Tourism industry has become the fastest growing industry. It generates job opportunities in the country and contributes well in improving economic condition of nation. Present study is based on Qatar , it is the place which is famous for its amazing historical background an cultural aspects. Many sport events and business conferences are being organized by Qatar every year (Chaperon and Bramwell, 2013). Government of Qatar believes that tourism is the biggest source of economic development. Statically records show that last year approx. 295134 visitors have come to this destination (Tourism booms as more travellers visit Qatar, 2017). Current project will discuss benefit of stakeholders from tourism development planning. Furthermore, it will explain advantage and disadvantage of public private partnership. Study will describe features of tourism development
1.1 Stakeholder benefit from planning of tourism development
Stakeholders are the most important person those who have huge interest in the business. Stakeholders of Qatar are as following:
- Tourism industries
- Employees and tourism consultants
- Local communities
All these stakeholders can get benefited from tourism development planning. Government is the main stakeholder of this sector, if more tourists come to the location then they will spend more amount here (Font, 2016). This will help in increasing foreign reserves in the nation, which will improve economic condition of the country. Government has interest in tourism busineses because this can help them in improving economic condition of nations. With the increasing tourism activities, government will be able to raise employment opportunity which will be beneficial in raising GDP rate. By this way, government will be able to invest more amounts to develop industries so people get income sources and their life standards can be improved.
Tourism industry is another most important stakeholder of the industry. As much people will come in the location then revenues of tourism sector will get raised (Knollenberg. and et.al., 2014). Many tourism companies are performing well and earning more profit. If many visitors are coming to location then it will help in raising their revenues. Thus, tourism industry has huge interest in this activity. This will be beneficial for their growth.
Employees and consultants are another stakeholder of this sector. If more people visits Qatar then employees will get more salaries and this will raise their knowledge as well. If business of tourism is raising them this will give more promotional opportunities to employees ad they will be able to get more financial benefits.
Local communities are another stakeholder that will get benefited by tourism activities. As it will raise their living standards and they will be able to live their life smoothly. Their interest is to improve their life and get facilities. If more visitors are coming to Qatar then government will get funds, which will be used, for development of local people such as improving infrastructure so that local population can live easily.
1.2 Advantage and disadvantage of public private partnership
Public and private both organization contribute equally in the development of tourism industry (Nara, Mao. and Yen, 2014). Their contribution supports in increasing tourism activities in the destination.
Advantage for public sector
- By making this partnership public sector can get developed soon. Government allocates funds to the private firms in order to improve infrastrure facilities in the destination. This helps in raising more facilities in the location so that more visitor will take interest in the location.
- This partnership will be beneficial in increasing financial resources of the country. This money can be utilized for developing telecommunication, railway lines, other transportation facilities (Page, 2014).
- This partnership will be beneficial in spreading cultural aspect of the Qatar across the world. Furthermore, it will help in minimizing risk and development cost as well.
Advantage for Private sector
- This partnership will help in improving profitability of private sector.
- This will support in spreading the firms across the brand image ( and Guiver, 2015).
Disadvantage for public sector
- As in order to attract more people government has to spend huge amount which increase their cost. Visitors plan to go to such location where they can get good infrastructure and transportation facilities. In order to provide such facilities to travelers government has to spend such high amount that increases their cost.
- This partnership can affect beauty of Qatar to great extent. If public and private firms are working together then it can harm natural resources because private organizations work for profit earning. They can destroy natural resources in order to develop buildings and hotels. This can create trouble for public firms.
Disadvantage for private sector
- It pays less attention on risk management. Private organizations do not concentrate on risk; they just develop facilities so that more tourists get attracted towards the location. In such condition, local people have to face difficulty but private firms do not concentrate on risk.
- It increases cost of the private firms. This partnership may give result to private firm but it will take long duration (Votsi and et.al., 2014).
2.1 Features of tourism development planning at different levels
Different features of tourism development planning are described as below:
As per the case study of Qatar, it has rich culture and historical background. Government of the destination is investing amount in organizing sport events in the country. All these efforts support the government in attracting more people towards the location (Westerberg, Jacobsen. and Lifran, 2013). There are many national bodies which provide funds to the concern authorities . National level government of Qatar always focus on enhancing investment for developing infrastructure facilities so that more visitors take interest in the location.. Authorities always make effective planning so that demand can be increased. This fund can help in developing infrastructure, village in Qatar. Feature of national level authorities is to make effective strategies and promote the culture of the nation across the world so that more visitors take interest in the location (Wray,2013).
There are many international authorities such as UNESCO, OECD those contribute in developing tourism activities. These authoritiessupport improving standard of living of the Qatar people because this helps in improving economic condition of the nation. These firms make connection with local agencies and suggest them ways through which they can develop destination (Tourism is Economic Development, What Government Leaders should know, 2007).International level authorities always ensure to promote secure tourism. They instruct national and regional government to enhance their security and make effective policies so that no visitor can get trouble in Qatar.
These regional level people invest for developing more hotels and improving accommodation facilities in the country. This helps in providing satisfactory services to the visitors so that they can feel happy and come to this place frequently. Regional level authorities ensure to provide more accommodation facilities to visitors. They work to develop transportation. Apart from this, regional level authorities ensure to make visa policy effective so that terrorism activities can be minimized in Qatar.
Sub regional level
This is another level that contributes well in improving infrastructure facilities and transportation services in the location. This helps in attracting more travelers in Qatar (Chaperon and Bramwell, 2013). Sub regional level authorities have to forecast demand and accordingly they have to make plan so that people can get amazing experience in Qatar. They always work to secure natural resources and improving transportation facilities in Qatar so that more travelers take interest.
2.2 Significance of interactive planning system
Interactive planningis the process in which concern authorities look at the present situation and develop plan for increasing tourism activities in Qatar. Government of Qatar needs to concentrate on increasing number of visitors in the destination. In this process all stakeholders put their best efforts so that overall goal of tourism development can be accomplished (Font, 2016). Significance of interactive planning are described as below:
- Interactive planning is beneficial process that supports in minimizing cost and developing tourism activities in designed budget. By making interactive planning government can forecast future demand and can make plan accordingly. This will help in minimizing useless expenses and raising profit (Chaperon and Bramwell, 2013).
- Interactive planning supports in minimizing security issues and minimizing criminal activities in the Qatar. This will support in making Qatar safer city and attracting more visitors towards the location ( and et.al., 2014). By making interactive plan authorities can identify risk and issues that can arise due to development in tourism. By this way, they can make plan to resolve such problems and increasing security in the location.
- Interactive planning is being done by involving all stakeholders in the planning process. All stakeholder shares their views which helps in implementing innovative ideas so that more visitor take interest in the Qatar. This is beneficial in improving infrastructure facilities in the country so that local people can live happily (Tourism is Economic Development, What Government Leaders should know, 2007). If all stakeholders are being involved in planning then authorities can get innovative ideas which will support in meeting with expectation of visitors and fulfilling needs of stakeholders.
2.3 Different methods available to measure impact of tourism
It is essential for the concern authorities that to measure impact of tourism activities. They have to identified that whether planning is giving positive result or not.
STEAM and Cambridge model
It is the methods that helps in measuring economic impact of tourism activities. Cambridge model is the process in which government prepare spreadsheet and they calculate number of visitors come in the destination and total amount that have been spend by them (Stanford. and Guiver, 2015). If overall returns are good that means planning is effective and tourism activities are giving positive result to the country and stakeholders. It looks upon the frequency of visitors to come in the country and spending money. On the bases of this calculation economic effectiveness are being measured. In this method authorities can gather detail regarding per day spending of travelers .This helps in identifying whether strategy or development is worthwhile or not to attract people and increasing their interest.
STEAM model is another model which helps in measuring economic impact of tourism activities. In this method, authorities involve local public and identify how much they are getting benefited with the increasing number of visitors. This helps in analyzing the economic impact of tourism activities on Qatar (Westerberg, Jacobsen. and Lifran, 2013). This method uses quantitative method for identifying economic impact. Authorities calculate number of visitors come in location, their total spend etc. this helps in measuring economic development with tourism activities.
ELA: environmental impact assessment model
It is another type of measuring process that identify environment impact of tourism activities. They look at natural resources, environmental issues that are arisen due to increasing tourism activities. This helped in identifying whether tourism is giving positive or negative result to the nation. If it is giving negative result to environment then they can makecontingency plan so that such type of issues can be minimized soon. For example Qatar’s development authorities can look at natural resources, soil condition, pollution etc. They can compare it before implementing changes and after increasing number of visitors in the destination. If pollution has increased then they can make plan to control over it and to protect natural resources.
Pro poor tourism
It is another type of measuring tool which measure impact of tourism on social condition. In this process authorities look at living standards, employment opportunities of the local people (Wray,2013). If people are getting more employment opportunities and if there living standard is improving then it is beneficial for the country otherwise they will have to make changes in their interactive planning so that tourism can give positive results to societies. In this method authorities of Qatar can look at previous data related to income of people and can compare ot with current income level. If there is development in income sources and if living standards of people have been improved then it can be assumed that strategies are worthwhile.
It is the beneficial way through which natural resources can be conserved and economic development of the nation can be held. If the place is able to attract more tourism then it can be beneficial in raising economic position of the country.
By this way local people can live easily and visitors can feel happy in the destination.
This promotes green environment. By this way issues related to pollution etc. can be minimized to great extent.
This also supports in spreading culture and historical background of the destination across the world. By this way more people will take interest to come to this location and they will give positive reviews to others as well.
Tourism business is highly profitable industry and contributes well in the economic development of nation. But its development may get affected due to various factors. Description of these elements are following
Socio-economic Development: In such condition tourism development may get affected badly. In the situation of poor social background these local people will not be able to entertain the international visitor which may decrease interest of visitors and they do not come to this place.
Relationship between guest and host country: This relationship helps the nation in attracting more international visitors and raising tourism activities in the country. But if the place has poor relationship with other guest nations then it may impact on tourism business to great extent.
Effective utilization of resource: In such condition natural resources will get decreased that will impact on the future of Qatar.
Inflation or deflation: This influence mind of them and they cancel their plan to go to such places where inflation is too high.
Imbalance in demand and supply may occur.
All these components impact on sustainable tourism development to great extent. Government of the nation is required to pay attention on this element so that overall goal of the nation can be accomplished.
If all these stakeholders perform well and fulfill their responsibilities then this objective may be accomplished.
Its objective is to generate more employment opportunities and improving living standard of the population. Furthermore, another agenda of government of Qatar is to enhance foreign reserves in the nation so that infrastructure, transportation facilities can be developed in country.
Research helps authorities in making changes in the development plan in right direction so that objective of country can be accomplished.
This will help in making effective planning and attracting more people towards the location. In order to develop the nation as tourism place Qatar will require human resource, physical, financial resources the most.
This aids in identifying the key areas whereby sustainable development can be done with a motive to boost tourism activity within country.
4.1 Methods to resolve conflicts
Qatar government continuously work in order to raise tourism activities in the country. They conduct sport events and conferences so that more visitors can take interest in the destination and come frequently (Stanford. and Guiver, 2015). But due to increasing travel activities many issues may get arisen. These issues are such as: conservation, wastage, pollution etc. All these factors may impact negative on the local people. In order to resolve conflictsituation authorities of Qatar has to implement various methods so that future well being of development can remain maintain. These are as below maintained:
It is the most essential method that needed to be implemented in order to resolve conflict situation in the nation. Stakeholder share their interest and views so that they can get benefited. Involvement of stakeholder can help in finding innovative ideas through which overall development of Qatar can be held and issues can be resolved soon. Their views supports in making effective planning and maintaining future wellbeing (Font, 2016). If authorities involve stakeholders and take their suggestion then it will help in getting innovative ideas for improving condition of Qatar so that more visitors will take interest. This will help in identifying needs of stakeholders and authorities will be able to make plan so that their requirements can be met. This will make them satisfied and conflict will be resolved smoothly.
Strong relationship with guest countries
The major issues arise in the country when local people do not support the international visitors. Most of the people do not go to particular places because of poor relationship between guest and host country. If there is strong relationship between both nations then it will enhance mutual understanding and respect. By this way issues can be resolved soon. They will understand culture of each other well and will coordinate with each other properly. This will also attract more travelers towards the location (Knollenberg. and et.al., 2014). Qatar has rich culture; if it develops relationship with guest countries then this will help in attracting more people. By this way visitors will feel safe to come in this destination. Strong relationship will support in developing knowledge about their culture so authorities will be able to provide them such environment so travelers can feel happy. This will minimize chances of conflict.
4.2 Implication of balancing supply and demand
Demand can be described as need of visitors and their expectation. Whereas supply is the services that is provided by the country to travelers. Price is the common facto which increases imbalance between supply and demand. It is essential to make effective balance between demand and supply. But if there is balance then more visitors will plan to come to Qatar in such condition natural resources will be used in high amount. This may impact negative because it may create issue of shortage of natural resources in the destination (Stanford. and Guiver, 2015). This may impact negative on environment as well because with the increasing tourism activities pollution, traffic type of issues can be increased in the country. By this way new visitors will not plan to come to this place and local people will find difficulty to live a healthy life.
It is essential to make balance between demand and supply, by this way government will be able to invest in improving infrastructure, transportation facilities. This will support in giving a standard life to the local communities. Furthermore, this development will also help in increasing employment opportunities. By this way local people will be able to live happy life (Chaperon and Bramwell, 2013). Furthermore, imbalance in demand and supply can create issue for the government because by this way cost of development may get increased in the nation. Furthermore, balancing demand and supply can impact positively on tourism business and economic condition of Qatar. This can help in preserving natural resources and protecting them for longer duration. Apart from this, if authorities are able to make balance between demand and supply then this will be beneficial in increasing job opportunities. Employees will get more benefit thus, they will retain in organizations for longer duration. This will also impact positively in raising sustainability of location.
4.3 Evaluating moral and ethical issues of enclave tourism
Enclave tourismis considered as essential part of tourism development. It is able to provides amazing experience to visitors and fulfill their travel needs as well. Most the travelers come to other location to enjoy its beauty. But if environment or natural beauty of the place is not good then they do not take much interest in such kind of destinations. Government of Qatar is trying to maintain healthy relationship with other guest countries so that more international visitors come to this place and spend amount here. Moral and ethical issues in enclave tourism are as following:
- One of the major issue in enclave tourism is that government of the nation pay more attention on foreign tourist only. Sometimes they ignore basic needs of local communities (Tourism is Economic Development, What Government Leaders should know, 2007). When internal visitors come to the place then due to cultural issues they fail to communicate with local people. In such condition confusion take place which create negative image in the mind of travelers.
- The main objective of government of Qatar is to develop the nation and if more international visitors come to the location then they will spend more amount which may enhance foreign reserve of the nation. But with the increasing tourist activities many other issues will take place in Qatar such as overcrowding, pollution, traffic etc. All these issues will impact on environment, social and economic condition of the country to great extent.
- One of the major ethical issues is harm to local communities and their cultural aspect. If more foreign visitors are coming to destination and local people are unable to deal with them properly due to cultural difference then this will spread negative image and will spoil image of the country. Violence is another ethical issue that can be arise in Qatar with increasing tourism activities.
5.1 Current issues in developing and emerging nation
Developed nations are such countries, which have advanced economic conditions. They have highly developed capital market. People of developed nations have high level of income sources. USA is good example of developed nation. On other hand, emerging countries are such nations, which are in a process of growth. In these countries, per capita income is less. Brazil, Russia is emerging countries. Whereas developing nations are such places which are striving to attain developed nations ‘s standards. These countries are working of enhancing education and reducing poverty. Asia, Africa are developing countries.
Environment issue: Bhutan is the developing nation which is facing environmentalissue. There are narrow rods and poor transportation facilities due to which local people are facing trouble. On other hand Qatar is the emerging country where government is trying to increase tourism activities and preserving natural resources as well (Knollenberg. and et.al., 2014).
Economic issue: Bhutan has adequate job opportunities because its economic condition is sound as compare to Qatar. But Qatar is the small country where terrorism activities are high which impact negative on local people. Currency exchange facilities and provision are not simple in Qatar.
Socio cultural issue: Bhutan is the country where crime rate is low and communication between local people and travelers is good. But Qatar is the destination where local people fail to coordinate well with visitors.
There is required to make changes in the overall proves of both these countries so that issues can be resolved soon.
- Authorities should develop more transportation facilities and infrastructure facilities so that more people come to Bhutan and Qatar. Furthermore, they have to concentrate on minimizing wastage of natural resources. If infrastructure and transportation facilities are being developed then this will help in attracting more people. These foreign visitors will spend more money that will help in improving leaving standards of local population. Due to high wastage of natural resources, environmental condition is being weak. Thus, if authorities can make plan to minimize wastage of these resources then it will help in making atmosphere healthy where more people will plan to come. This will support in minimizing economic and environmental issues.
- Government should give training to local people so that they can coordinate well with international visitors. They have to make them understand the ways through which they can coordinate with them such as sign language, postures etc. many local people fail to communicate well with international visitors. In such condition, visitors feel uncomfortable and they give negative reviews to others. If government gives training to people to deal with international travelers well then this will help in creating positive image which will attract more people towards the location. This will help in minimizing social cultural issues.
From the above report it can be concluded that sustainable tourism development is helpful for the country. This can support in improving economic, social condition of the nation. It is essential that all stakeholders coordinate well with each other’sso that overall development can be taken place in effective manner. Report has discussed about role of stakeholder sin tourism development. Furthermore, study has described methods to resolve conflict and implications of balancing supply and demand. Enclave tourism has been explained in this report and current issues faced by country with increasing tourism activities have been illustrated in this assignment.
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