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Introduction

Data analysis is one of the most significant sections of the study because it presents the analysis of data which are collected through primary and secondary sources. According to the present study, researcher focuses on analyzing the gathered information related to the differences in response towards advertising language seen in Misguides adverts on social media platform: A cross-cultural study between British and Chinese. Further, the result presented in this chapter are the outcomes generated of the primary research questionnaire which was based on the questions used on Hofstede’s cultural dimensions research. In this section, researcher concentrates on respondent’s profile, as well as make use of statistical t-test by the means of SPSS against each of the six cultural dimensions being investigated.

Respondents Profiles

Nationality

Respondents

%

China

40

53

UK

35

47

Residence

Respondents

%

China

33

44

UK

42

56

Age

Respondents

%

18-25

56

75

26-33

17

23

34-49

2

3

50+

0

0

On the basis of above demographic table it has been evaluated that, around 75 number of participant completed the questionnaire for the current study across both countries. However, in which 53% of respondents were from China and remaining 47% were from UK. When respondents were asked about their current residents, 33 out of 75 stated that they live in China and remaining 42 in United Kingdom. Lastly, when respondents were bifurcated on the basis of age criteria, 75% of them falls under the age category of 18-25 and 23% of falls in between 26-33 and only 3% of people were from the age of 34-49 and lastly, there were no respondents who are 50 plus in terms of their age.

Raw data findings (Find mean scores differences UK vs Chinese using Hofstede Model)

Present study focuses on cross-cultural study between British and China. Thus, to analyze various dimensions of culture Hofstede model has been employed by the investigator so as to identify the total average scores for each dimensions between both the countries.

Dimensions

United Kingdom

Chinese

Individualism

89

20

Uncertainty Avoidance

35

30

Indulgence

69

24

Power distance

35

80

Masculinity

66

66

Long term orientation

51

87

 (The Hofstede Model, 2016)

On the basis of above tabular illustration of varied dimensions of Hofstede model means scores of different dimensions have been evaluated. In terms of individualism, with the score of 89 the UK is amongst the highest of the individualist scores. This clearly indicates that British people are highly individualist and private people and want to live their life on their own terms and stipulations. While on the other hand, individualism score of 20 indicates that Chinese are more of collectivist society in which people act for the interest of group not necessarily for their personal benefits.

Further, China with low score of uncertainty avoidance indicates that, people focuses on adherence of laws and rules that may be flexible to suits the situations towards the fact of life. However, Chinese are adaptable and entrepreneurial and their language is vague. On the other hand, relatively low uncertainty avoidance of 35 indicates that people are quite happy to wake up not knowing what day will bring for them and they are habitual to change their plans and functioning as per the situation. However, with high level of individualist and low uncertainty avoidance encourages creativity and need for innovation within the country (The Hofstede Model. 2016).

Socializing of small children is one of the major challenge that people faced and facing in the present world. However, with high score of indulgence 69 in UK indicates that, British culture is considered as indulgent. High score shows that people have desires in terms of enjoying their life and having fun. British people are positive in nature and have the tendency towards hopefulness. On the other hand, China can be defined as retrained society which can be justified with the low score of 24 in indulgence dimension. However, this indicates that people have the tendency to skepticism and pessimism. Further, Chinese people does not spend much of their time on leisure and fun.

In terms of power distance, with 80 score China is way ahead of UK. This indicates that societies in China accepts the inequalities among the people. Herein, individuals are influenced by the formal authority and people are forced not to make aspirations beyond their ranks. While on the other hand, with 35 score people of UK believes that inequalities among the people should be minimized. In the country sense of fair play is promoted in which people believes that each individual should be treated equally and should be given same importance.

In case of masculinity dimension score of both the countries is identical at 66 which indicates that societies in both the nations are highly success oriented and driven. However, Chinese and British people live in order to work and have clear performance ambition (The Hofstede Model. 2016).

Lastly, long term orientation shows how every society have to maintain links with its own past while dealing with challenges of the present and future. With the score of 51 for UK in this dimension indicates the dominant preference in its culture cannot be determined. Whereas, with high score of 87 for China in this dimension indicates that people of the nation believe that truth depends upon the situation, context and time.

Independent T-Test to determine whether findings are statistically significant in line with Hofstede’s research

In this section, researcher used the series of independent t-test through SPSS in order to determine whether findings are statistically significant in line with Hofstede existing research. Further, to do so average of each dimension of Hofstede has been compared with the average of data gathered through online questionnaire.

Hypothesis:

  • H0: There will be no difference in the participant response between both culture towards Missguided’s use of language in advertisements
  • H1: Because of cultural differences, there will be a difference in response between participants of both cultures towards Missguided’s use of language in advertisements

Mean Scores for identified Themes and Dimensions

Dimensions

United Kingdom

China

Individualism

3.492

1.724

Uncertainty Avoidance

3.55

1.97

Indulgence

2.64

2.52

User experience

2.52

2.55

Advertisement

2.14

1.92

Celebrity oriented/ non-celebrity oriented advertisements

3.46

2.21

Formal/informal use of wordings

2.98

2.91

Dimension: Individualism

Group: Country (China = 1 and UK = 2)

Group Statistics:

Group Statistics

 

What is your country of Nationality

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

I seek others’ advice when making a purchasing decision 

China

40

1.53

.554

.088

United Kingdom

35

3.40

1.218

.206

I am likely to share adverts I find motivating with my family or friends

China

40

1.78

.800

.127

United Kingdom

35

3.29

1.226

.207

 I am likely to use a brand recommended by family/ friends

China

40

1.70

.648

.103

United Kingdom

35

2.66

.938

.158

I worry about what others think of my fashion choices

China

40

1.73

.877

.139

United Kingdom

35

3.94

1.282

.217

 I follow certain trends because of what others may think of me

China

40

1.88

.822

.130

United Kingdom

35

4.17

1.043

.176

Independent Test:

Independent Samples Test

 

Levene's Test for Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means

F

Sig.

t

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean Difference

Std. Error Difference

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

Lower

Upper

I seek others’ advice when making a purchasing decision

Equal variances assumed

42.448

.000

-8.764

73

.000

-1.875

.214

-2.301

-1.449

Equal variances not assumed

   

-8.383

46.121

.000

-1.875

.224

-2.325

-1.425

I am likely to share adverts I find motivating with my family or friends

Equal variances assumed

18.440

.000

-6.392

73

.000

-1.511

.236

-1.982

-1.040

Equal variances not assumed

 

 

-6.220

57.137

.000

-1.511

.243

-1.997

-1.024

I am likely to use a brand recommended by family/ friends

Equal variances assumed

7.287

.009

-5.193

73

.000

-.957

.184

-1.324

-.590

Equal variances not assumed

 

 

-5.071

59.355

.000

-.957

.189

-1.335

-.580

I worry about what others think of my fashion choices

Equal variances assumed

3.997

.049

-8.836

73

.000

-2.218

.251

-2.718

-1.718

Equal variances not assumed

 

 

-8.621

58.916

.000

-2.218

.257

-2.733

-1.703

 I follow certain trends because of what others may think of me

Equal variances assumed

3.601

.062

-10.651

73

.000

-2.296

.216

-2.726

-1.867

Equal variances not assumed

 

 

-10.484

64.437

.000

-2.296

.219

-2.734

-1.859

Interpretation:

On the basis of above computation, caparison between total dimension score for individualism between participants in the UK and China has been conducted. However, it has been identified that, with the lower mean value in all the questions asked from Chinese participants it has been analyzed that they are collectivist in nature while on the other hand, higher mean value in all the questions for British people indicates that they are individualist in nature and require no guidance in buying products. Further, with the significance value of less than 0.05 indicates that alternative hypothesis has been accepted and null hypothesis has been rejected. Thus, it can be said that, cultural differences leads to difference in response between participants of both cultures towards Missguided’s use of language in advertisements.

Dimension: Uncertainty Avoidance

Group: Country (China = 1 and UK = 2)

Group Statistics:

Group Statistics

 

What is your country of Nationality

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

I will distance myself from advertisements that use unfamiliar wording to promote new products

China

40

1.88

1.017

.161

United Kingdom

35

3.60

1.241

.210

I will distance myself from unfamiliar trends or styles

China

40

1.90

.928

.147

United Kingdom

35

3.54

1.336

.226

I only stick to brands I know

China

40

2.13

1.202

.190

United Kingdom

35

3.51

1.502

.254

Independent t-test:

Independent Samples Test

 

Levene's Test for Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means

F

Sig.

t

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean Difference

Std. Error Difference

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

Lower

Upper

I will distance myself from advertisements that use unfamiliar wording to promote new products

Equal variances assumed

4.537

.037

-6.611

73

.000

-1.725

.261

-2.245

-1.205

Equal variances not assumed

   

-6.524

65.874

.000

-1.725

.264

-2.253

-1.197

 I will distance myself from unfamiliar trends or styles

Equal variances assumed

13.638

.000

-6.246

73

.000

-1.643

.263

-2.167

-1.119

Equal variances not assumed

   

-6.100

59.528

.000

-1.643

.269

-2.182

-1.104

I only stick to brands I know

Equal variances assumed

7.167

.009

-4.445

73

.000

-1.389

.313

-2.012

-.766

Equal variances not assumed

   

-4.380

64.990

.000

-1.389

.317

-2.023

-.756

Interpretation:

On the basis of above computation, caparison between total dimension score for individualism between participants in the UK and China has been conducted. However, it has been identified that, with lower mean value for Chinese participants indicates that they avoid themselves from uncertainties. However, with the average value of Hofstede research it can be said that, both outcomes are in line. While on the other hand, low value of UK in uncertainty avoidance is also reflects in their responses with relatively low average values. Further, with lower significance from 0.05, alternative hypothesis has been accepted which means cultural differences leads to difference in response between participants of both cultures towards Missguided’s use of language in advertisements.

Dimension: Indulgence

Group: Country (China = 1 and UK = 2)

Group Statistics:

Group Statistics

 

What is your country of Nationality

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

If there is something expensive I really want but I do not have the money I would seek help from...

China

40

3.50

1.617

.256

United Kingdom

35

2.46

1.291

.218

Most of my online purchases are influenced by fashion related advertisements

China

40

1.95

.876

.138

United Kingdom

35

2.26

1.067

.180

I follow suggestions and advice made from brand advertisements

China

40

2.13

.853

.135

United Kingdom

35

3.20

.833

.141

Independent t-test:

Independent Samples Test

 

Levene's Test for Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means

F

Sig.

t

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean Difference

Std. Error Difference

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

Lower

Upper

If there is something expensive I really want but I do not have the money I would seek help from...

Equal variances assumed

7.873

.006

3.056

73

.003

1.043

.341

.363

1.723

Equal variances not assumed

   

3.102

72.429

.003

1.043

.336

.373

1.713

Most of my online purchases are influenced by fashion related advertisements

Equal variances assumed

5.155

.026

-1.369

73

.175

-.307

.224

-.754

.140

Equal variances not assumed

   

-1.351

65.930

.181

-.307

.227

-.761

.147

I follow suggestions and advice made from brand advertisements

Equal variances assumed

.774

.382

-5.504

73

.000

-1.075

.195

-1.464

-.686

Equal variances not assumed

   

-5.513

72.096

.000

-1.075

.195

-1.464

-.686

Interpretation:

On the basis of above computation, caparison between total dimension score for individualism between participants in the UK and China has been conducted. However, on the basis of above results it can be said, average mean values findings are in line with Hofstede existing research. This means that, people of UK will seek help form others or fashion will influence their decision as they want to enjoy the life. While on the other hand, Chinese people are not interested in making such changes for enjoying or having fun in their life and it resembles to the Hofstede existing research. . Further, with lower significance from 0.05, alternative hypothesis has been accepted which means cultural differences leads to difference in response between participants of both cultures towards Missguided’s use of language in advertisements.

User experience:

Group: Country (China = 1 and UK = 2)

Group Statistics:

Group Statistics

 

What is your country of Nationality

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

 I find Missguided to be a young and trendy brand

China

40

2.25

.776

.123

United Kingdom

35

1.86

.550

.093

To me, Missguided only targets younger teenage girls

China

40

3.08

.917

.145

United Kingdom

35

2.14

1.033

.175

I find styles (American, Rebel, Curves) from Missguided advert to be very appealing

China

40

2.35

.802

.127

United Kingdom

35

3.20

.833

.141

I find themes from Missguided advert to be very appealing

China

40

2.40

.744

.118

United Kingdom

35

3.00

.874

.148

Independent t-Test:

Independent Samples Test

 

Levene's Test for Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means

F

Sig.

t

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean Difference

Std. Error Difference

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

Lower

Upper

I find Missguided to be a young and trendy brand

Equal variances assumed

7.889

.006

2.495

73

.015

.393

.157

.079

.707

Equal variances not assumed

   

2.551

70.116

.013

.393

.154

.086

.700

To me, Missguided only targets younger teenage girls

Equal variances assumed

1.321

.254

4.141

73

.000

.932

.225

.483

1.381

Equal variances not assumed

 

 

4.107

68.602

.000

.932

.227

.479

1.385

I find styles (American, Rebel, Curves) from Missguided advert to be very appealing

Equal variances assumed

.085

.771

-4.496

73

.000

-.850

.189

-1.227

-.473

Equal variances not assumed

 

 

-4.485

70.877

.000

-.850

.190

-1.228

-.472

I find themes from Missguided advert to be very appealing 

Equal variances assumed

.000

.990

-3.210

73

.002

-.600

.187

-.972

-.228

Equal variances not assumed

   

-3.176

67.215

.002

-.600

.189

-.977

-.223

Interpretation:

On the basis of above computation it has been evaluated that, with higher mean values Chinese people are misguided with advertisements as they are collectivist in nature and seek the guidance from friends and family while making buying decisions. On the other hand, lower mean values, British people are misguided by the advertisements as they are individualist in nature and due to which misguided at the time of purchasing products.

Advertisement:

Group: Country (China = 1 and UK = 2)

Group statistics:

Group Statistics

 

What is your country of Nationality

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

Most of my online purchases are influenced by fashion related advertisements

China

40

1.95

.876

.138

United Kingdom

35

2.26

1.067

.180

Clear and direct advertisements are more persuasive to me

China

40

1.48

.640

.101

United Kingdom

35

2.89

.832

.141

Rank the following factors according to how persuasive you think they are in Missguided’s adverti...-Use of words

China

39

2.7179

.64680

.10357

United Kingdom

35

2.7429

.44344

.07495

Rank the following factors according to how persuasive you think they are in Missguided’s adverti...-Visuals

China

40

1.6750

.61550

.09732

United Kingdom

35

1.6571

.63906

.10802

Rank the following factors according to how persuasive you think they are in Missguided’s adverti...-Clothing

China

39

1.6410

.58432

.09357

United Kingdom

35

1.6000

.73565

.12435

The following 3 images are examples of Missguided advertisements. Please rank the advertisements...-Image 1

China

37

1.6216

.82836

.13618

United Kingdom

35

2.7143

.57248

.09677

The following 3 images are examples of Missguided advertisements. Please rank the advertisements...-Image 2

China

36

2.4444

.73463

.12244

United Kingdom

35

1.6857

.75815

.12815

The following 3 images are examples of Missguided advertisements. Please rank the advertisements...-Image 3

China

37

1.8919

.65760

.10811

United Kingdom

35

1.6571

.63906

.10802

 Independent t-test:

Independent Samples Test

 

Levene's Test for Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means

F

Sig.

t

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean Difference

Std. Error Difference

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

Lower

Upper

Most of my online purchases are influenced by fashion related advertisements

Equal variances assumed

5.155

.026

-1.369

73

.175

-.307

.224

-.754

.140

Equal variances not assumed

 

 

-1.351

65.930

.181

-.307

.227

-.761

.147

Clear and direct advertisements are more persuasive to me

Equal variances assumed

.927

.339

-8.284

73

.000

-1.411

.170

-1.750

-1.071

Equal variances not assumed

   

-8.141

63.480

.000

-1.411

.173

-1.757

-1.065

Rank the following factors according to how persuasive you think they are in Missguided’s adverti...-Use of words

Equal variances assumed

.951

.333

-.191

72

.849

-.02491

.13040

-.28485

.23504

Equal variances not assumed

   

-.195

67.526

.846

-.02491

.12785

-.28006

.23024

Rank the following factors according to how persuasive you think they are in Missguided’s adverti...-Visuals

Equal variances assumed

.125

.725

.123

73

.902

.01786

.14503

-.27118

.30690

Equal variances not assumed

 

 

.123

70.882

.903

.01786

.14540

-.27206

.30778

Rank the following factors according to how persuasive you think they are in Missguided’s adverti...-Clothing

Equal variances assumed

3.647

.060

.267

72

.790

.04103

.15370

-.26537

.34742

Equal variances not assumed

 

 

.264

64.811

.793

.04103

.15562

-.26978

.35183

The following 3 images are examples of Missguided advertisements. Please rank the advertisements...-Image 1

Equal variances assumed

12.703

.001

-6.476

70

.000

-1.09266

.16873

-1.42919

-.75614

Equal variances not assumed

 

 

-6.541

64.201

.000

-1.09266

.16706

-1.42639

-.75894

The following 3 images are examples of Missguided advertisements. Please rank the advertisements...-Image 2

Equal variances assumed

.051

.822

4.283

69

.000

.75873

.17716

.40531

1.11215

Equal variances not assumed

   

4.281

68.752

.000

.75873

.17724

.40512

1.11234

The following 3 images are examples of Missguided advertisements. Please rank the advertisements...-Image 3

Equal variances assumed

.851

.360

1.535

70

.129

.23475

.15295

-.07030

.53980

Equal variances not assumed

 

 

1.536

69.946

.129

.23475

.15283

-.07006

.53956

Interpretation:

On the basis of above computation, people of both countries are highly influenced by the advertisements and accordingly makes decision regarding purchase of products. Furthermore, both Chinese and British people are misguided on the basis of visuals, use of words and clothing.

Celebrity oriented/ non-celebrity oriented advertisements:

Group: Country (China = 1 and UK = 2)

Group Statistics:

Group Statistics

 

What is your country of Nationality

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

I prefer seeing non-celebrity related fashion advertisements 

China

40

3.15

.921

.146

United Kingdom

35

2.57

.884

.149

I find celebrity name incorporated in Missguided’s advert generates greater motivation for me to...

China

40

1.68

.656

.104

United Kingdom

35

3.17

1.248

.211

I find celebrity names incorporated in Missguided’s advert an effective method in drawing my atte...

China

40

1.63

.705

.111

United Kingdom

35

2.77

1.060

.179

I am only influenced by celebrity endorsement for fashion related brands as opposed to non celebr...

China

40

2.28

.933

.148

United Kingdom

35

4.20

.901

.152

I base my purchase decisions solely on celebrity fashion choices

China

40

2.33

1.141

.180

United Kingdom

35

4.60

.881

.149

Independent t-test:

Independent Samples Test

 

Levene's Test for Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means

F

Sig.

t

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean Difference

Std. Error Difference

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

Lower

Upper

I prefer seeing non-celebrity related fashion advertisements 

Equal variances assumed

.062

.804

2.765

73

.007

.579

.209

.162

.996

Equal variances not assumed

   

2.773

72.358

.007

.579

.209

.163

.995

I find celebrity name incorporated in Missguided’s advert generates greater motivation for me to...

Equal variances assumed

38.539

.000

-6.614

73

.000

-1.496

.226

-1.947

-1.046

Equal variances not assumed

 

 

-6.365

49.874

.000

-1.496

.235

-1.969

-1.024

I find celebrity names incorporated in Missguided’s advert an effective method in drawing my atte...

Equal variances assumed

9.738

.003

-5.579

73

.000

-1.146

.206

-1.556

-.737

Equal variances not assumed

 

 

-5.435

57.864

.000

-1.146

.211

-1.569

-.724

I am only influenced by celebrity endorsement for fashion related brands as opposed to non celebr...

Equal variances assumed

.170

.682

-9.056

73

.000

-1.925

.213

-2.349

-1.501

Equal variances not assumed

 

 

-9.077

72.275

.000

-1.925

.212

-2.348

-1.502

I base my purchase decisions solely on celebrity fashion choices

Equal variances assumed

3.557

.063

-9.560

73

.000

-2.275

.238

-2.749

-1.801

Equal variances not assumed

 

 

-9.724

71.944

.000

-2.275

.234

-2.741

-1.809

Interpretation:

On the basis of above computation of mean values it has been identified that, with lower average values Chinese people are highly influenced by the celebrity oriented advertising. While on the other hand, people UK are neutral to the fact and the mean values shows that they are not highly influenced by the celebrity endorsement in advertisement.

Formal/informal use of wordings:

Group: Country (China = 1 and UK = 2)

Group Statistics:

Group Statistics

 

What is your country of Nationality

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

I prefer the use of informal language in Missguided adverts rather than formal language

China

40

3.88

1.343

.212

United Kingdom

35

2.54

1.245

.210

 I prefer Missguided adverts to be humorous as opposed to being serious

China

40

3.45

1.260

.199

United Kingdom

35

2.06

.838

.142

I find word ‘play’ in Missguided advertisements to be deceptive

China

40

2.40

1.105

.175

United Kingdom

35

3.49

.981

.166

I am likely to be influenced by the use of words when purchasing a Missguided product

China

40

3.20

1.091

.172

United Kingdom

35

3.20

.933

.158

The words displayed in Missguided advertisements capture my attention to a great extent

China

40

3.00

1.109

.175

United Kingdom

35

3.20

.964

.163

 I find the use of words “Be a badass with a good ass” to be inappropriate

China

40

2.25

1.463

.231

United Kingdom

35

3.66

1.211

.205

Lastly, I find Missguided adverts to be exaggerating

China

40

2.25

.899

.142

United Kingdom

34

2.74

1.109

.190

Independent t-test:

Independent Samples Test

 

Levene's Test for Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means

F

Sig.

t

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean Difference

Std. Error Difference

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

Lower

Upper

I prefer the use of informal language in Missguided adverts rather than formal language

Equal variances assumed

.198

.658

4.433

73

.000

1.332

.301

.733

1.931

Equal variances not assumed

   

4.456

72.745

.000

1.332

.299

.736

1.928

 I prefer Missguided adverts to be humorous as opposed to being serious

Equal variances assumed

10.234

.002

5.551

73

.000

1.393

.251

.893

1.893

Equal variances not assumed

 

 

5.698

68.369

.000

1.393

.244

.905

1.881

I find word ‘play’ in Missguided advertisements to be deceptive

Equal variances assumed

.078

.780

-4.471

73

.000

-1.086

.243

-1.570

-.602

Equal variances not assumed

 

 

-4.507

72.979

.000

-1.086

.241

-1.566

-.606

I am likely to be influenced by the use of words when purchasing a Missguided product

Equal variances assumed

1.112

.295

.000

73

1.000

.000

.236

-.471

.471

Equal variances not assumed

 

 

.000

72.969

1.000

.000

.234

-.466

.466

The words displayed in Missguided advertisements capture my attention to a great extent

Equal variances assumed

.443

.508

-.828

73

.411

-.200

.242

-.682

.282

Equal variances not assumed

   

-.835

72.998

.406

-.200

.239

-.677

.277

 I find the use of words “Be a badass with a good ass” to be inappropriate

Equal variances assumed

2.015

.160

-4.498

73

.000

-1.407

.313

-2.031

-.784

Equal variances not assumed

 

 

-4.555

72.794

.000

-1.407

.309

-2.023

-.791

Lastly, I find Missguided adverts to be exaggerating

Equal variances assumed

2.318

.132

-2.079

72

.041

-.485

.233

-.951

-.020

Equal variances not assumed

   

-2.044

63.392

.045

-.485

.237

-.960

-.011

 Interpretation:

From the above results identified, use of informal wordings misguides the Chinese people as compared to British people who are more conformable in such type of language used for the advertisements of products and services.

Computing correlation between factors that affects the nationality

Correlation:

In general, correlation can be defined as the statistical technique that assist in showcasing the relationship between two or more variables (Chen and Popovichm 2002). Herein, researcher focuses on evaluating the relationship between various variables on the basis of nationality of the respondents. Thus, the effect of different factors can be seen on which nationality. In the present study, respondents has been considered from UK and China and factors considered are wordings, informal/formal wordings and celebrity wordings (Cohen, West and Aiken, 2014).

Correlation between Informal/formal language and Nationality of respondents

Correlations

 

What is your country of Nationality

I prefer the use of informal language in Misguided adverts rather than formal language

 I find the use of words “Be a badass with a good ass” to be inappropriate

What is you country of Nationality

Pearson Correlation

1

-.461**

.466**

Sig. (2-tailed)

 

.000

.000

N

75

75

75

I prefer the use of informal language in Missguided adverts rather than formal language

Pearson Correlation

-.461**

1

-.587**

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

 

.000

N

75

76

76

 I find the use of words “Be a badass with a good ass” to be inappropriate

Pearson Correlation

.466**

-.587**

1

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

.000

 

N

75

76

76

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Interpretation:

On the basis of above computation of Correlation technique by using SPSS, relationship between three different variables has been identified. However, main focus of researcher is to evaluate the factors that affects the nationality of individual (Sharma, 2005). Considering the outcomes generated, -.461 correlation between nationality and use of informal language in misguiding people rather than formal language states that, both this variables are negatively correlated and use of informal language does not affect the buying behavior of the individual from both the nationality. Further, making use of words like “Be a badass with a good ass” are inappropriate as it is positively correlated to nationality of the individual. In case, British people will accept such type of wording in an advertisement as they are independent and are broad minded. But in case of Chinese people as they are seeks advice from their friends and family before making decision regarding purchase of products will not accept such informal wordings.

Correlation between nationality and celebrity wordings

Correlations

 

What is your country of Nationality

I find celebrity name incorporated in Missguided’s advert generates greater motivation for me to...

I am only influenced by celebrity endorsement for fashion related brands as opposed to non celebr...

I base my purchase decisions solely on celebrity fashion choices

What is your country of Nationality

Pearson Correlation

1

.612**

.727**

.746**

Sig. (2-tailed)

 

.000

.000

.000

N

75

75

75

75

I find celebrity name incorporated in Missguided’s advert generates greater motivation for me to...

Pearson Correlation

.612**

1

.664**

.605**

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

 

.000

.000

N

75

76

76

76

I am only influenced by celebrity endorsement for fashion related brands as opposed to non-celebrity.

Pearson Correlation

.727**

.664**

1

.819**

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

.000

 

.000

N

75

76

76

76

I base my purchase decisions solely on celebrity fashion choices

Pearson Correlation

.746**

.605**

.819**

1

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

.000

.000

 

N

75

76

76

76

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Interpretation:

From the above computation of correlation between varied variables it has been evaluated that, nationality of individual affect the decision making on buying products and services. However, with .612 value of Pearson correlation indicates that people of both country finds motivating when celebrity name is incorporated in misguiding advertisements. Further, positive correlation of .727, Chinese and British propel are influenced by celebrity endorsement for fashion and buys the products and services. In addition to it, there is high relationship (.746) between nationality and buying decisions of people when celebrity endorse then brand of choices.

Thus, on the basis of above computation of test and Hofstede model analysis it can be said that, people of both countries China and UK are influenced by their cultural dimensions. However, informal and formal wordings as well as wordings of celebrity influence their decisions of buying products as well as in advertisement, language misguides the people of both the countries.

References

  • Chen, Y. P. and Popovichm M. P., 2002. Correlation: parametric and nonparametric measures. Sage Publication.
  • Cohen, P., West, G. S. and Aiken, S. L., 2014. Applied Multiple Regression/Correlation Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. Psychology Press.
  • Sharma, K. A., 2005. Text Book of Correlations and Regression. Discovery Publishing House.
  • The Hofstede Model. 2016. [Online]. Available through: <https://geert-hofstede.com/united-kingdom.html/>. [Accessed on 7th April 2016]. 

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