Sustainable Tourism Development


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Introduction to Sustainable Tourism Development

In the modern era, tourism is one of the most potential and growing sectors of the world. Further, the sector has ample opportunities for businesses to grow and develop effectively. It can be stated that there are many economic opportunities for a country where tourism is developed. It provides benefits such as higher employment, rising income, and balance of payment in the country. In this report, Cola Beach of Goa, India has been selected to develop it as a sustainable tourism development. In addition to this, it explains the different tourism stakeholders of a country and how they benefit from the planning of tourism development. Other than this, the report also explains how sustainable tourism can be developed in a country like India.

Task 1

1.1 The Tourism Stakeholders In the Chosen Countries

Stakeholders can be defined as those individuals or enterprises that directly or indirectly get affected by the activities and operations of a business. Further, concerning tourism, these are those people who have direct and indirect impacts on tourism activities. Some of the important tourism stakeholders are the government of the country, local people, private enterprises and suppliers. India is one of the most developing nations of the world which has ample opportunities to develop tourism. In addition to this, the country has many tourist destinations and as per the data of World Bank 2014, there were more than 69, 00,000 tourists visited the country. The planning of tourism development will lead to many benefits for the above-stated stakeholders. Further, the people in the country will get employment opportunities which will help them to increase their income level along with their standard of living. It can be also stated that the benefits of making society a part of the planning process will lead to social acceptability, greater project sustainability, and better mobilization of resources. On the other hand, the major benefit that tourism development will have is that the government of the country will be able to deliver better infrastructure and facilities.

1.2 The Working of Public-Private Partnership

Public-private partnership can be defined as the integration of private enterprises and public institutes to achieve some common goals and objectives. Further, the main advantage of such a type of partnership is that the risk and resources are shared which helps in making the best utilization of available resources to achieve the objectives. Goa is one of the most popular tourist destinations in India. The destination consists of beautiful beaches and historical places which attract people from all over the world. Therefore, one of its unpopular places is Cola Beach which can be developed as a sustainable tourism destination with the help of public and private partnerships. The advantage of having such kind of partnership is that the available resources which will be shared and the outcomes will be more satisfactory. Further, it will also result in better management and allocation of resources. In addition to this, the financial resources required for the development can be made easily available with the help of private enterprises. On the other hand, the partnership will have some disadvantages such as it will focus on economic benefits regarding the development of Goa as a sustainable tourism destination. It has been observed that the social and environmental aspects are not taken into account when public and private businesses integrate.

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Task 2

2.1 Key Steps of the Tourism Development Process

Analysis of the Existing Situation

The first step of the tourism development process is an analysis of the existing situation of the destination. Concerning this, one has to determine the current plans and policies that have been imposed along with the identification of current tourism-related activities and programs.

In-depth Research

After doing an analysis of the existing situation, the development process begins with carrying out the research regarding market and resources. Further, based on this research, plans and activities are developed to attract more tourists. Other than this, the potential of markets is identified so that a master plan can be created to develop the destination.

Developing Action Plans and Strategies

This is the last step in the tourism development process. In addition to this, based on the market and resources, research an action plan and strategies is made to develop the tourist destination.

2.2 Significance of Interactive Planning

Interactive planning can be defined as the concept that highlights the fact that the activities of planning are more important than the action plan. Further, during the process of planning, all the stakeholders are invited to become a part of the planning and to give their valuable suggestions. The concept of interactive planning will be helpful in developing Cola Beach, Goa as a sustainable tourism destination. One of the main advantages of using interactive planning is that it is a continuous process that never starts and stops. The involvement of various stakeholders such as local people, private enterprises, government, and suppliers will help in making effective plans for sustainable development. The government will play a major role in framing the policies and regulations for the destination. On the other hand, during planning, local people will also play an important role as they will help in determining the additional amenities and facilities that can be developed at Cola Beach, Goa. The funds required for the development process will be arranged from the private enterprise. Therefore, it can be stated that interactive planning will play a significant role in the development of Cola Beach as a sustainable tourism destination.

2.3 The Impact of Tourism and Range of Methods

Tourism has various impacts on the economic, social, and environmental conditions of a country. It has been identified that there are some positive and negative impacts of tourism on the economy of a nation. Tourism helps in creating more employment opportunities and in increasing the income level of people. Further, it is one of the major sources of revenue generation for the government of many countries. On the other hand, it can be stated that successful tourism always relies on better and more effective infrastructure. Thus, the cost of developing better infrastructure falls directly on the government of a country. The jobs which are created are also seasonal in nature and most of the employees are paid poorly. In terms of society, tourism has both negative and positive social impacts. The local community gets benefits from good infrastructure and facilities developed by the government to attract more tourists. On the other hand, some visitors and their behavior affect the life of local people. Increasing the consumption of drugs and alcohol along with the rise of crime levels are some of the negative impacts of tourism on society. It has been observed that tourism also affects the environment of a nation in both negative and positive aspects. The concept of eco-tourism helps protect the wildlife and other important natural resources. On the other hand, the pollution created by tourism is a big threat to the environment.

Methods to Measure the Impact of Tourism

Economic Impact

The economic impact can be measured with the help of evaluating the total number of visitors visiting the country and by analysing the revenue generated by them.

Environment Impact

In order to measure the environmental impact on the management matrix, wildlife/ human conflict monitoring can be used.

Social impact

The social impact of tourism can be measured with the help of various primary research and surveys. In addition to this, secondary data which highlights the number of job created and change in income of people can be also taken into consideration.

Task 3

3.1 Sustainability in Tourism

Sustainability in tourism can be defined as the use of processes that lower the impact of activities on the environment and local culture. The government of the country needs to ensure the fact that along with the generation of revenue and creation of employment opportunities, tourism should also conserve the local ecosystem. India is a country that is full of wildlife and natural resources and it was observed that both were getting affected by tourism. The government came up with the idea for sustainability development to protect the wildlife and natural resources. Further, a new eco-tourism policy was developed and new norms were established. It was found that several wild animals such as tigers was decreasing day by day. Thus, the legal authorities decided to develop strict norms for protecting the animals. Other than this, it was also observed that some of the popular beaches were highly polluted and dirty because of the increasing number of local and international tourists. Thus, the concept of sustainability tourism development was an approach to overcome all these problems and to protect natural resources along with the environment.

3.2 Sustainability as an Issue

Sustainability development is a big issue for government as it is not easy for the government of a country to deal with various challenges and to overcome them. Main objective of sustainability development in tourism is to protect the wild life and natural resources. It has been observed that many regulations and norms have been formed by government to stop the hunting and killing of animals. On the other hand, tourism leads to increase in international travel which directly results in rising up the level of air pollution. It has been also observed that the natural beauty of many of places in India has been destroyed and trees have cut down in order to develop that place as a tourist destination. Further, some of the factors which can hinder sustainable tourism development in India are mentioned below as.


One of the major factors which can hinder the sustainable tourism development is cost. It has been observed that in order to develop a tourist destination in sustainable form, the government of country is required to invest a lot of financial resources in infrastructure and other amenities.


It is another main factor in sustainability tourism development as most of the tourists look for the places which have mild temperature. Thus, only those places can be developed which have suitable and required weather.

3.3 Stages of Developing Sustainable Tourism at Cola Beach of Goa

Stage One

It is the stage of identifying a place or area which can be developed as a sustainable tourism destination. For this purpose, Cola Beach in Goa has been selected to develop as a sustainable tourism destination.

Stage Second

The second stage is the development stage in which the identified place is developed to attract more customers. In this aspect, various facilities and amenities will be increased and improved at Cola Beach, Goa.

Stage Third

The third stage of developing sustainability tourism will be of stagnation. Further, this will be a stage in which the number of tourists arriving will begin to rise and the beach will become famous among people.

Stage Four

It is a stage in which the number of visitors will start to decline and people will start looking for other beaches to have fun.

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Task 4

4.1 Various Issues Regarding Conflict of Interest and Ways to Resolve the Conflict

Different people have distinct types of interests and it is very important to make a decision which can be beneficial for everyone. The Cola Beach of Goa has been selected as one of the case destinations. Further, with the help of public-private partnerships and the efforts of stakeholders, the beach will be developed into a sustainable tourism destination. Thus, it is required to protect the interest of everyone during the development process. It has been observed that the public institutes will be in favor of social welfare and protecting the environment whereas private enterprises will be looking after revenues and profit generation from the destination. It may also happen that the local people and communities state that the activities and facilities developed at the beach should not affect their day-to-day lives. Thus, in such a situation, conflicts may arise as different people will have different interests in the development of the beach. One of the best ways to resolve this conflict is to have an approach to sustainability development. This approach will protect the interests of the government, private enterprise, and local communities. Other than this, by communicating the objectives of developing Cola Beach, the conflicts can be resolved. The local communities can be ensured by the fact that their interest will be protected.

4.2 Implications of Balancing Supply and Demand

Sustainability development not only means growth along with the protection of the environment but it also means a balance between supply and demand. The stakeholders are required to take care of the fact that along with the increasing popularity of Cola Beach, the supply of tourist services also increased. Further, they need to ensure that they would carry out effective marketing and promotional activities to maintain the balance between demand and supply of services. One of the main implications of maintaining such a balance is that it will help in attracting more local as well as international tourist places. Further, Cola Beach will become famous as compared to other beaches of Goa because it will be developed in a sustainable manner will which help in attracting more people. Along with the increase in a number of tourists at the beach, it is required to maintain the balance between demand and supply of tourism services.

4.3 Enclave Tourism Meaning Along with Some Moral and Ethical Issues

Enclave tourism can be termed as the process in which various tourism activities are planned and congregated at one single destination. Further, people are not required to travel far to enjoy different activities as they get everything at one place. The moral and ethical issue in enclave tourism can be stated as the activities of tourism that should benefit the host country as well as the local community. In addition to this, the local communities and people should be a part of tourism activities and economic, social, and environmental benefits should be shared with them. All the stakeholders are required to safeguard the interests of the environment along with wildlife protection. Other than this, they are also required to take care of the fact that the interest and culture of local people is protected during the promotion of enclave tourism. In addition to this, it should be not promoted in areas and countries where human rights are being violated.

Task 5

5.1 Current Issues Regarding the Development of the Chosen Destination and Comparison With an Emerging Tourist Destination

The destination that has been selected for sustainable development is Cola Beach of Goa. One of the major issues is related to understanding the needs and demands of tourists. It has been witnessed that different tourists have distinct expectations from a tourist destination. Further, some seek peace and relaxation on the beach whereas others may look for water and adventure sports. Thus, it is not easy to understand the demands of every tourist and to develop the destination according to the same. On the other hand, another issue that has been faced during the development of the beach is that the government norms and policies are very strict and it is required to follow them during every process.

Arambol Beach is one of the emerging tourist destinations of Goa as it is getting popular among local as well as international tourists. The issues that are faced in this destination are far different from what is being faced in Cola Beach. Here, the issues are related to theft and criminal cases as the beach is located far from the city. Further, the safety measures to protect the lives of people are not appropriate.

5.2 The Future Development of Tourism in Both the Destinations

Future development for both the beaches can be regarding alternative way of transport. It has been observed that the increasing traffic in air is creating a lot of harm to the environment. Further, in this aspect, alternative sea routes can be developed in the future to make the destination more sustainable. As both destinations will grow in the future, the safety and security of tourists will be required to be taken into consideration. The stakeholders will be required to ensure that the rate of crime does not increase in the future. Other than this, workforce development will also take place in the future as the destination grows, the number of visitors will increase and an additional workforce will be required to manage them.

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From the above report, it can be concluded that the stakeholders in tourism play an important role in the development of a tourism destination. Further, they need to ensure that the interest of every individual is protected. It can be also concluded that in the modern era, the concept of sustainability development is increasing day by day. It has become significant for companies like India to protect its wildlife and natural resources to attract tourists from all over the world in the future. Other than this, it can also be stated that there are some issues that will be faced during the development of the beach. The authorities that will be going to develop the beach need to overcome the issues and should ensure that a proper balance is there between demand and supply of tourism services.


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  • Goeldner, C. R. and Ritchie, J. B., 2006. Tourism: Principles, practices, philosophies. John Wiley and Sons.
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