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Management is a very important part of any business. It is almost impossible for any company to survive without effective management in the market. There are various kinds of management style that a manager or a leader can follow in order to manage or lead a firm. A company consist of different operations and processes, and proper management of those is the key for success of any firm. A manager has to make sure that business operations as well as processes are proper and it is helping in generating high profits and productivity for the firm. Toyota is the biggest automobile manufacturer of the world and is recognised all over the world because of its products and service delivery (Schniederjans, Cao and Triche, 2013). The company is having expertise in some of the areas of efficient management like Lean management, manufacturing etc. The company is also having some efficient operations around the world which allows it to lead the automobile industry. Toyota is a brand around the world and the most selling car of the company is Toyota corolla, it is estimated that around 5 million inits are sold by Toyota in a particular year.

Task 1

P1) The different roles and characteristics of a leader and a manager.

It is quite obvious that a business can not run by itself, it should have some efficient people who run it. These efficient people shall be on the post in an organisation that they will be able to contribute in the growth as well as success of the organisation like, manager, leader etc.Manages the leaders place at different role in the organisation based on their capabilities as well and abilities that they possess. As said by Peter Ducker that leadership is doing right things and Management is doing things right basically a leader has to do right things and has to take decisions which will be beneficial for the firm going forward and the role of manager is to make sure that the decisions that are taken by the Later are perfectly implemented within the organisation and make sure that implementation take place within the time that has been allotted for the task (Bartlett and Beamish, 2018). Toyota is a multinational company and is having a diverse operations around the world it is growing day by day and therefore it is essential that business operations of the company are managed alert and led by capable individuals it is therefore quite essential to hire people who would have this capability is the role of manager and a leader is quite different and are described as follows:

Role of Manager:

Risk controller: There are some issues in an organisation which are uncertain in nature and may arise at any time and therefore it is the responsibility of manager to make sure that these issues are managed effectively and efficiently so that it will not harm organisation and its resources adversely. Toyota continuously way back up plans so that if such issue arises then company can handle them in an effective manner the Company spend a lot of money on research and Double up meant to stay one step ahead of its competitors.

Goals oriented: Toyota company make sure that the managers that are being hired in the company do Have capabilities to manage certain complex issues within the firm which will help company to grow as well as prosper in the future. The main role of the manager is to set goals for the company and make sure that those goals are achieved in an efficient manner (Hillier, 2012). The manager should make sure that every department of the company is working towards achievement of the goal that are being said by him.

Direct: This can be considered as one of the most important function of a manager, he is responsible for directing people as to what are their jobs and how they should accomplish them in an affective manner. If a manager will not be able to direct people, then there will be certain complications which will not good for company and it stakeholders.

Role of Leader

Representative of company: A leader can be considered as the representative of the company towards the third party and outsiders. He is the one who handle most of the external events of the company like seminars discussion conferences etc. it is thus quite important that the leader of company do have a vision and goals, managers of the company should implement those goals and objectives of the leader in an effective as well as efficient manner.

Decision Making: The leader is responsible for taking important decisions for the company so that it can grow and prosper going forward. He is also responsible to form teams within the company and those teams should be led by later which will make sure that effective outcomes are derived from those teams. He is also responsible for making sure that the decisions that are being taken are implemented (Feng and, 2014).

Motivation: The leader has to continuously motivate his team so that they can enhance the productivity of the company and at the same time contributes in their personal and professional career goals, if the individuals who are working within the company are not motivated to work for the company then certainly it will have a negative impact on the performance of the firm. It is this quite crucial that leader shall have a proper framework to motivate its individual and employees.

Leader and manager Comparison




Decision making

He is responsible for all the decisions that are taken at the workplace.

He only facilitates the manager in some of the decisions.


 They are responsible for managing the firm.

 They have to take necessary decisions for the firm and show direction for future growth.


They are more focused to words short-term goals and objectives.

They are responsible for framing long-term goal and tactics of the company.         


They have control over some of the operations of the company.

They have control over the whole company and maybe in some cases, the ultimate owner of the company.

 P2 The role of a leader and the function of a manger apply in different situational context.

Leaders and managers have different role in the organisation. Leader plays the role of leading leading the company in affective manner. On the other hand, manager is responsible for making the decisions are reality. But, it is a sensual that both the individuals should work in tandem with chief organisational growth and success. Toyota is a huge company and its having manufactured facilities all over the world. The company is growing at a steady pace only because of the officiant managers that are there in the company as well as effective decision-making of its leaders (Hajmohammad and, 2013). The manager directs its implies and subordinates to achieve certain goals within the timeframe allotted. Both managers and leaders have to work collectively to make sure that organisation walks on the growth and success bath for this they will put all their skills and talent along with necessary hard work.Some rolls of a leader and a manager in Toyota is described as follows:

Decision making process: It can be considered as one of the most important part of business. Under this, The manager will be taking short-term decisions for the purpose of achievement of daily goals and targets. On the other hand, leader will be responsible for taking long-term decisions that will have a lasting impact on organisation and its operation. Leaders usually does not take part in date today decision making of the company, however if there are certain situation which needs guidance of leaders and the owners of company then it becomes responsibility of the leader to lead firm in those situations and take them back on the path of growth and  success. In Toyota the decisions are taken by the manager and leader collectively and make sure that the best possible outcome is achieved through those decisions (Rosemann and vom Brocke, 2015). It is also necessary that the decision making process Within Toyota is not cumbersome and it is easy enough to make an impact on the organisation.

  • Authority Delegation: The managers under Toyota believe in participative management therefore, delegates there authority to subordinates and act as a facilitator so that necessary guidance can be given to them for the purpose of taking decisions and performing tasks in an effective manner. Under Toyota, the company make sure that there is no power centre within an organisation and decisions are taken collectively so that the best possible outcome can be achieved in an effective manner. For this purpose the top management of the company continuously assess the various power centres and authorities.
  • Employee Engagements: Both managers and leaders under Toyota believes believes in making sure that there is proper coordination as well less corporation among employees and they are completely engaged with most of the business activities of the company. It is their responsibility to make sure that there is proper employee engagement within organisation

Training and development: it is one of the most important aspect of managerial and leadership decision-making. Under this, it is the responsibility of managers and leaders both their employees as well as individuals among the company are properly trained and are developing by the time. If the skills of employs will be nourished through proper training and development then this will contribute to enhance the productivity as well as profitability of the company (Hitt, Xu and Carnes, 2016). Training is also given to employees within company for managing customers and dealing with them in an appropriate manner. The skills and talent of employs will help company to gain higher productivity as well as growth.

P3 Different theories and models of approach related to leadership in Toyota

Most of the companies on a global level, or applying various models and theories within the working for the purpose of achieving excellence in their operations. Toyota also makes sure that various approaches which are essential for applied in an affective manner within the company with the help of proper leadership and managerial decision-making. Higher authorities within the organisation assigning duties and responsibilities to leaders so that task can be completed within the time frame that is allotted. Some of the theories which can be adopted by the management of the company are as follows:

Situational Theory:

It can be considered as the most effective leadership style. It consist of various leadership styles Which are being applied in different situations. This theory states that everything that happens in the workplace is based on the situation and therefore most of the decisions are taken on the basis of the situation that occurs. It can be considered as one of the most important and effective theory which can be used by the management of Toyota for the purpose of growth and development of the company (Lanzarone, Matta and Sahin, 2012). It is necessary to provide effort to innovate and to make an introduction of employs with the working environment. The leaders shall be able to move from one area to another in a manner so that eye can be kept on organisational performance as well as the necessary outcome derived by employs the organisation, under this theory, the leaders are also responsible for resolving certain issues which might impact the overall performance of the company.

System leadership theory:

This theory can be considered as the problem-solving theory of organisation. It considers certain issues which arises in an organisation on a daily basis.It is the major responsibility of the leaders of organisation to make sure that issues are resolved in an affective manner and does not hamper the growth and productivity of organisation.It is also known as radical approach because it helps organisation in development as well as growth. this theory helps organisation introducing complexity and enhancing overall performance so that higher profits as well as productivity can be achieved. In this, the manager has to follow certain principles in order to control some internal as well as external factors which prevails within and outside the organisation.

Trait leadership theory:

Basically this theory explains that a leader is born to be a leader and it is the trait which is in the personality of a person and it cannot be made with effort or anything else it is something which is achieved by birth. Therefore this theory completely relies on the leader and says that effective judgements are taken by the leader in various situations and individuals within organisations should follow him with at most discipline. According to this theory, litre is are born leader and though he can be a manager but the manager cannot be a leader because of the fact that there should be some characteristics that only a leader can possess and not a manager.

Classical management theory:

This theory talks about finding the best solution for the purpose of Management the operations of the business. This is a scientific theory and it says that certain issues needs to be resolved in the traditional manner and should not be manipulated. This theory is used mostly within the organisations which are running from a lot of time and has gained success by using this kind of theory (Crevier, Cordeau and Savard, G., 2012). it is essential from the point of view of Management that the theory is rightly implemented so that the best possible result and outcome can be obtained.

Contingency Leadership theory:

It is the behavioural concept that touches within an organisation and it relies upon thoughts views and opinions of all the people working within the company. The ultimate aim of the story is to make sure that in certain contingencies, proper leadership from right kind of leader to lead the organisation and take the company forward is there, contingencies could be anything with regards to external internal factors (Pudar. and et.a