can be defined as those individuals or enterprise which directly or indirectly gets affected by the activities and operations of a business. Further, with respect to tourism, these are those people which have direct and indirect impact on tourism activities. Some of the important tourism stakeholders are government of country, local people, private enterprise and suppliers. India is one of the most developing nations of the world which has ample opportunities to develop tourism. In addition to this, the country has many tourist destinations and as per the data of World Bank 2014, there were more than 69, 00,000 tourists visited the country. The planning of tourism development will lead to many benefits to the above stated stakeholders. Further, the people in country will get employment opportunities which will help them to increase their income level along with the standard of living. It can be also stated that the benefits of making society as a part of planning process will lead to social acceptability, greater project sustainability and better mobilization of resources. On the other hand, the major benefits which tourism developed will have is that the government of country will be able to deliver better infrastructure and facilities.
1.2 The working of public private partnership
Public private partnership can be defined as the integration of private enterprise and public institutes in order to achieve some common goals and objectives. Further, main advantage of such type of partnership is that the risk and resources are shared which helps in making the best utilization of available resources in order to achieve the objectives. Goa is one of the most popular tourist destinations of India. The destination consists of beautiful beaches and historical places which attracts people from all over the world. Therefore, one of its unpopular places is Cola Beach which can be developed as a sustainable tourism destination with the help of public and private partnership. The advantage of having such kind of partnership is that the available resources which will be shared and the outcomes will be more satisfactory. Further, it will also result in better management and allocation of resources. In addition to this, the financial resources required for the development can be made easily available with the help of private enterprise. On the other hand, partnership will have some disadvantage such as it will focus on economic benefits regarding development of Goa as a sustainable tourism destination. It has been observed that the social and environmental aspects are not taken into account when public and private businesses integrate.
2.1 Key steps of tourism development process
Analysis of existing situation
The first step of tourism development process is analysis of existing situation of destination. With respect to this, one has to determine the current plans and policies which have been imposed along with the identification of current tourism related activities and programs.
In- depth research
After doing analysis of existing situation, the development process begins with carrying out the research regarding market and resources. Further, based on this research, plans and activities are developed to attract more tourists. Other than this, the potential of markets is identified so that a master plan can be created to develop the destination.
Developing action plan and strategies
This is the last step in tourism development process. In addition to this, based upon the market and resources, research an action plan and strategies is made to develop the tourist destination.
2.2 Significance of interactive planning
Interactive planning can be defined as the concept which highlights the fact that the activities of planning are important than the action plan. Further, during the process of planning, all the stakeholders are invited to become a part of planning and to give their valuable suggestions. The concept of interactive planning will be helpful in developing Cola Beach, Goa as a sustainable tourism destination. One of the main advantages of using interactive planning is that it is a continuous process which never stars and stops. The involvement of various stakeholders such as local people, private enterprise, government and supplier will help in making effective plans for sustainable development. Government will play a major role in framing the policies and regulations for destination. On the other hand, during planning, local people will also play an important role as they will help in determining the additional amenities and facilities which can be developed at Cola Beach, Goa. The funds required for development process will be arranged from the private enterprise. Therefore, it can be stated that the interactive planning will play a significant role in the development of Cola Beach as a sustainable tourism destination.
2.3 The impact of tourism and range of methods
Tourism has various impacts on the economic, social and environment conditions of a country. It has been identified that there are some positive and negative impacts of tourism on the economy of a nation. Tourism helps in creating more employment opportunities and in increasing the income level of people. Further, it is one of the major sources of revenue generation for government of many countries. On the other hand, it can be stated that a successful tourism always rely on better and effective infrastructure. Thus, the cost of developing better infrastructure falls directly on the government of a country. The jobs which are created are also seasonal in nature and most of the employees are paid poorly. In terms of society, tourism has both negative and positive social impact. The local community gets benefits form good infrastructure and facilities developed by government to attract more tourists. On the other hand, some visitors and their behaviour affect the life of local people. Increasing the consumption of drugs and alcohol along with the rise of crime level are some of the negative impacts of tourism on society. It has been observed that tourism also affects the environment of a nation in both negative and positive aspects. The concept of eco-tourism helps in protecting the wild life and other important natural resources. On the other hand, the pollution created by tourism is a big threat to environment.
Methods to measure the impact of tourism
The economic impact can be measured with the help of evaluating total number of visitors visited the country and by analysing the revenue generated by them.
In order to measure the environmental impact on management matrix, wildlife/ human conflict monitoring can be used.
The social impact of tourism can be measured with the help of various primary research and surveys. In addition to this, secondary data which highlights the number of job created and change in income of people can be also taken into consideration.
3.1 Sustainability in tourism
Sustainability in tourism can be defined as the use of those processes which lower down the impact of activities on environment and local culture. The government of country needs to ensure the fact that along with the generation of revenue and creation of employment opportunities, tourism should also conserve the local ecosystem. India is a country that is full of wild life and natural resources and it was observed that both were getting affected by tourism. The government came up with the idea for sustainability development to protect the wild life and natural resources. Further, new eco-tourism policy was developed and new norms were established. It was found that number of wild animals such as tiger was decreasing day by day. Thus, the legal authorities decided to develop strict norms for protecting the animals. Other than this, it was also observed that some of the popular beaches were highly polluted and dirty because of the increasing number of local and international tourists. Thus, the concept of sustainability tourism development was an approach to overcome all these problems and to protect natural resources along with the environment.
3.2 Sustainability as an issue
Sustainability development is a big issue for government as it is not easy for the government of a country to deal with various challenges and to overcome them. Main objective of sustainability development in tourism is to protect the wild life and natural resources. It has been observed that many regulations and norms have been formed by government to stop the hunting and killing of animals. On the other hand, tourism leads to increase in international travel which directly results in rising up the level of air pollution. It has been also observed that the natural beauty of many of places in India has been destroyed and trees have cut down in order to develop that place as a tourist destination. Further, some of the factors which can hinder sustainable tourism development in India are mentioned below as.
One of the major factors which can hinder the sustainable tourism development is cost. It has been observed that in order to develop a tourist destination in sustainable form, the government of country is required to invest a lot of financial resources in infrastructure and other amenities.
It is another main factor in sustainability tourism development as most of the tourists look for the places which have mild temperature. Thus, only those places can be developed which have suitable and required weather.
3.3 Stages of developing sustainable tourism at Cola Beach of Goa
It is the stage of identifying a place or area which can be developed as a sustainable tourism destination. For this purpose, Cola Beach in Goa has been selected to develop as a sustainable tourism destination.
The second stage is development stage in which the identified place is developed in order to attract more customers. In this aspect, various facilities and amenities will be increased and improved at Cola Beach, Goa.
The third stage of developing sustainability tourism will be of stagnation. Further, this will be a stage in which the number of tourists arriving will begin to rise and the beach will become famous among people.
It is a stage in which the number of visitors will start to decline and people will start looking for other beaches to have fun.
4.1 Various issues regarding conflict of interest and ways to resolve the conflict
Different people have distinct types of interest and it is very important to take a decision which can be beneficial for everyone. The Cola Beach of Goa has been selected as one of the case destinations. Further, with the help of public private partnership and efforts of stakeholders, the beach will be developed to a sustainable tourism destination. Thus, it is required to protect the interest of everyone during the development process. It has been observed that the public institutes will be in favour of social welfare and protecting the environment whereas private enterprise will be looking after revenues and profit generation from the destination. It may also happen that the local people and communities state that the activities and facilities developed at the beach should not affect their day to day life. Thus, in such situation, conflicts may arise as different people will have different interest for the development of beach. One of the best ways to resolve this conflict is to have an approach of sustainability development. This approach will protect the interest of government, private enterprise and local communities. Other than this, by communicating the objectives of developing Cola Beach, the conflicts can be resolved. The local communities can be ensured by the fact that their interest will be protected.
4.2 Implications of balancing supply and demand
Sustainability development not only means growth along with the protection of environment but it also means a balance between supply and demand. The stakeholders are required to take care of the fact that along with the increasing popularity of Cola beach, the supply of tourist services also gets increased. Further, they need to ensure that they would carry out effective marketing and promotional activities to maintain the balance between demand and supply of services. One of the main implications of maintaining such balance is that it will help in attracting more local as well as international tourist places. Further, the Cola Beach will become famous as compared to other beaches of Goa because it will be developed in a sustainable manner will which help in attracting more people. Along with the increase in number of tourists at the beach, it is required to maintain the balance between demand and supply of tourism service.
4.3 Enclave tourism meaning along with some moral and ethical issues
Enclave tourism can be termed as the process in which various tourism activities are planned and congregated at one single destination. Further, people are not required to travel far to enjoy different activities as they get everything at one place. The moral and ethical issue in enclave tourism can be stated as the activities of tourism that should benefit the host country as well as the local community. In addition to this, the local communities and people should be a part of tourism activities and economic, social and environment benefits should be shared with them. All the stakeholders are required to safeguard the interest of environment along with the wildlife protection. Other than this, they are also required to take care of the fact that the interest and culture of local people is protected during the promotion of enclave tourism. In addition to this, it should be not promoted in areas and countries where human rights are being violated.
5.1 Current issues regarding development of choose destination and comparison with emerging tourist destination
The destination which has been selected for sustainable development is Cola Beach of Goa. One of the major issues is related to understanding the need and demand of tourists. It has been witnessed that different tourists have distinct expectations from a tourist destination. Further, some seeks for peace and relaxation on beach whereas other may look for water and adventure sports. Thus, it is not easy to understand the demand of every tourist and to develop the destination according to the same. On the other hand, another issue which has been faced during the development of beach is that the government norms and policies are very strict and it is required to follow them during every process.
Arambol beach is one of the emerging tourist destinations of Goa as it is getting popular among local as well as international tourists. The issues which are faced in this destination are far different from what is being faced in Cola Beach. Here, the issues are related to theft and criminal cases as the beach is located far from the city. Further, the safety measures to protect the life of people are not appropriate.
5.2 The future development of tourism in both the destinations
Future development for both the beaches can be regarding alternative way of transport. It has been observed that the increasing traffic in air is creating a lot of harm to environment. Further, in this aspect, alternative sea routes can be developed in future in order to make the destination more sustainable. As both the destinations will grow in future, the safety and security of tourists will be required to take into consideration. The stakeholders will require to ensure that the rate of crime do not increase in future. Other than this, workforce development will also take place in future as the destination grows, the number of visitors will increase and additional workforce will be required to manage them.
From the above report, it can be concluded that the stakeholders in tourism play an important role in the development of a tourism destination. Further, they need to ensure that the interest of every individual should be protected. It can be also concluded that in modern era, the concept of sustainability development is increasing day by day. It has become significant for company like India to protect its wild life and natural resources in order to attract tourists from all over the world in future. Other than this, it can also be stated that there are some issues which will be faced during the development of beach. The authorities that will be going to develop the beach need to overcome the issues and should ensure that a proper balance is there between demand and supply of tourism services.
- Buhalis, D. and Costa, C., 2006. Tourism management dynamics: trends, management and tools. Routledge.
- Byrd, E. T., 2007. Stakeholders in sustainable tourism development and their roles: applying stakeholder theory to sustainable tourism development. Tourism Review.
- Choi, H. S. C. and Sirakaya, E., 2005. Measuring residents’ attitude toward sustainable tourism: Development of sustainable tourism attitude scale. Journal of Travel Research.
- Goeldner, C. R. and Ritchie, J. B., 2006. Tourism: Principles, practices, philosophies. John Wiley and Sons.
- Hannam, K. and Diekmann, A., 2010. Tourism Development in India: A Critical Introduction. Routledge.
- Hannam, K., 2008. Tourism geographies, tourist studies and the turn towards mobilities. Geography Compass.