Contemporary Travel and Tourism Industry


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Contemporary Travel and Tourism Industry
















            Tourisms industry  is defined to be one of  very the important service sector which focuses on providing services related to accommodating and entertaining services to its guests. Tourism is a motivation for the human being to have a new experience and  adventure. In the modern times, tourism is an important for the development of global and regional environment. Under this report there will be discussion about various aspect of tourism industry which include the development and improvement of travel industry. In the  context of cosmos company, tourism industry is discussed (Xiang,  Magnini  and Fesenmaier, 2015).  This company is an  online travel company offer the most affordable travel packages to the world most captivating place  in the world. Cosmos includes various packages like transportation, sightseeing, meal, accommodation and guidance for the travel and tourism purpose. Evaluated various facets about the tourism and travel industry and see how consumer change their decision making about the company.

LO 1:

P1 Explain the key factors  in the development of the travel and tourism industry and the factors that have shaped them.

            The following factor affect the growth of the industry and have  shaped them to grow  are as discussed as follows and similarly Cosmos company  evaluated over the period of time: 

            Environment factors: Under this, various facts will be examine which will effects the growth of the travel industry such as good climate and beautiful places . With the references of Cosmos , this factors is very important for the growth of their travel business in the various countries (Teoman, 2017).

            Good climates: This is great place of tourist in the environment which provide pleasant climate for its customer. Like, some of the good places is  located in warmer places in the UK and people from summer climate like to visit colder places in their vacation period.

            Beautiful scenery: Tourism provide beautiful spots for the tourist, which attract more customer and helps to improve the shape of industry growth for the longer period of time.

            Socio-economic factors: Under this factors, development of tourism is affected in larger term  and are shaped in better ways. This is important factor in the growth of the travel industry as it has a various  factors which can increase the businesses of travel and tourism industry.  

            Accessibility:Here  customer wants to access available mode of transport. Which increase  the business view by connecting customer from different mode of connectivity (Survila, MikÄ—nas and ŽuromskaitÄ—, 2019).

            Accommodation:  This factors provide to reach out to the more consumer by providing  better accommodation in the market. Their are various accommodation present depending on the living standard of the consumer. Their are various choose available for the consumer like from 7star hotels to the guest house present in the market. With the reference of  Cosmos , company provide good accommodation to its consumer which helps company to increase the number of customer  in this industry.

            Amenities: The growth of tourism is also influenced by the amenities factors such as activities such as  roping, paragliding,rowing, safari adventure. Their has been a growth from ancient  times in activities preferred  by the customer. Nowdays,  customer wants to experiencer the different adventures activities(Morakabati  and Beavis, 2017).

            Ancillary services:  To attract more customer , they provide good facilities like financing their travel packages and connecting them with telecommunication. Services. 

            Historical And cultural factors:  Under this factors, tourist people are  attracted to historical cultural for the places. Where people likes to explore different destination places such as old living places of the kings and forts like Taj mahal.

            Religious factors:  This factors helps to increase the tourist due to beliefs of the people in the gods place.  Costumer go to such places to change their mode and  seek blessing from the god. Tourist visit different temples across the country to get knowledge about various culture.

            Other  factors: Various  things  helps in improving the travel&tourism industry such  as conducting  research activities like finding various adventures for the consumer and finding  different places for its consumer.


P2 Provide the different element of tourism industry and explain the interrelate among  these element:

            The different elements of the travel and tourism industry  can be Geographical elements  and tourist industry which includes intangible services, providing good hospitality services , giving  freedom of choice to its consumer and all these elements   helps in creating good tourist experience. In the context of Cosmos limited, company uses these elements to improve the travel industry  and attract more customer for the travel agencies to increase the profits in long run(Haque and Haque, 2018).

            Geographical elements: Under this  element of tourism industry which can be useful to increase the performance  industry by providing good quality of work and services to its target market. This elements have a three main geographical element like traveller, tourist destination and transit. Under traveller target market(TGR) elements, industry practices push force to motivates and stimulate the customer to increase the number of customer. Here tourist want to know about the  important information, check for reservation and  departure in-out  information. This information is related to the different types of travelling experience. Further the tourist destination region( TDR) here full description about the destinations activates are given to the traveller. At last transit route region (TRR) Provide information about the beautiful place which  can be visited in the short period of time.

            Tourism Industry:  Here industrialist look for the better places in the industry to generates more profits by introducing new places to the customer.  This provide various business ideas to the organisation to attract more consumer and gain money in return. (Hamadeh and Bassil, 2017.)

            Transportation: This  include the movement of consumer  from one place to another destination . it also include a wide variety of different types of travel and included different mode of transportation.

            Airline industry: Under this elements, airline is one of the main tourists chosen mode of transportation to reach their destination. Consumer can schedule their flights according to their needs and wants.

            Car rental: Here customer can use car on the rental bases for lesser time period . This services provide consumer to reach their destination on first place. Customer can use such facilities to explore the different areas around the destination.

            Water transport: consumer use water transportation to reach their destination and tries to explore the cruise ships for the travel experience.

            Coach services: consumer  tires to use coach services to reach their chosen destination in efficient ways. 

LO 2:

P3: Explain the different factors which changes tourism behaviour.

            The following are various things that  affects the tourist mindset.

            Place of origin: Tourist behaviour change according to the place of their origin, consumer tries to follow their own culture framework. Sometimes consumer also want to explore different culture  so they want to  travel to different places in the  counties(Deepa  and Jayaraman, 2017).

            Education of tourist:The more educated  consumer wants to explore more place  as they have  more  curiosity  and knowledge about the different place . For example tourist who have  good knowledge about the place will have more existing experience in adventure.

            Geographical factors:  consumer belonging to different geographical factors which changes the  tourism behaviour. Consumer have a different opinions about the different places so some of the consumer wants to explore the different places and know more about country culture and  geographical factors. For example, people having different geographical areas which can effect their travelling  the different areas.

            Social factors: These  are social factor that effect the behaviour of the consumer  for visiting  the other country  places.  Social networking can alter a person decision regarding the visiting a particular  place  and have different opinion about the culture. One can experience a social and culture of different areas so that they can be more informed  person about the country(Boniface, Cooper and Cooper,  2016).  for example, people who have different social background references different social travelling packages.  

            Tourism destinations: consumer are attracted to different destination  which provide basic things like electricity, water, clean surrounding and good amenities and have its own signification  which can attract different tourist.

Intrinsic  behaviour

  • This behaviour provide higher levels of satification and  enjoyment about the different types of activities for the individual.
  • They enjoy every activates to their full abilities so that times passes very fast in the tour .
  • They have a higher level of enjoyment as there are existed throughout the tour.
  • They are always motivates to have more tour so that they have different experience about the countire3s. 

Extrinsic behaviour

  • This type of individual have lesser enjoyment as their go thought not so existing tour as compared to other consumers.
  • They maiming focus  on passing the time instead of enjoying the tour. This is their inheritance in their nature .
  • They are tensed for the performance and could not enjoy their vacation to their fullest levels.
  •  They generally have same experience for  visited same place for shorter period of time.



P4  Evaluated different model of motivation and there influence on decision of consumer.  

            This  part, we will be discussing the motivation theories and how this theory  can change  the consumer   decision making about the travelling and visiting  various places .

            ERG theory: Alderfer  distinguished three needs of the any individuals  into existence, relatedness and growth. we will discusses  various needs of ERG in the context of Cosmos limited and see how these theory affects the decision-making of the consumer( Baumert,  2017).

            Existence needs: It has influence of necessary needs of travellers like air, water and food,  affection and safety. This motivation fulfil the basic needs of the consumer by providing existence needs which helps in attracting  more tourist to the company.

            Relatedness needs: This need is related to the individual significant relationship with the family , superiors and peers. Here cosmos try to reach the public fame and  make sure that people are recognising their service provided in the target market. Here tourist  feels secure and feels that they belong  to the group of tourist in the company((Bassil, Saleh and Anwar, 2019).

            Growth needs:  Under this needs, all the consumer feels that need of self -development, personal growth and advancement in the group. Here tourist are more creative and productive on improving their  decision and making best use of the environment.  

Even every person have different priority of needs depending according to concreteness.  Existence needs has very strong concrete whereas relatedness are less in term of strong bond.   And  growth needs are least concreted  in their specific policies and it has a very  depended  factors on the unique of each person.

This motivation theories provide clear picture about  the needs and  wants of the consumer which make different purpose for every customer, here consumer make decision about the which travel to be chosen and which will be benefit for the consumer. Here consumer wants to maximum the  travelling experience by following the ERG  theories  which changes the  decision process  of the tourist from time to time.


            Travel  is considered as the largest sector across  world wise  but it is based on vacation as well as leisure. As within world the travel and tourism is enhancing in about 10% of overall GDP as well as constantly develops at around 5% over predictable future. Respective sector at international level is desired to develop in future as this shows both challenges as well as opportunities at certain time duration. The opportunity into travel and tourism sector is to invest as well as develop job quality where as the challenge is to be with desired development for attaining the sustainability as well as competitiveness of 5 essential tourism area such as Asia, Africa, Europe, America and others(( Abbasian, 2018).

Recent Trends in International T&T Industry

            Some recent trends that respective organisation identified  into global travel and tourism are discussed below:

  • Tourist prefer new destination: According to the survey of year 2018, in about 22% travellers likes to visit new place from list. The new destination involves  Spain, USA, Latin America and so on. It develop issues for those places that facilitates whole facilities and services in context of accommodation, hotel and others in appropriate way.
  • Booking at last minute are enhancing: As per the tourism survey that is performed in year 2018, around 39% of individuals do booking at last hours (Travel trends that will drive the tourism industry in 2019, 2019). The person books its destination within one to three hours before of its journey. So, Cosmos is also facing few issues as this is tough for them to plan employees as well as resources in advance and few depends upon climate. The marketing, partnership as well as live availability are considered as techniques for off setting such issues.

 Explaining the trends patterns at the international travel and tourism industry .

            Technology plays crucial role into respective sector as various person utilises online mode in order to book tickets, hotel, resorts and others. This is vital for them to adapt that technology in its enterprises. Few of them are discussed underneath:

  • Robotics: Such technology ideas have represented as period ago within T&T sector. This is utilised for various intent to facilitate assistance to its clients in most effective way. Such as Cosmos utilises pre-screening, generating waiting times to be productive for them. It is updated technology utilised through large enterprises. The facilities as well as services will be developed within T&T Industry for optimistic results.
  • Virtual reality: It is exploded at current times as enhancement into virtual reality availability for goods or services. This concentrates upon enterprises, marketers, usages of technology and others. It permit to do transportation in digitalised way to recreation of virtual of specific areas (7 Technology Trends in the Travel Industry, 2019). Moreover, this facilitates opportunity to hotel for showing its rooms, reception areas at websites for enhancing booking. The chosen company have to adapt this technology in its enterprises for encouraging individuals to take services.      

P6 :  Discussing the factors which changes the destination places for the consumer:

            Global destination is regarded as an energetic and experienced for tourism facilitator which concentrate upon providing standard quality services to its clients in efficacious and effectual way. It is considered as areas which basically facilitates better class services as well as possess lower chances for mistakes. The several kinds of components which impact profit, brand reputation and others of international destination. Travel and tourism sector have to facilitate effective quality of services to its clients. Few factors that impact international destination popularity are discussed underneath:

  • Special offers and discounts: At the time of formulating plans for travelling, the travellers are concern regarding travel cost incurred for specific packages. They seeks for some offers as well as discounts that aids them to make the trip cost effective. Respective organisation also facilitates some offer to its users so that they may avail its services. This is essential for accommodation facilitators to give special discounts at their websites as well as on apps.
  • Closeness to destination: Various travellers likes to visit those destination that do not take so many days as well as are accessible in easier way. The chosen organisation have to concentrate upon regional clients who may simply reached at destination. This is so much vital to facilitate to travellers an effective places, time, cost and other and consequently plans are formulated (5 Factors Influencing Tourist Destination and Tourism, 2019).
  • Recommendation from friends and relatives: The review represented through family as well as relatives aids to various global destination popularity. Respective organisation have to provide effective services to its clients that allows them to write good reviews regarding areas in effectual and efficacious way. Social media campaign assist them in encouraging person for sharing memories and experiences at the time of visit or after that.
  • Appropriate online information: The survey conducted through individuals drives towards enhancing effectiveness of that destinations or areas. Respective organsition includes whole effective information by online sources related to its offers, services, packages and others so that individuals may formulate plans as well as visit international places. There are many kinds of person as well as required various information before developing any types of plans in respect of visiting places. In addition to this, the travel and tourism sector needs effective online presence as person are utilising so much online mode in comparison to offline mode. 

            Thus, the above mentioned factors impact international destination popularity. This is crucial to undertake overall factors through travel and tourism sector so that more outputs can be attained and profitability margins get enhanced.



 As per the above report, we have presented development of travels and tourism in the context of Cosmos company. Discussed various factors which will affects the various element present in the organisation. ERG theory is discussed with the decision making of the consumer about their travelling and tourism packages. Tourist are taking their decision about evaluating the various factors which can effect their travelling decision.


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