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Assignment for organization and behavior

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Introduction to Organization and Behavior

The present research is about organization and behaviour. Culture, structure, motivation, team building, leadership styles, group and group behaviour and change management are important parts of the organization and its behaviour. This investigation comprises various structures and cultures of the organization and its impact on the performance of the business. Research majorly focuses on the new acquisition of the City and Abbey College. This report also describes distinct factors of which influence the individual's behaviour at the workplace. Along with this organization and its behavior are affected by the uses of different leadership styles and organizational theories and practices of management. This research evaluates dissimilar management approaches which are used by the companies. The project report includes some discussion about the relationship between leadership styles, motivation and change management of the organization; and a comparison of the different motivational theories and their usefulness for the organization. Including this, the nature and behavior of groups, teamwork and the impact of technology on team functions of the organization also are describing the following paragraphs of the report.

Impact of Organization Structure & Culture

City and Abbey College both have different organisational structure and cultures which affects the business performance of the overall business. Distinct structure and culture embrace all departments of the college together and are a necessary part of the administration and strategic management. Organizational structure can be defined in terms of the process by which all duties and responsibilities, activities and functions are controlled and coordinated in the organization. This process or organization structure is influenced by the various components of the internal and external environment of the organization, these are objective, size, nature of the business, culture and resources (Buchanan and Huczynski, 2004). Organizational culture can define the way by which workforces of the company complete their task, roles, and responsibilities with effective motivation and communication.  The scenario reflects that the organisational structure and culture of Abbey College is not so good so this college is facing various administration problems. On the other hand, City college has a strong and positive organisational structure and culture which helps improve the performance of the entire company. Thus, an ideal, positive and developing culture supports marketing, human resources, finance, operational and strategic functions and activities of the organizations. Organizational structure and culture help in developing strategies and align these strategies to meet the vision, mission and objectives of the organization. Participative culture between employees and top management helps to motivate the entire personnel for valuable results which shepherd high presentation of the commerce. Along with this open and optimistic culture the employees play an important role in the organization's growth, performance and plunder, knowledge and experience. Organizational culture affects the working environment, motivation, communication and coordination of employees which has direct relations with the market share, growth and other strategic development of the organization (Tommy, 2002).      

According to this report from assignment desk organization structure also affects the performance of the organization. In this merger and acquisition of City and Abbey College both institutes have different organisational structures. Distinct structure affects the overall performance of both institutes. Majorly organizations follow three types of structure, theses are functional, divisional and matrix structure. Functional structure affects the synchronization and communication between two departments of the organization because it focuses on different functions of the organization. Every department works on its own functions only. Divisional structure is used by those organizations which have large-scale operations. Matrix structure follows all systems of function and divisional structure. In this type of structure, managers ensure effective communication and coordination between different departments of the organization and the workforce. In this way, the structure and culture of any organization influence the business performance of the company (Abouzeedan and Hedner, 2012).

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Factors that Influence Individual Behavior

There are various factors in the acquisition of Abbey College by the city college which influence individual behaviour at the workplace. Both organizations have different structure and culture which affects individual performance as well as overall presentation. Work behaviour can be defined as the manner in which helps in employment. The work force is an important asset for any organization and the behaviours of every single personnel affect the performance of the business. There are various factors that organization and behaviour affect the individual behavior, these are:

  • Demographic factors
  • Knowledge and Skills of the Employees
  • Perceptions
  • Attitude and personality
  • Working environment
  • Organization's policies.

The behaviour of the workforce of colleges is affected by various demographic factors, such as economic factors, background, education, age, gender, contest, etc. Knowledge and skills is an important factor which affects individual behavior. Employees can enhance their performance by the suitable use of their knowledge, skills and abilities. Perception, attitude and personality influence the thinking and learning attitude of every individual which helps in improving their outcomes. The working environment is the main factor which increases and decreases individual performance. Positive working conditions help in encourage higher outcomes and negative and unfavourable working conditions discourage and de-motivate them. Sometimes organizational policies regarding holidays, salaries and compensation also manipulate the individual behavior (Cardona, 2000).

Compare different leadership styles in different organizations

 Leadership style can be defined as a leader's behaviour towards the planning, directing, implementing, motivating and controlling people of the organization. It comprises personality, communication prototype and perception of the leader in leading the entire team to attain the organization's goal. Leadership styles are influenced by the experience of the manager, nature, size, problems, challenges, opportunities and structures of the organizations. There are four types of leadership styles; theses are Authoritarian, Paternalistic, Democratic and Laissez-faire. Major differences are described below (Robbins and Judge, 2008):

Thus, Different organization uses distinct leadership styles as per the nature and functions of the business. Abbey College uses a poor leadership style so its performance is totally decreasing year by year and City College utilizes an effective and participative leadership style which reflects higher performance for the coming future.

Organizational Theory for Practice Management

From the pronunciation, there are various organizational theories given by the different analysts and economists to explain the association's management, leading employees, distribution of resources, team management, etc. Fredrick W. Taylor has produced a theory which is famous as the principle of scientific management. Majorly it is useful for the failed companies because of the poor management. Scientific management theory states four basic principles for every association, these are:

  •  The expansion of new and true science for the work of each person.
  •  Scientific recruitment, selection, training and development of the workforce.
  •  Effective supervision and coordination with employees to ensure that every task is stipulated in the prescribed way (Hassall and Joyce, 2001).
  •  Division of the duties and responsibilities between management and employees.

ll these principles replace all traditional rules and techniques of the corporation with scientific management. This theory helps in the optimum allocation of the available resources, assists in hiring the right people for the right place, training the workforce and performance enhancement.

Different Approaches to Management

As per the nature of business and operation different organizations use distinct management approaches. Special management approaches are the human behaviour approach, classical management approach, social system approach, social-technical system approach, system approach, etc. The human behaviour approach is based on the leadership style, motivation and behavioural theories of the organization. This approach improves the individual behaviours of the workforce of the organization. The classical management approach is based on the scientific management theory which helps in utilizing organizational resources effectively. The social system approach focuses on the behaviour, structure and system of the organization which helps in achieving its objectives of corporate social responsibilities. Social-technical system approach focuses on the social and technical efficiency of the organization it is based on the social and technical system of the organization (Mullins, 2007). Thus, this acquisition of the Abbey and City College reflects that the classical approach is the best management approach for both institutes which provides a standardized process of the work, effective planning, directing, and controlling the activities and functions of the City College after this joint venture. The classical approach of management grants effective motivation, communication and coordination between the workforces of the organization and it leads best success and business performance of organizations.

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Leadership Styles

Performance of the both institutes is depends upon the economic depression conditions and financial inflation because these affect the employment and various other operations of the organizations. Along with this leadership style of Abbey and City College has a great impact on organizational productivity that may have on motivation within both organizations during an economic depression.

Autocratic leadership style: Abbey College follows an autocratic leadership style; in this type of leadership style all decision is taken by the leaders without the involvement of the team members. Because of this leadership style Abbey faces high employee turnover problems and staff members are less motivated as compared to the other leadership style. It is appropriate for some specific situations and management problems (Cherry, 2013).

Participative leadership style: City College uses participative or demographic leadership style; in this type of style only leaders can make the final decision but all pronouncements are based on the equal participation, ideas and suggestions of every employee of the organization. Participative leadership style improves coordination between employees, motivation and job satisfaction of the workforce. It creates mutual understanding between employees and leaders which improves the performance of the organization.

Thus, both leadership styles may have a miscellaneous impact on the motivation in both organizations during a merger and acquisition. 

Different Motivational Theories

There are various theories by which organization can motivate their employees at work workplace, such as Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, Hertzberg's hygiene, Goal Setting theory, ERG theory, and Vroom's expectancy theory. All these theories are used by associations to analyze the needs and requirements of employees (Wolski, 2013). 

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs: It is invented by Abraham Maslow. This theory describes the hierarchy of five basic needs of individuals for effective motivation, such as physiological, safety, social, esteem and self-actualization needs. According to Maslow, every individual is motivated the complete their unsatisfied wants and firstly they accomplish their lower level needs after achieving these they try to fulfil their superior level needs. Physiological needs include requirements of food, air, water, etc. Safety needs majorly focuses on job security and job satisfaction, social needs comprise society and culture, etc. Esteem needs include the ego and self-respect of employees. At last, after completing all levels employ to try to attain self-actualization needs, which includes status in society.

Herzberg's two-factor theory: This theory was proposed by Frederick Herzberg in 1954. It is based on two factors, hygiene factor and motivational factor, these factors affect the contentment and disappointment level of the employees from their jobs. Motivational factors motivate personnel as well as provide appropriate job satisfaction also
(Kinicki and Kreitner, 2006). Whereas, hygiene factors provide only inspiration these factors will not give job satisfaction to the employees.

Comparison between both motivational theories: The main difference between both theories is that Maslow's theory is based on the five levels of needs but Herzberg's theory is based on only two factors. Need theory helps in motivating employees at every level of needs but two-factor theories provide job satisfaction on the basis of the different factors.

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Evaluate the usefulness of a motivational theory

In the 21st century workforce motivation is very fundamental task for every manager of each organization. There are various theories of motivation, such as Maslow's theory, two-factor theory, and goal-setting theory, Vroom's theory, ERG theory, content theory and process theory. All these theories are useful for motivating employees and improving individual and organizational performance. Maslow's theory describes five levels of needs but this is not fit for every type of the workforce. Two factors theory is best for determining job satisfaction but it considers only two factors so it is not suitable for the effective motivation of the employees. Goal setting is good for motivation because it decides the clear goal and objective of every individual and organization which motivates employees to best outcomes and attain this goal (Martínez-León and Martínez-García, 2011).

This theory requires effective planning and direction which is time consuming for the organization's management. ERG theory is based on three needs, these are existence needs, related needs and growth needs of the employees. The content theory will explain the individual's needs whereas process theory determines the thought process behind an individual's behavior. Therefore, every theory has its own pros and cons for organization managers. For this Merger Maslow's theory is the best because through this theory manager can determine the every level needs of the different employees of both organizations.

Conclusion

The present report concludes that Abbey and City both colleges have different organizational structure and cultures which affects the leadership styles, motivation, communication, development of the group and evaluation of the group behaviour and teamwork of the organization. This acquisition requires a participative leadership style for attaining the goal of the organization; Maslow's need theory for motivating employees; and Formal and informal groups to enhance the teamwork of the organization. Thus, all these aspects of the organization and its behaviour will lead towards the success of this merger.

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Reference

  • Abouzeedan, A. and Hedner, T., 2012. Organization structure theories and open innovation paradigm.  World Journal of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development.
  • Buchanan, D. and Huczynski, A., 2004.  Organizational Behaviour: An Introduction Text. 5th ed. Harlow: Prentice Hall.
  • Cardona, P., 2000. Transcendental leadership. Leadership & Organization Development Journal.
  • Hassall, T. and Joyce, J.,  2001. Approaches to learning of management accounting students. Education + Training.
  • Kinicki, A. and Kreitner, R., 2006.  Organizational Behavior: key concepts, skills, & best practices.  2nd ed.  McGraw Hill.
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