Introduction to Legislation and Ethics in Tourism Sector
Travel and tourism industry is witnessing huge growth and vast success opportunities are offered by this sector. IT is vital that passengers who are availing services in travel industry should be provided with proper health and safety protections (Becker, 2016). It will aid in ensuring better services to clients that are enjoying services and their health and safety will be ensured. Present report describes about different kind of legal and regulatory frameworks formed by government for regulating working of tourism sector. Role of different regulatory bodies in travel and tourism sector has been mentioned in the report. In addition to this impact of health, safety and security legislations has also been mentioned. Furthermore different kinds of ethical dilemmas faced while rendering safety to people in travel and tourism sector has been described in the report.
Travel and tourism sector gets influenced by various legal and regulatory frameworks formulated by state. English legal system renders diverse guidelines that are essential to follow for travel companies and other tour operating firms (PrebeÅ¾ac and et.al., 2016). Diverse range of legal and regulatory frameworks are as described
Carriage by Air and road act 1979
Guidelines are given in this act that if due to negligence and carelessness shown by any person who carry passenger. If any harm or injuries is caused to client than carrier will be held accountable for damages caused to persons who are travelling by air or by road (Page, 2014). In this case responsibilities of carrier who is carrying a passenger be medium of rail and road are decided.
The Athens Convention act 1974
The act was formulated with the objective to render guidelines to people who are involved in international carrier and activities of carrying passenger by road and passengers who travel by sea are also included in this act.
International Carriage by road act 1979
Under this act instructions are given that if any damage and harm is caused to any person while travelling through road than claims can be made for the damages that is caused to any individual while travelling by road (Brandon-Jones and Walsman, 2016).
Transport Acts 1980
The act was formulated by parliament of UK and major objective behind making of this act was to do deregulation of different coach services in nation. Authorities are granted power for making deregulation of bus services in country that includes local bus services and others. Travel and tourism industry of the country was affected by formation of this act and various tour provider companies also gets influenced by it. Rivalry among tourism industry increased after formation of this act and private bus service providers were allowed for operating across all routes (Buckley, 2012). National bus companies and private bus service provider companies got influenced by formation of this act.
Development of Tourism act 1969
The major objective behind formation of this act is to increase coordination among different tour service provider organizations. Many big organizations working across the nation were influenced by formation of this act and cooperation among different tour service provider companies aided in increasing the tourism activities in the country (Crouch, 2012).
In addition to this different types of regulations that are formed for regulating activities of travel and tourism sector by government of UK are as follows :-
Civil Aviation Authority
This authority was formulated for providing safety and protection to people who are travelling by aviation mode. Major work of this authority is to render protection to passengers and public travelling in aviation sector. Licensing and approvals are granted by this authority and guidance is also provided to people on diverse range of issues (Morrison, 2013). Various safety plans and safety initiatives are also launched by this authority and it supported in regulating the working of aviation sector.
Strategic Rail Authority
This body was set under Transport act 2000 for regulating the operations of railway industry. Various tourism activities of the country takes places through rail network and this authority worked for making improvements in existing railway systems.
There is significant role played by regulatory bodies in travel and tourism sector and operations of travel sector has been influenced by it...
The international carriage of passenger act 1979 (Surface law)
It comes under the category of surface law that provides directions to passengers. People who provide tickets and other services to people related to road travel comes in this category. Under this act duty of carrier is assigned for providing appropriate safety and protection to people that are associated with rendering protection and safety to passengers using different transportation services. It becomes duty of carrier and tour operator for ensuring proper safety of people who are travelling by making use of their services. Travellers go to different destinations and sometimes different accidents and damages are caused to them. It becomes accountability of carrier for ensuring that passengers are safely sent to their destinations. The international carriage of passenger act 1979 is formulated with the objective to render better transportation services to the clients.
Government of UK has taken initiatives for making various sea laws for regulating transportation activities across sea. The Athens Convention act formed in year 1974 was made with the objective to provide protection to travellers who are travelling through sea. If any passenger suffers any kind of damages while travelling through sea than claims can be made. Liabilities of carriers has been determined under this act and that has been determined that accountabilities should be decided. In addition to this International Maritime Organization has been formulated that works for regulating safeguards of people who are travelling through sea (Mariani and et.al., 2014). Moreover international convention for the safety of life at sea has been formed for taking effective measures for passengers that are travelling through sea. It has been mandatory by this organization that it is vital to use safety equipments while travelling on a sea craft that is carrying minimum of 12 passengers on it.
The Warsaw Convention of 1929 (Air law )
It was formed for regulating the transportation activities of aviation sector and it lay down various rules and regulations that are essential to follow for running the activities of aviation sector (Dupeyras and MacCallum, 2013). If any passenger makes claims for damages caused to any individual than rights are given for making claims for harm and damages that are caused to them. In addition to this The Montreal convention also aids in giving safety and protections to passengers that are coming to travel by air law.
Health, safety and security legislations gives impact on overall working of the enterprise and various types of operational activities gets influenced due to it. It is assertive that management of Bell View Hotel should follow all the health and safety legislations that are formed by government (Getz, 2013). It will ensure in running activities of the enterprise in legal and lawful manner by complying with guidance given by government. Different acts formed by government includes
Health and safety act 1974
This act was formed for ensuring health, safety and welfare for people that are working across different organizations in nation. Duties and responsibilities of staff members, employers and people who are accountable for managing the work are assigned (Lee, and et.al., 2013). The acts gives guidelines for ensuring that proper protection should be provided to individuals in the organization. Use of dangerous chemical substances has also been made restricted under this act and emission of chemical and explosive substances into air.
Data protection Act 1998
This act gives guidelines for protection and safety of data that is used in diverse operational activities of the enterprise. It is assertive to provide protection of data and information that is used in the organization. Moreover it has been made vital that disclosure of information should be done in appropriate manner and proper protection should be provided to people that are working in diverse organization in industry. Processing of data and information should be done in systematic manner and information related to any stakeholder of the business should not be disclosed without taking prior permission from the person (Hudsonn and Thal, 2013). It provides directions to companies and individuals for keeping safety of personal information.
Under vicarious liability it has been defined that it becomes responsibility of employer for providing proper care to people that are working in their firm. If any damage or injury is caused to any employee during working hours than it becomes liability of employer to pay compensation for the harms caused (Hall, 2013). Moreover if any incident happens and harms and damages are caused due to negligence shown by any staff member than in this case employer can be held liable for the damages that is caused.
Management of Bell view hotel can take significant initiatives for ensuring health and safety of people that are working in different organizations. Training programs can be organized for making employees aware about various methods that can help them in ensuring protection for themselves.
It is critical that equal job opportunities should be provided to people that are working with the Bell View Hotel enterprise.
Sex discrimination act 1975
This act provides guidelines that equal opportunities should be provided to all females and males candidates. No discrimination should be made with people on the basis of gender and if any person gets affected due to sex discrimination than legal actions can be claimed (Mowforth and Munt, 2015).
Race discrimination act 1976
The acts gives guidelines that no discrimination can me made with any person on the grounds of race and nationality. It is illegal to make any kind of discrimination on the grounds of culture, religion and ethnicity.
Employment Protection act 1978
The act was made for protecting and saving rights of staff members. In addition to this the act gives guidelines for employers to render a better working environment for the staff members. It saves employees from unlawful actions of employers and provides assistance to employees for protecting their rights (John and Susan, 2015).
Disability discrimination act 1995
Guidelines are given in this act that no discrimination should be made with any person on the basis of disability. Disability is defined as dysfunctional of any body part and it comes in the category of handicap of a body part. It is assertive that equal opportunities should be provided to people without making any difference on the basis of disability.
Employment Act 2002
This act was formulated for providing maternity and paternity rights to people that are working in different organisations across world. In this act some other elements were also included that consists of flexible working hours, equal pay for equal job and fixed working (Navickas and Malakauskaite, 2015).
Human rights Act 1998
This act was formed by government of UK for giving duties to all the courts and tribunals for doing interpretation of legislations (Ghimire, 2013). It is vital for employers to ensure that rights and interest of individual that are working in their organization.
European Union has formulated various policies that framework that are compulsory to follow for its member countries (PrebeÅ¾ac and et.al., 2016). Free movement of trade, people and goods have been ensured under EU directives and guidelines and directions given by EU policies and legislations are mandatory to follow for all the member countries.
Contract legislation in travel and tourism
Contract refers as a legal agreement between two or more parties. Travel companies bind contract of fix terms and conditions regarding tourists' setting out details of payment and facilities. These conditions are related to place of destination, arrival and departure time, proper duration and price of stay (Vrana and Zafiropoulos, 2006). Goods and services provided by travel company abide by some conditions involves agreement between tourist and tourism, customer regulations, agreement between two parties involves name of place of stay for holiday time periods, destination, cost etc.
Essential elements make any contract as; offer as made by offeror and offeree, where proposal of any agreement proposed by offeror and accepted by offeree (Underberg-Goode, 2014). Acceptance of offer remains as amount to gain facilities of goods and services provided by travel industry. During consideration, contract considers as binding by law. Without consideration, contract remains as invalid or rejection of contract. Contract legislation shows ability to have majority of age (Beldona, Lin and Yoo, 2012). It is needed for tourist and tourism to follow rules and responsibilities of the contract. Therefore, tools and conditions of any agreement would be valid if there is clear and mutual terms regarding travel and its facilities.
Thus, in travel and tourism, law of contract provides safe and healthy facilities to its tourists. It is beneficial to make a relationship of trust through rules and regulations of the legal agreement. Both parties tries to communicate the set out terms and follow the rules of contract with great accountability (Vargas-Hernández, 2012). By following contract law, travel and tourism provides goods and services of safe and healthy travelling facilities.
Consumer protection legislation in relation to travel and tourism
Law of contract bind travel and tourism to provide safe and healthy facilities to its customers. There are some rights, rules and regulations are made for tourists' protection, calls as consumer protection legislation (Timothy, 2011). Consumer protection legislation set target to safe the rights of consumers. In case of breach the contract, tourists can take action against travel and tourism. Consumer possesses some right for protection such as
Right to fair value, good quality and safety
Tourists have right to choose facilities according to their interest (Mok, Sparks and Kadampully, 2013). Goods and services which satisfy them safe and healthy in travel industry are right to be selected.
Right to disclosure of information
There is right to get all information and dealings related to travel agency (Getz, 2013). Disclosure of information right referring to facilities protects consumers in case of breech the contract.
Right to accountable terms and conditions
Each and every tourist has right to responsible for agreement's terms and conditions, helpful to safe consumer to obey the duty to be consumer.
Right to fair and honest dealing
Consumer protection act is useful for travel and tourism consumers' to deal with its travel and tourism in honest and loyal way to make a valid agreement between supplier and consumers (John and Susan, 2011).
Right to protection of step taken in good faith
In case of breach contract from travel agency, it is right for consumer to take action against agency in their safe and goof faith. Consumer can sue against travel and tourism.
Thus, consumers have right to get safe and secured facilities from the industry to protect legislation in travel and tourism.
Ethical dilemmas faced by travel and tourism
Ethical dilemma remains as complex terms includes moral conflict between moral imperatives. Travel and tourism may face issue to unethical competition of low price or bad quality of goods and services provided to consumers (Getz, 2013). The organization can reduce this situation through act in good manner to survive in competitive UK travel and tourism.
Complicated condition occurs due to unsafe and wrongful information to its tourist. Its is dilemma faced by travel agency regarding comfortable facilities to consumers. Thus, to focus on provide safe and secure healthy services, travel agency can remove risk of insecurity.
Tourists attract to travelling of happy and peaceful environment. It is responsibility of travel and tourism to create positive and interesting atmosphere for consumers to increase in demand of consumer (Buckley, 2012). The dilemma can occur due to conflicts and uninteresting environment. Therefore, it is necessary for industry to focus on creation of attractive environmental factors of travelling services.
Relation tourist and tourism disturbed also a dilemma faced by firm ethically. Therefore, to make harmony relation between both impacts socially. It relates directly and indirectly to societies and tourists attraction. On behalf of tourism presentation, society attracts and repulse for travel facilities (Structure of travel and tourism, 2015). Thus, to provide ethical facilities society and community would demand for travels services at large scale.
Corporate social responsibility
Corporate social responsibility is a concept that is useful to distribution in sustainable growth by delivering economic, social and atmosphere profits for all consumers of travel and tourism (Evans and et.al., 2012). It indicates human rights and corporate governance to provide safe and secured facilities to its tourists. It is targeted to accomplish proper balance of economic and social imperatives. It is a helping technique to manage risks and identify consumer satisfaction and their desires. It implements healthy and safety services regards tourists.
Corporate social responsibility is required to act to implement goodwill and customer feedback about travel and tourism goods and services and also be liable to sustain in competitive UK market of travel agency (Mok, Sparks and Kadampully, 2013). The accountability of corporate social aims to expand travel business and improves core industry of tourism. It involves some elements as travel in atmospheric adoptable manner, assess destination carefully, respect of labor standards and it is helpful to make any any kind to matter to be transferred. It refers for entire range of concepts travel companies and maintenance of tourism.
It provides medium of transport and accommodations and also controls its energy utilization. Travel and tourism protects cultures of the related destinations and produces a clear image of goods and services in accordance to tourists satisfaction (Mariani and et.al., 2014). CSR increases responsibility and stimulates the focus on accountable tourism through UK tourism industry and also able to make its own position among all travel and tourism industries. Therefore, it is useful to create marketing connections between community based tourism project and tourists' facilities.
Summing up the present report it can be concluded that it is vital to provide proper safety to travellers that are availing services in tourism industry. Government of UK has formed various laws that includes Sex discrimination act 1975, Disability discrimination act 1998, Health and safety act 1974, Data protection act 1998 that supports in providing better protection to interest of clients. Moreover there are various ethical dilemmas that are faced while providing services to people and appropriate strategies can be formed for meeting the challenges that are caused due to ethical dilemmas.
- Becker, E., 2016. Overbooked: the exploding business of travel and tourism. Simon and Schuster.
- Buckley, R., 2012. Sustainable tourism: Research and reality. Annals of Tourism Research.
- Crouch, G.I., 2012. Competitiveness and tourism. Edward Elgar.
- Dupeyras, A. and MacCallum, N., 2013. Indicators for measuring competitiveness in tourism.
- Evans, N. and et.al., 2012. Strategic management for travel and tourism. Taylor & Francis.