Visitor attractions are those destinations which attract tourists and visitors across the world. In this context, present report will focus on comprehending the scope and importance of visitor attractions with regard to VisitBritain. In this report, an analysis of the importance of visitor’s attraction will be made. Evaluation of the needs and motivation of different visitor’s type will be assessed in this report. The impact of tourism on visitor’s attraction and different theories of tourist’s motivation will be analysed in this assignment. The processes and the potential issues involved in the development of visitor attraction will be assessed and different visitor’s strategies implemented by VisitBritain will be analysed in this assignment. Also, evaluation of management techniques in relation to sustainability will be discussed here.
1.1 Overlap of visitors attraction
United Kingdom is one of the leading developed tourist destinations across world. It is renowned for its tradition, cultures, historic infrastructures and civilisation (Connell, Page and Meyer, 2015). There are various man-made and natural attraction surrounding United Kingdom and in this article, the overlap of visitors attraction in relation to the National Maritime Museum, Greenwich Park and The Queen's House.
The National Maritime Museum: It is located at Greenwich, London which is one the leading maritime museums of United Kingdom. The museum was established under The National Maritime Act of 1934. It was established in 1934 within 200 acres of Greenwich Royal Park. Visitors visits the museum in order to enhance their knowledge about British Culture. In the museum, Royal Observatory has been constructed in 1953 which was inaugurated by Queen Elizabeth II in 1960 (Williams, Weidenfeld and Butler, 2016). All the building in museum has been subsequently modified in order to enhance the protection. The gardens immediately to the north of the museum were reinstated in the late 1870s following construction of the cut-and-cover tunnel between Greenwich and Maze Hill stations. The tunnel comprised part of the final section of the London and Greenwich Railway and opened in 1878.
Greenwich Park: Greenwich Park is located at south-east London is known as former Hunting Park. Greenwich Park is London most amazing park which able to attracts thousands of visitors towards it. With mesmerising scenery and architecture of 17th century tourist’s attraction towards park kept on increasing. During the London 2012 Summer Olympics, Greenwich Park was the venue for the Olympic equestrian events and for the riding and running parts of the modern pentathlon events (Xu, 2017). It was also the venue for the Paralympic equestrian events. It is also the part of Greenwich world's heritage site. On the lower level of the park, children playground is located and there is also a herb garden.
The Queen's House: The Queen's House is located in Greenwich, London. It was built as an adjunct to the Tudor Palace of Greenwich, previously known, before its redevelopment by Henry VII as the Palace of Placentia, which was a rambling, mainly red-brick building in a more vernacular style (Melvin, 2016). The Queen's House was built between 1616 and 1635 which was also a former royal residence in Greenwich. Now the building is listed as Grade I building and scheduled as ancient monument. The rate of visitors keep on increasing due to its mesmerising infrastructure that depicts British Culture in 15th and 16th century.
1.2 Importance of different visitors attraction
There are numerous man-made and natural attractions in United Kingdom that are able to attract millions of visitors from all over the world. Due to heritage and traditions, United Kingdom is considered as leading tourist destination (Ireland, 2015). In this context, the important of different visitor attraction across United Kingdom is described below:
- Stonehenge: Stonehenge is located at Salisbury on Salisbury Plain. It is known as best known prehistoric monument in Europe. Visitors attracts towards it in order to enhance their knowledge about the stones that placed here in 3000 BC and 1500 BC and to enjoy the beautiful view surrounding it. It helps in boosting up the national economy of United Kingdom and is also declared as World Heritage Site.
- Tower of London: Tower of London was established in 1078 by William the Conqueror. There are many places in Tower of London such as prison, treasure vault, observatory, palace and menagerie that attracts visitors towards it (Prebensen, Woo and Uysal, 2014). It is most important tourist destination and also world's oldest visitor attraction. Other features such as Crown Jewels exhibition, classic Yeoman Warder Tours, Royal Mint and exhibits and displays regarding prisoners and execution attracts thousands of visitors towards it.
- Canterbury Cathedral: It is UNESCO world's heritage site which located at historic city of United Kingdom, Canterbury. It depicts historic tradition and culture of United Kingdom and it is also known for its cultural, entertainment destination with great emporiums and cafes. Many visitors visit Canterbury Cathedral in order to explore the beautiful traditions and cultures.
- Chester Zoo: It is the largest Orangutan exhibit in Europe and most extensive zoo in United Kingdom. It is home for 11000 animals which includes endangered species. The Chester Zoo able to generate millions of visitors and helps in boosting up the national economy of United Kingdom (Chen, 2018).
These are few destinations which are most popular visitor attractions in United Kingdom. These destinations not only aid in increasing the national economy of United Kingdom but also displays the British Cultures. The importance of these destinations to United Kingdom is described below:
- Enhancing national economy: Tourist attractions helps in increasing the national economy of United Kingdom. Millions of visitors visits in United Kingdom that helps in generating ample amount of revenue in the country (Catahan and Woodruffe-Burton, 2017). Through this the domestic market thrives and thus helps in building up the national economy of the country. It has been identified that there were 30.1 million inbound visits from January to September 2017. This impact on national economy of United Kingdom drastically and helps in enhancing it greatly.
- Increasing employment: Increase in tourism provides employment opportunities to natives of United Kingdom (Gammon, 2017). Many tourists companies embarked their businesses in United Kingdom which provides job opportunities to people of United Kingdom. This enhances the employment rate in the country and thus aid in boosting up the growth rate of country.
- Enhancement of Local Heritage: Increase in visitors increases the revenue of the tourist’s destination. The money than invested in enhancing the local heritage in effective and efficient manner (Dewhurst and Thwaites, 2014). The development enhances the effectiveness of the local heritage and helps in increasing rate of visitors. This leads to growth and development of local heritage.
2.1 Evaluating needs and motivation of different visitors types
There are different motives which affects the tourist’s decision making process. In order to increase the tourism in United Kingdom, it is essential for VisitBritain to segment the customers according to their needs and motivation. In this context, the segmentation of visitors for different tourist destinations is described below:
The National Maritime Museum: The National Maritime Museum mostly visits by general tourists, researchers, explorers and historians. There are many exhibits and displays that shows ancient traditions and culture of United Kingdom. In order to explore those exhibits, visitors prefers to visit the National Maritime Museum (Moore, Rodger and Taplin, 2015). In order to increase the visitor’s rate, the management needs to focus on the needs and motivation of these segmented customers and fulfil their expectations so that more and more visitors could be visit the National Maritime Museum. Visitors are motivated in experiencing Royal Observatory and many ancient sculptures and art.
The Greenwich Park: Mesmerising scenery, prehistoric garden and trees, local culture and tradition is what motivates the visitors to visit Greenwich Park. Mostly general visitors visits the Greenwich Park (Robinson, 2017). Thus, in order to enhance the visitor’s rate, management needs to devise specific strategies and plans which helps in enhancing the motivation level of visitors so that growth and development of Greenwich Park can be made.
The Queen's House: Mostly general visitors and historians visits the Queen's House. Visitors are motivated by the historic architecture, infrastructure, artefacts, etc. The management needs to focus that no visitors destroy or damaged the exhibits in the Queen's House. This will help in increasing the rate of visitors and thus helps in increasing the national economy of the country.
Chester Zoo: Chester Zoo is one of the biggest zoo Orangutan exhibits in Europe. There are more than 11000 animals in the zoo which motivates visitors towards the zoo (Benton, 2016). Management needs to consider that needs and motivation of visitors get fulfilled so that more and more visitors can attract towards Chester Zoo.
2.2 Impact of tourism on visitor attractions in United Kingdom
Increase in tourism is good for national economy but it also has adverse effects on the local heritage and visitor attraction site. There are numerous tangible and intangible impacts of tourism on local heritage and visitor attraction sites in United Kingdom which are discussed below:
- Overcrowding: From the latest statistics it was identified that more than 30 million visitors arrived in United Kingdom in 2017. The number is increasing rapidly due to effective promotion and marketing done by government and local tourism organisation. Though it adversely affects the local heritage (Hatipoglu, Alvarez and Ertuna, 2016). With increase in tourism, the pollution level in the country rapidly increased resulting damage to infrastructure and natural resources. Furthermore, overcrowding negatively affects local citizens of the country.
- Wear and Tear: Tourists either intentionally or unintentionally damages the artefacts, sculptures which destroys the historic value of the artefacts. This negatively affects the visitor attraction. Tourists further damages the walls of monuments either by touching or sitting which degrades the value of monuments. Thus, wear and tear negatively impacts on the visitor attraction or tourist’s destination.
- Increased risk of accidents: Increase in tourism increased the risk of accidents. Many a times due to curiosity, visitor trespass the area where visitors are strictly prohibited (Barron and Leask, 2017). This increases the chance of accidents as going the not permissible area can be risky.
- Impact on local community: Increased tourism impact on local community negatively. Tourists sometimes misbehave with local people which creates conflicts and disputes between them. Tourists have to follow certain regulations and rules while exploring the particular destination. It is the role and responsibility of tour operator to educate tourists adequately before allowing them for exploration.
- Authenticity of attraction: If the tour operators or tour guides have inappropriate education about the visitor attraction than they might inappropriately interprets about the travel destination which circulates misappropriate information within the tourists (Connell, Page and Meyer, 2015). Thus, it is essential for tour operators to have proper knowledge about the visitor attraction before giving knowledge to visitors.
2.3 Theories on tourism
In order to sustain in the competitive environment it is very essential for the management of VisitBritain to keep their visitors motivated and satisfied. Several philosophers and researchers after examining the psychology of tourists have proposed different theories and concepts which can help tourist organisations efficiently as they will be able to increase more and more tourists and tourism practices. In this context, the two renowned theories which can help in increasing tourist motivation are described below:
Responsible tourism is about making better places for people to live in and better places for people to visit. Responsible Tourism requires that operators, hoteliers, governments, local people and tourists take responsibility, take action to make tourism more sustainable. Responsible Tourism is about using tourism to make better places for people to live in and better places for people to visit, in that order. It is different from sustainable tourism in that it focuses on what people, businesses and governments do to maximise the positive economic, social and environmental impacts of tourism. It is about identifying the important issues locally and addressing those, transparently reporting progress towards using tourism for sustainable development (Williams, Weidenfeld and Butler, 2016). The theory helps in enhancing the motivation of tourists greatly. Sustainable development is very necessary to enhance the motivation of tourists. Tourists prefer to opt for those services that promotes sustainable growth and development.
Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory
Abraham Maslow proposed the theory of Need Hierarchy where he classified that the motivation of individual can be influenced by the five factors. If all the factors got fulfilled than an individual enjoy maximum satisfaction. These needs are physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, self-esteem and self-actualisation (Xu, 2017). The theory can be pinned in case of tourism destination. Before making travel decision, a traveller first identify whether the particular destination has basic facilities like hotels, motels, guest house or not. Then he or she seeks for security, afterwards he or she searches for social needs and if the all the needs got fulfilled than tourists will have maximum motivation.
3.1 Processes and Potential issues involved in the development of visitor attraction
As Tourism Consultant of VisitBritain, the process and potential issues in development of “The London Resort” a theme park in Swanscombe Peninsula, Kent is described below:
Project management Feasibility Study: The London Resort is a Theme park project which was initiated in 2012 and to be completed on 2023 (Melvin, 2016). The project is legally viable and have cleared by the government of United Kingdom. It is undertaken by London Resort Holding Company.
Local Community Involvement: The project will involve local community by taking their opinions and ideas in order to develop the theme park in effective and efficient way.
Construction Period: The estimated time to complete the project will be around 2023.
Customer Care: Customer care department will be established in the theme park in order to handle customer complaints and guide them appropriately in order to enhance their motivation.
Recruitment and Training: There will be thousands of direct and indirect jobs created in the wider economy; collectively, we estimate that the Project will generate around 30,000 skilled or semi-skilled jobs (Prebensen, Woo and Uysal, 2014). Training will be provided to the employees in order to raise their skills and competencies.
There are many issues that are associated with the London Resort Theme park. The potential issues are described below:
Funding: In order to construct theme park enormous amount of budget will be require by the management. The first issue that could affect the development of theme park would be source of findings.
Local Authorities: Local authorities and communities might object on development of theme park as it destroys the natural resources and environment and also increases disturbance within the community.
Pressure Groups: Pressure groups are group of people who joined together for common purpose. Pressure groups can affects the developmental process of London Resort.
Tourism Consultants: Tourism consultants might become potential issues in the development of London Theme Park (Ireland, 2015). The consultants might wrongly interprets about the theme park which eventually degrades its dignity.
4.1 Analysing different visitor management strategies
Sustainable tourism is now the recent trend in tourism sector. With increase in pollution level in the country, management of VisitBritain needs to focus on implementing strategies that enhances sustainability in tourism. In this context, below are some strategies that could be used by the management in order to enhance sustainability in tourism:
- Managing Visitor Flow: Managing visitor flow so that overcrowding can be reduce. In order to enhance sustainability within the tourism, it is the duty and responsibility of management to manage the flow of visitors in an appropriate manner so that the pollution level, impacts on local community and preservations of local heritage can be maintained in effective and efficient manner (Chen, 2018).
- Minimising tourism in vulnerable areas: Vulnerable areas are those where the natural resources are on verge of extinction such as coral reefs, etc. Management must restrict tourism in these areas in order to preserve the natural resources. These resources are essential and important and scarce.
- Using renewable source of energy: In order to enhance sustainability, the management of VisitBritain must use renewable source of energy such as solar energy or wind energy in tourism practices. Management further used hybrid electric cars for transportation.
- Providing training and education to staff: Management of VisitBritain in order to increase sustainability practices within tourism needs to provide training and education to the staff. With precise training methods and approaches, management would able to provide training and education to staff members and travel agents regarding importance of sustainability.
4.2 Evaluating management techniques in relation to sustainability
Sustainable tourism means conducting tourism in a way which does not harm the local environment and surroundings. In present era, the level of pollutions is increasing rapidly affecting the ecology and environment drastically. The glaciers are melting rapidly due to increase in global warming (Catahan and Woodruffe-Burton, 2017). Though management of VisitBritain is now promoting sustainable tourism in order to increase the sustainability within the country. In this context, the evaluation of management techniques in relation to sustainability is described below:
- International Level: At international level, the management of VisitBritain is promoting sustainable practices by using carriers that emits low amount of sulphur and are fuel efficient. This helps in reducing the level of pollution within the environment.
- National Level: For national level, the management is using hybrid vehicles for transporting tourists from one place to another (Gammon, 2017). Furthermore, the management is using efficient methods in order to increase sustainability within the environment. The positive effect is that the level of pollution is subsequently decreasing.
- Regional Level: At regional level, the management of VisitBritain is focusing on restricting tourism in vulnerable areas so that preservation and restoration of natural resources can be made.
Protecting heritage: Management of VisitBritain laid several measures in order to preserve the local heritage from damage and devastation. Prior training and education has been given to tourists before arriving at attraction. This ensures that no tourists would deliberately damage the heritage. In order to enhance sustainability, the management of VisitBritain follows all the norms and regulations so that preservation and restoration of heritage can be maintained effectively and efficiently.
Enhancing environmental protection: Environmental protection is necessary and it is the duty and responsibility of management of VisitBritain to put efforts in order to preserve the natural environment (Dewhurst and Thwaites, 2014). The management in their sustainable developments goals have proposed that they will reduce the amount of carbon emission to 1% by the end of 2018.
From the above report, it can be understood that visitor attractions are those destinations which attract tourists from all over the world. In this context, the above report depicts the visitor attraction in relation with the National Maritime Museum, Greenwich Park and The Queen's House. The importance of different visitor attraction has been described in the study. The expectation of tourists and the factors that affects their motivation has been assessed in this report. Furthermore, the negative impact of excessive tourism on tourist destination across United Kingdom has been assessed in this report. Two theories Maslow need hierarchy and responsible tourism has been discussed in this report. The different visitor management strategies to promote sustainability has been discussed in this report and evaluation of techniques used by management in relation to sustainability has been assessed in this assignment.
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