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INTRODUCTION

Organisational behaviour is study of way in which people communicate with in the groups. It is study of the human behaviour in the organisational settings, an interaction among human behaviour and firms. It is field of the study that investigates affect that groups, structure and individuals have on the behaviour with in firms for aim of applying such knowledge towards  improving effectiveness of company. The main purpose of organisational behaviour is to amend the organisational theory and also create an effective concept of the organisational life (Baum, Frese and Baron, 2014). This present report is based on the 4 com plc and it was establish in year 1999. its main aim is to improving communication services of small scale market in United Kingdom. Under this mention report will be discuss about the politics, culture and power influence on team and individual performance and behaviour. Philosophies and concepts of the organisational behaviour with in firm context and business situation will be discussed in this mention report. There will be discussion about the process theories of motivation as well as motional techniques which able effective attainment of goals.

TASK 1

P1 Organisation’s culture, politics and power influence individual and team behaviour and performance

Organisational behaviour refers to values and attitudes of individuals which are working with in company. In an organisation, behaviour of employees is more necessary because it helps in perform in a better manner. In 4 com plc, there are large number of staff members and they follow rules, norms, principles and values at the time of conducting business activities. They all work in coordination in a group for attaining specific aims and objectives (Bolino and et. al., 2013).

Organisational culture- Culture is depend on shared values, customs, attitudes and beliefs which create over a period of time. It encompasses behaviour and value that contribute towards psychological and unique environment of company. It represents beliefs, principles and collective value of employees at workplace. The organisational culture consists experiences, philosophy and expectations which guide and lead the team members.
Charles Handy culture model

This model explains the culture as way in which people follow and live the unwritten norms and rules. Different culture are mention below as above:

Power culture- In a company, power is to be held through some individuals which influence spreads through company. There are some of the business firms where power is on hands of some people and they are only authorised for taking the decisions. They are most necessary people at the workplace and are able to take the main decisions. In addition to this, these people can delegate their responsibility to other staff members (Carpenter, Berry and Houston, 2014).  

Task culture- Firms where teams are developed to attain targets or solve the issues to follow task culture. In 4 com plc company, people with the common interests come together to develop team. In this kind of culture, each team members contribute equally to achieve the tasks in an innovative manner.

Person culture- In 4 com plc company, staff members feel that they are necessary part. This company follow the culture and it is known as person culture. Under this, employees are concern regarding their own as comparison to organisation.

Role culture- It is a culture and in this each staff member is delegate the responsibilities and roles on the basis of their specialisation and interests. In such culture, staff members decided the way best to play their roles and accept challenge willingly.  

Among the all culture, 4 com plc. Should be adopt the power and task culture which support company to achieve its aims and objectives.

Organisational power- IN business, power plays necessary role, from governing how the decisions are developed to how staff members can interact with the each other. Organisational power is used to possess and instruct the functions and well as operations of company which make business successful (Graham, Ziegert and Capitano, 2015). In addition to this, 4 com plc can adopt many types of power which can assess to expand company. Different kinds of the power are mention below which has significant impact on performance of team and individuals:

Expert power- It depend ion perception of staff members that manager has more knowledge or capabilities which other employees do not posses. Managers are expert in their field so that they can manage as well as conduct the activities in an effective manner. In a team, each members is important because they are expert in their areas. It will be helpful in make improvement in behaviour between staff members.

Coercive power- Under this, it is an ability of manager to force a staff member to follow order through threatening staff members with the punishment if staff members do not comply with order. It is most necessary concept to understand regarding coercive power to use force application. If the employees will not behave in a proper manner with the other staff embers then manager has the power to terminate. It will help in protect culture if firm and also develop positive impact on behaviour of team members (Huang and Bond, 2012).

Referent power- It refers to ability of leader to impact follower because of respect, affection, loyalty, desire and respect to gain the approval. Under this, managers treat their staff members with the respect and motivate them to work in a coordination. This type of power does not include actual power in company because of high turnover of employees. In addition to this, referent power is held through the team leaders which guide the team and their responsibility to manage the work between team members with coordination.

Organizational politics- At workplace, politics and power both plays a necessary role which governs the decisions formed through interaction. If 4 com plc has the better political environment then it will influence in a negative and positive manner.

Positive impact- It is effective for those staff members which learn about navigate the politics at workplace. It is helpful in enhances the growth of company along with attain organisational goals with in given period of time. In 4 com plc., politics provide optimistic and friendly environment under which staff members work in make proper coordination. Under this, it is necessary that firm should provide equal treatment to whole employees which minimize dispute and increase productivity (James and Williams, 2013).

Negative impact- If the staff members will be included in the negative politics then conflict will be arise at woerkplce and it will develop negative impact on operations and tasks of 4 com plc. In addition to this, there are many reasons which can impact on performance of company for an instance unethical behaviour of employees, favouritism etc.

TASK 2

P2 Content and process theories of motivation and motivational techniques enable effective achievement of goals in an organisational context

Motivation is a procedure of stimulating the people to actions for achieving the specific aims. It is reason of objectives, actions and willingness of people. In this, motivation is helpful in provide the direction to employees to behave in a proper manner through which they guide to perform their activities in significant manner so that they can focus towards attain specific objectives (Judge and Kammeyer‐Mueller, 2012). The manager of 4 com plc company enhance motivation level of its employees by develop engagement activities, appraise them, provide them rewards etc. in addition to this, there are two different types of motivation theories which are mention below:

Content theory- It explains why the needs of human change over a period of time. This theory defines particular factors which motivate the behaviour. It is related with internal factors which actuate the behaviour of human s. different motivational theories are mention below:

Herzberg motivational theory- It is proposed as two factor theory and on the basis of this, there are some of the job factors which result in the satisfaction and other job factors prevent dissatisfaction. The two factors are given below:

Hygiene factors- These job factors are necessary for an existence of the motivation in an organisation. They do not lead the positive satisfaction for long period of time. Different hygiene factors are:

Pay- The salary structure or pay both should be reasonable and proper. It should be competitive and equal to those people which are in similar sector and in same domain. It will helps in enhance motivational level of employees at workplace.

Interpersonal relations- Under this, relationship of staff members with the subordinates, peers and superiors should be acceptable and positive. There should not be any humiliation and conflict element present.

Administrative and company policies- It is necessary that policy of firm should not be rigid and they should be clear and in a fair manner. It should consist proper vacations, flexible working hours, positive environment and many others (Kulik and Olekalns, 2012).

Physical Working conditions- In an organisation, working conditions should be clean and hygienic so that employees can not face any kind of issue. It is essential that the working equipments should be well- maintained and updated.

Motivational factors- Under this, hygiene factors can not be considered as the motivators. These factors are helpful in enhance motivation of staff members for better performance. Various motivational factors are mention below:

 Growth and promotional opportunities – At workplace, there should be achievement and growth opportunities in company to motivate the staff members in order to perform in a well manner.

Responsibilities- In this, it is necessary that staff members should hold responsible themselves for work. They should be reduce the control but also sustain the accountability.

Growth and promotional opportunities- In 4 com plc, there should be advanced as well as growth opportunities to motivate the staff members for perform well (Lazaroiu, 2015).

Maslow motivational theory

This theory was given by Maslow who stated that individuals working in organisation are motivated to attain specific needs. Survival is known as one of the basic need and this is known as the first thing which affect behaviour of employee. Fulfilment of one level of a human being, the next level encourages him and impact his behaviour. Maslow categories human needs into five categories as given below:

Physiological needs: This level consists the basic requirements which are essential for survival of a human being such as food, air, water, clothes, sleep, drink. In case when these needs are not satisfied then an individual cannot work in appropriate manner. all other needs remain secondary when these needs remain unfulfilled. 4Com plc always require to consider these needs of a human being so company can satisfy needs of their employees and at the same time can retain them for long time. In this case, compensation package of all workers should be like that so they can at least fulfil the basic needs of their routine life.

Safety needs: This is the second level of motivation theory given by Maslow and this consists the need of protection of various factors, stability, freedom from fear and security. 4Com plc require to offer job stability and workplace security to their workers to fulfil their safety needs.

Love and belongingness needs: Third level of human need is known as social which cover feelings of belongingness. Need of interpersonal relationship affect the behaviour of workers in organisation. Development and working of team should be encourage by the managers of 4Com plc in order to satisfy this need of workers (Lee, Kim and Kim, 2013).

Esteem needs: This is the fourth level of motivation given by Maslow which is further divided into one is esteem for oneself and second one is respect from others. To satisfy this need of employees working 4Com plc mangers should provide proper growth and promotion opportunities to employees so they can earn respect. One of the main benefit of this is that it enhances employee’s morale and motivate them to work well.   

Self-actualisation needs: This is the last level of motivational theory given by Maslow and this consists realisation of personal potential, seeking personal growth in organisation and self-fulfilment.

As per the Maslow, needs of a human being form a hierarchy. An individual never go to satisfy the needs of higher level needs in case of unfulfilment of lower level needs. After satisfaction of lower level needs an individual focus to satisfy the needs of next level (McShane and Von Glinow, 2013).

Process theory- It refers to the behavioural and psychological processes which motivate an individual to act in specific manner. It examines how requirements of an individual will impact on its behaviour in context to attain objectives concerned to those requirements.

Different motivational techniques

Develop positive working environment- Motivate the staff members through offering positive work environment so that employees will work in a positive manner. Sharing of ideas and encourage the team work are helpful to perform in a better manner. If the working environment will be better then staff members will able to perform well and there will not be conflict arise.

Provide incentives- In 4 com plc, manager enhance the motivation through giving incentives. Firm can develop individual incentives for team or each staff member in order to motivate them. Incentives can be in the form of financial and also non- financial (Ng and Feldman, 2012).

Set goals- Help the staff members become the self- motivated through helping developed professional objectives and aims. It is necessary that employees should be aware about the set gaols so that they can focus on achieving them in a better manner. If s staff member is motivates towards an upward career path then manager should provide the job shadowing opportunities along with mentoring.

TASK 3

P3 An effective team as opposed to an ineffective team

Effective team- If refers to capacity of team to the team members to attain objectives which are developed through top management. The main purpose of an effective team is to improve the quality, change process and also complete the projects.

Ineffective team- These are made up of people which do not mix in proper manner and also do not have the capabilities or competencies to perform the a better manner. In a team, there are several members with similar skills while the other team suffers from lack of training ( Olson, Herman and Zanna, 2014).

On the basis of above definition some difference can be evaluated and these are explained below:

Effective Team

Ineffective Team

· Members of effective team have a common goal or motive for performing their task so in order to make this team individuals who have same interest are included.

· While discussing things in a group they have same point if views which moreover, assist them in taking an effective decision so as to accomplish goals and objectives in speculated time frame.

· In this leadership is not confined to only one person anybody can lead their team according to the situations and circumstances.

· Whereas ineffective team they have confined themselves with any kind of perception and defend themselves in using any new kind of ideas and thoughts.

· They have lack of vision which creates problem in achieving their set targets and aims in a given time frame.

· Mutual understanding is the biggest drawback of an ineffective team which further more result in clashes. As a result, goals and objectives are not achieved properly.

In order to know more about team building further Belbin theory of team development is explained below:

Belbin Theory: This theory was developed so as to know about individual's behaviour towards its team and basically, it includes nine roles and these are as follows:

Action Oriented Roles 

Shaper: They challenge team so that they can improve shapers are dynamic in nature and provides the best approach through which problems can be solved.

Implementer: They are the people who make things get done and help team in implementing ideas and thoughts into practical form (Pinder, 2014).

Complete Finisher:These are the one who go through the projects in order to know whether all the task are completed in an appropriate manner or not.

People Oriented Role:

Coordinator: They are the one who helps team in maintaining a better coordination between team members. Thus, they guide workers about the perceived objectives.

Team Worker: Every company needs an effective team so that work can be done in a good manner and for this it is crucial that a better team is build where all individual have same understanding. Thus, team workers play their  role in accomplishing the set targets and objectives in a given time frame.

Resource Investigator: After analysing the external as well as internal factors they lookout for resources which can provide better results. Dissertation writing help In UK

Thought Oriented Roles

  Plant: They are considered as an creative innovator as they come up with new and innovative ideas which can give better results and outcomes. Thus, they work hard in order to take company in a better position (Podsakoff and House, 2013).

Monitor Evaluator: These are the people who identify and analyse different ideas and selects the best which can be beneficial for the company in providing maximum benefits. Therefore, on the basis of monitored performance strategies and other activities are conducted.  

Specialist: They are considered as the one who are specialised in knowledge so that job can be done in an effective manner. Specialists are skilled in their activities and guides other as well in performing their task in a better way. 

TASK 4

P4 Concepts and philosophies of organisational behaviour within an organisational context and a given business situation

In this present time period, firms use various motivational theories to make improvement in performance of employees because of fast changing environment. Under this, various motivational theories for an instance Herzberg and Maslow are effective and can be used through 4 com plc. In regards to this, motivation is a necessary factors that helps in encourage as well as enhance performance level of staff members in a proper manner (Wagner III and Hollenbeck, 2014). There are different barriers given below which impact on performance of employees at workplace:

Negative work environment- It is a main factor which impact on the performance level of employees in negative manner. Through negative working environment, conflict, misunderstanding etc. will be arise. It will negatively impact on productivity and performance of company. It is a responsibility of a manager to develop the positive working environment so that all staff members will work together at workplace and will focus towards achieving the set target.

Discrimination- When manager behave with its staff in an inappropriate manner and also discriminate them on the basis of colour, religion, caste, gender etc. then it develops the negative impact on employees. In order to minimize discrimination, government developed the legislation such as Discrimination act, equally act etc.

Path goal theory

This theory is based on specify the behaviour or style of leader that best fit staff members and also work environment in context to attain the objectives. Different factors in Path goal theory mention below:

Employee Characteristics- Under this, staff interpret behaviour of leaders on the basis of requirements for an instance degree of the structure they require desire for control, affiliation etc.  In order to perform the activities in a better manner, staff members should have locus of control, experience, abilities etc.

Task and Environmental Characteristics- Overcoming from the obstacles is more focus of the path- goal theory. If the obstacles becomes strong then leader required to step in and assess staff to choose path to work around (Baum, Frese and Baron, 2014). Some of more complex task characteristics mention below:

Design of task- It might be call for support of a leader. For an instance, if task is ambiguous then leader of 4 com plc might have to provide it in more structure way.

Work group- If team is not supportive then there is a need to leaders to be espouse esprit-de-corps and cohesiveness which given enthusiasm, devotion and comradeship to all team members.

Formal authority system- Depending on task authority, leader can give clear goals and also give staff members some control.

Path goal leadership- An independent variable of the Path-Goal Theory are the leader's

  • Under this, it is necessary that leaders should adjust their behaviour or style on the
  • basis of task and employee characteristics. It is necessary that leader should know about the characteristics of employees and according to them provide the tasks or activities to them.   
  • Different leadership stylesare mention below:
  • Directive-Under this, behaviours of leaders characterized through setting the clear rules and objectives for subordinates and also assure that expectations as well as directions are understand and define in a clear manner (Bolino and et. al. 2013).
  • Participative- In this, leaders discuss with their team members before any decisions on specific area. It is an effective way to enhance motivation of employees. It is more effective when the staff members are highly trained and also show their involvement towards work.
  • Supportive- Leaders make the work better and also pleasant for employees through showing their concern for them and also through developing the friendly environment. In addition to this, it is effective in the conditions under which relationships as well as tasks are psychologically or physically challenging.
  • In order to enhance the motivation, it is necessary that employer should define the goals, clarify the path, provide support to staff and also remove all obstacles so that they can focus on their work and also can achieve the set objectives with in given time period.

 CONCLUSION

It has been concluded from the above mention report that behaviour of staff members plays a necessary role in an organisation. Organisational behaviour is a method under which the staff members communicate at workplace. In mention report studied about the Herzberg and Maslow motivational theories used by 4 com plc to enhance motivation of employees. Concepts and philosophies of the organisational behaviour with in the company context and business situation has been discussed in a proper manner.

REFERENCES

  • Baum, J. R., Frese, M. and Baron, R. A. eds., 2014. The psychology of entrepreneurship. Psychology Press.
  • Bolino, M. C. and et. al. 2013. Exploring the dark side of organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior. 34(4). pp.542-559.
  • Carpenter, N. C., Berry, C. M. and Houston, L., 2014. A meta‐analytic comparison of self‐reported and other‐reported organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior. 35(4). pp.547-574.
  • Graham, K. A., Ziegert, J. C. and Capitano, J., 2015. The effect of leadership style, framing, and promotion regulatory focus on unethical pro-organizational behavior. Journal of business ethics. 126(3). pp.423-436.
  • Huang, X. and Bond, M. H. Eds., 2012. Handbook of Chinese organizational behavior: Integrating theory, research and practice. Edward Elgar Publishing.
  • James, L. R. and Williams, L. J., 2013. Causal models in organizational behavior research: From path analysis to LISREL and beyond. In Organizational Behavior. (pp. 191-216). Routledge.
  • Judge, T. A. and Kammeyer‐Mueller, J. D., 2012. General and specific measures in organizational behavior research: Considerations, examples, and recommendations for researchers. Journal of Organizational Behavior. 33(2). pp.161-174.

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