Computing is a goal oriented process of using the operations of computers for performing some calculations. User utilizes various computer technologies for completing some sorts of tasks. It involves designing, developing, processing, structuring and managing of hardware and software along with various kinds of information. There are various fields of computing such as computer engineering, software engineering, computer science, information systems and information technology (Gree
The statement “Within modern computing, every actant acts or is acted upon by at least one other actant” is true with respect to the Actor Network Theory. In the present time, there is a strong relationship between computer and human. The main thing is to take care here is that computer can be any sort of device. The present essay is based on two stories regarding new technologies. The file includes actor network theory, its relevancy, relation between hardware and software actant and issues related to the stories.
Actor Network Theory and its relevancy
Actor Network Theory (ANT) is a continuous process which shows the relationship of society with technologies and other non-human actors. This theory explains both the human and non-human actants as well as provides them equal agency within web or actor network. It is one of most effective and appropriate tools which describes the processes through which invention and technological systems get success or failed (Fang, Marle, Zio and Bocquet, 2012). While developing a new technology, inventor passes it through various stages of innovation for connecting it with the users and different components. An inventor needs to employ both the analytical and descriptive framework while dealing with humans and machines. In ANT, actor is something that acts and actant is the one to which activity is granted by another (Armbrust and et.al. 2010).
In addition, actant refers as a collective or individual agent who can be connected to the other agents whereas actors are the combination of symbolically invested things, relations or inscriptions. Both actor and actants combine and form a network by connecting each other strongly (Banks, 2011). This theory is a conceptual frame which helps in exploring collective socio-technical processes in which spokesperson gives more attention to the science and technology. This theory does not make comparison in between the science and technology. In ANT, networks overcome the resistance and make strong bond internally by getting coherence and consistence. Three principles are given by ANT which are agnosticism, generalised symmetry and free association. While forming the network, such theory gives emphasis to all the surrounding objects and adds them into it (Feldman and Orlikowski, 2011).
Story 1: Facebook's internet.org initiative aims to connect 'the next 5 billion people
The story is based on the innovation of Facebook with respect to the internet.org for connecting the world with each other with the help of internet. With reference to the Actor Network Theory, the actor of this story is internet.org whereas actants are people, structural actant and computing assemblage. By combining both the actor and actant, Facebook is trying to achieve the objective of world connectivity (Chowdhury, Chen and Tiong, 2011). It is also thinking to provide internet access to the developing nations for their development and enhancement.This will help in connecting the people and reducing the distances. By developing relationship between the internet and human, various business, diverse customers, etc. will get many advantages (Cranmer, Desmarais and Kirkland, 2012). There are reduction in the cost of internet access and formation of such applications which can minimize the data usage. Further, it will also increase employment and provide various opportunities regarding development as well as improvement.
With the help of ANT, Facebook can bring revolution in the world. The actor of this story is acting and impacting positively on the actants. It is taking all the factors of surrounding and involving it for developing a good relation (Degenais, Fodor, Schulze and Toohey, 2013). By taking advantages of various services such as music, Wikipedia, messaging, social networks, etc. free of cost, people can able to enhance their knowledge and skills in different fields. With respect to the culture, this innovation will change cultural and social life of people. It will increase virtual communities, easy access to information, changing beliefs, perception and opinion of human etc. (Scolari, 2012).
Connection between hardware and software actants is important as its combination helps individual to perform and complete his/her task effectively. Both the hardware and software actant play a specific role in the story of internet.org of Facebook. With respect to the hardware actant, this story includes machines, people, computer systems and technologies (Internet.org, 2016). On the other hand, software actants are programming, developing, designing, and structuring the hardware and software as well as different languages. Facebook can effectively and efficiently accomplish its objective of connecting world and providing internet access to the developing counties by combining both the hardware and software actants properly. This will provide smooth working, various services, etc. to the people without any mistake which will also lead to high customer satisfaction (Venturini, 2010).
With the advantages, there are some problems also which can affect the various factors. Internet.org will use Big Data due to large amount of information.Cloud computing is also a new stream in computing and networking. Although Management and maintenance of Big Data are not an easy task. Along with this, it will change the lifestyle of people as they will start giving more time to internet instead of their personal relations. On the other hand, this will decrease thinking, problem solving and risk taking ability of the individuals due to internet. This will also increase ethical issues such as stealing of information, lack of privacy, increase victimless crimes, etc. This will decrease the morale, value and ethics of people as they will start using internet services for their personal purpose and benefits (Berzai, 2012).
Story 2: Yahoo Exec Shows Encrypted Email at SXSW
This story is based on encrypted email services for providing more security to the people. With reference to the Actor Network Theory, the actor of this story is Yahoo and actants are digital actant, computing assemblage, encryption protocol actant and human. All these create a network for accomplishing the Yahoo's objective of encrypted email. Yahoo is going to improve its search option as it is one of the most using functions by the users (Armbrust and et.al. 2010). The reason behind providing service of encryption is increasing cause of cybercrime, pervasive computing as well as issues faced by Wikileaks and Snowden.
By providing the service of encryption, Yahoo can satisfy its users more effectively and can increase their trust as well as loyalty. With respect to various level of assemblages, technical level includes encryption protocol which makes unreadable emails to any but intended recipient (Rydin, 2012). Along with this, innovation of Yahoo will affect the cultural factor as it will change the functioning of sending and receiving emails. In addition, encryption actant will connect people to the business plan of Yahoo which will result to increase the willingness of people to sign up with Yahoo account for using its new and improved services. On the other hand, service of encrypted email will reduce the ability of state and business to keep spy on emails (Arnaboldi and Spiller, 2011).
Understanding relation between the hardware and software actants is important for this story as it will help in providing simple, easy and protective access of emails. Hardware actant includes people, computer system and smartphones whereas software actant consists of appropriate connectivity, codding, designing, developing and structuring so that encrypted email service can work effectively (Borgatti and Halgin, 2011). It is essential to connect both the actants properly for getting effective and expected results. Combination of hardware and software actant will provide smooth functioning to the user without any error or problem. Yahoo can able to implement and execute its service efficiently which will also lead to fulfil the requirement of security by the users (Hooper, 2012).
The story contains some issues also which need to be solved. Company is unaware about the reaction of people towards the change in email service of Yahoo. It can be possible that users will dislike this due to higher security as well as encrypted data and in such case, they will like to switch to other search engines. By this action, company can face great failure. In addition, encrypted data will create problem for the users in searching data or information. This will also lead to customer dissatisfaction (Durepos and Mills, 2012).
The above study helps in explaining the statement “Within modern computing, every actant acts or is acted upon by at least one other actant” with the help of two stories. It is concluded that computing is one of the most important parts of innovations and improvements. Along with this, Actor network theory helps in combining all the factors for developing network which assists in achieving the objectives effectively. The story of Facebook and Yahoo helps in understanding that how various actants are working by creating network. Both the stories are facing some issues which need to be improved for making the technology and services more effective and efficient.
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