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Global Marketing Management

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Introduction to Global Marketing Management

Marketing at the global level has become necessary for organisations in the present era as a large number of challenges are present in the business environment due to which companies are not able to accomplish their desired goals at the international level. Further, it is a well-known fact that at the global level, the market size is very wide and due to this reason, effective marketing strategies are required for the growth of the company. Moreover, the ultimate objective of every business is to develop awareness in the market so that its brand may become popular worldwide. The brand owns the high street clothing retailers Burton, Evans, Topman and Topshop and out of this chain, the company has been selling a large number of outlets in different countries. The group has more than 2500 outlets in the UK; thus it is considered the largest retailer in the same sector. The company had a large factory in Leeds which was visited by the Princess Royal in 1934. The brand value of the group has been persuading celebrities as well towards the outlets.

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For conducting the present study, the organisation chosen is Arcadia Group that is a British multinational retailing firm headquartered in London. At present, the company is planning to open its stores in the market of Nigeria for which global marketing management is essential. Through marketing strategy, the entire range of products of the company can be promoted easily. Various tasks have been covered in the study which involve the competencies of the brand, external opportunities for the firm etc. Different strategies have been mentioned in the study on the basis of which Arcadia group will be managing the business activities.

1) Competencies of the Brand

Arcadia Group's product range involves clothing, accessories and shoes which are popular in the market of UK. The main competency of the firm in the market involves customer benefit where the organisation strongly focuses on providing a large number of benefits to the target market. Further, in the market of UK, a large number of consumers prefer to buy products from Arcadia Group and they are satisfied with it. Therefore, this core competency can also support management in the Nigerian market as a company can highlight the main benefits which customers can obtain after purchasing its product range. Through this, Arcadia Group can utilize the customer benefit as a core competency at the international level. The ability to offer differentiated products is another key competency of Arcadia Group and this can be utilized at the international level where the company can market its product in a unique manner and it can be highlighted that no close substitutes of these products are present in such a market. This can support the enterprise in attracting a large number of customers for a longer period of time.

Value-for-money products are also a major competency of the firm where in the market of UK, products of the company are perceived as offering value for money. So, this can be utilized at the international level where the company can present the benefits of consuming its product range as being more in comparison with other products in the market. High quality product is another competency of business enterprises and this is the main reason behind the rise in the sales volume of the company. This can be used at the international level where customers can be targeted on the basis of quality. So, all these core competencies are effective and can be used by the management to enhance sales along with profitability levels in the market. At the international level, the competition level is quite high and all these competencies can provide a base for the firm to accomplish the desired goals and objectives.

Internationalization theory has been used by organizations to measure the international behaviour of the organization those who are entering the global market to serve their customers. The internationalization theory mainly focuses on three factors: the timing of entry, effective selection of the market and selecting the appropriate entry mode for internationalization. Timing of entry is the foremost decision taken by the Arcadia group to expand their activities abroad so it is considered as the essential variable that assists in understanding the relationship of the other two elements also. According to this theory, it focuses on the two intermediate products that are knowledge flow and flow of raw material from upward to downstream. However, the internationalization theory of the Arcadia group mainly centres upon the flow of knowledge. This can be used at the international level where customers can be targeted on the basis of quality. So, all these core competencies are effective and can be used by the management to enhance sales along with profitability levels in the market.

2) Analysis of Strengths and Weaknesses

In order to better perform in the international market, it is required for the firm to analyse its strengths and weaknesses in advance so that the overall efficiency of the study can be enhanced through this. The main internal strengths of the company are

  • Ability to offer value for money products
  • Moderate price
  • High-quality commodities
  • Product differentiation
  • Effective marketing strategies
  • Strong brand presence in UK
  • large number of stores
  • Wide collection
  • Knowledge of the international market
  • Skilled workforce

So, these are some of the main strengths of Arcadia group which provides a base to the enterprise in serving its target market. Further, the company operates in a highly competitive market due to which it is necessary to focus on its key strengths so that overall productivity may be enhanced. With the help of this, organisational performance can be enhanced. All these strengths including competencies can be better utilized at the international level so that the target market of Nigeria can be attracted easily and it is favourable for the business in every possible manner. In short, it can support the enterprise in gaining a competitive advantage and can assist in dealing with a large number of challenges. On the other hand, some weaknesses of Arcadia group are present which reduces the efficiency of the organisation and they are

  • Weak presence at the international level
  • Lack of technological advancement
  • Relatively small as compared with other brands

So, these are some weaknesses of Arcadia Group which reduces the efficiency of the enterprise at the time of operating in the market. Further, corrective actions have been taken by the management so as to overcome all the weaknesses and through this; a company can better perform in the international market and can enhance its brand image also. Apart from this, it will become easy to deal with the condition of a rise in competition level in the market along with other challenges that are present in the business environment.

Apart from this, transaction cost theory is based on three main categories such as search and information cost. Under this management, Arcadia Group examines the type of goods that are available in the market with low prices. Furthermore, bargaining cost is the second element which serves as the final price for the agreement. In this regard, bid and ask can also be referred so as to form a long-term contract with the other party. It facilitates determining the smooth flow of production. The third element is policing and enforcement cost wherein the other party lays emphasis on the terms of the contract. These terms facilitate taking appropriate action on rights in accordance with the legal system. Owing to this, these features need to be referred to while taking decisions related to strengths and weaknesses.

3) Analysis of Opportunities and Threats

The market, where Arcadia Group operates, is full of opportunities and they can be grabbed by businesses so as to serve its target market in a better manner. The main opportunities present with the company are as follows

  • Expansion at the international level
  • Growing online market
  • Introduction of advanced tools for offering products
  • Increasing awareness towards sustainable clothes
  • Changing market trend

These are some of the opportunities which are positively affecting business enterprises. The main opportunity present with the company is the changing market trend where customers prefer to buy products such as clothes which are eco-friendly and due to this reason, the organisation has altered its operations and main focus is on producing sustainable products. Apart from this, the recycling of waste technique has been adopted for the betterment of society. Further, the online market is growing rapidly and this can directly benefit the firm as management can offer its product range with the help of the website and this can support in increasing the sales volume along with profitability level as well. On the other hand, various threats are present in the external environment where Arcadia Group operates and they are as follows

  • Political barriers such as laws and regulations
  • Economic downturn
  • Rising environmental issues
  • Rapid change in technology

These threats are affecting business operations and for the same, management has taken a large number of initiatives so that market presence at the international level can be enhanced easily. In short, by dealing with threats, the firm can promote itself as a better brand and this can boost overall productivity. No doubt, outside influences directly affect the business operations and it is required for the organisation to develop effective strategies so that the overall impact of external influences can be reduced to some extent. Furthermore, all these factors have been ranked because corporations need to focus accordingly. For example, environment issues are the most uncertain issue which affect business to a great extent. Second is the economic downturn whereby the overall performance of corporations gets affected. Likewise, all factors take place in the operation of a firm and have a negative impact accordingly. Pestle analysis has been conducted in the present study and this needs to be analysed so that market share can be acquired.

Political

Arcadia Group has been following political policies and strategies and that assists the brand in entering into different marketplaces. Political aspects have been assisting the Arcadia group to reduce the possibilities of legal issues. Tariffs, trade control, employment, discrimination law etc have a direct influence on business operations. Further, the firm has to strictly comply with all the guidelines introduced by the government so as to operate efficiently.

Economical

An appropriate flow of resources is there in the economy which assists Arcadia Group in investing in different projects and this also aids in expanding the business in other marketplaces. The economy of the UK has been supporting the business to raise the economic aspects. At present inflation rate of the UK is 1.8% and due to this basic reason purchase power of customers has been influenced and they are not able to buy costly items.

Social

The entire product line of Arcadia Group is concerned with the needs and demands of customers. The products are quality concerned therefore people prefer to purchase it highly.

Technological

The business has been emphasizing technological aspects so that new products can be developed. Retail stores of Arcadia Group have been using different techniques to manage internal business functions. Online shopping along with self service check-out points are the two new advanced systems adopted by the firm.

Environment

Arcadia Group has been showing great concern towards the environment; hence all the activities of a business are integrated with the environment. Recycling techniques have been employed and the firm focuses on the development of eco-friendly products due to which its environmental impact in very minimal.

Legal

Arcadia Group is following all the legal policies and strategies at the time of expansion and diversification. Payment of tax and other types of duties have a direct impact on the company. Further, taxes are paid by Arcadia group on time so as to satisfy needs of government.

4) Factors Considered While Undertaking Competitor Analysis

Large numbers of factors are present which Arcadia group has to consider at the time of undertaking competitor analysis. Pricing strategy is regarded as the most important and while entering into the Nigerian market, a firm has to consider the pricing strategy of its competitors so that decisions can be taken regarding prices of products. Further, it is recommended that the firm set low prices so that a large number of customers can be easily attracted with the help of this. Every organisation which is offering clothing and other type of apparel in the market has set prices lower with an aim to strengthen the customer base of the entity. Therefore, setting lower prices as compared with the key competitors can provide a base for the enterprise to attract customers in the Nigerian market. Generally, people living in Nigeria have lower purchasing power in comparison with people living in the UK and due to this reason, the pricing strategy is appropriate for the business enterprise. Marketing strategy is another factor which needs to be considered by Arcadia group while undertaking competitor analysis. Further, it is a well-known fact that through appropriate marketing tools, the firm can easily develop awareness in the market and each and every customer can know about its product range.

Arcadia Group will be using a Product Development strategy where new and innovative products will be introduced in the market place to attract more customers. Arcadia Group needs to add quality facets to the products so that the brand value of the business can be differentiated from other rivalries. A product development strategy will be useful for the business as through that, a large pool of customers can be persuaded. The company will be able to segment different customers through new products. Thus, the strategy will be beneficial to the Arcadia group; hence it should be adopted.

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Therefore, by knowing the marketing strategy of competitors, Arcadia Group can develop a better strategy through which Arcadia as a brand can be more popular in the Nigerian market. This can support the business in enhancing overall market share in the Nigerian market and can support in grabbing other benefits as well. Competitor analysis is regarded as one of the most effective tools as through this; overall activities carried out by major competitors can be known easily which is beneficial for enterprises in the present era. Apart from this, developing a strategy without obtaining competitor knowledge can be unfavourable for business and due to this reason, competitor analysis has its own significance and it assists the enterprise in gaining competitive advantage. The reason behind this is uncertainty about future business activities. For example, competitors may be performing well in the marketplace and they may be able to meet the expectations of the customer effectively. Owing to this, it is very important for organizations to assess the strategies of competitors and accordingly bring change in their own strategies so as to include customers. Here, information about competitors is the only base by which management can formulate appropriate policies to get a competitive edge over competitors. The majority of companies are targeting customers by offering discount and other type of schemes. So, Arcadia Group can target its customers on the basis of product differentiation and highlighting the key benefits of the product range. Therefore, this can provide a competitive advantage to the organisation in every possible manner and can provide a reason for customers to purchase the products of Arcadia Group rather than other competitors in the market. For competitor analysis Porter five forces model is also beneficial and it has been discussed below

Bargaining power of the buyer

In the case of Arcadia group buyers have high bargaining power as substitutes of products are easily present in the market due to which it is not possible for company to dominate the market.

Bargaining power of supplier

A large number of suppliers are present in the market who are supplying retail goods. Therefore their bargaining power is low and it is not possible for them to dominate the market.

Threat of substitute

It is high for the company as every retail company present in the market are offering the same type of products. Therefore, it is required for Arcadia Group to focus on product differentiation.

Competitive rivalry

The competition level is quite high in the market where Arcadia Group operates. Further, to deal with this issue firm has developed effective strategies.

The threat of new entrants

In the retail sector, no such laws and regulations are present which may restrict firms from entering into this market. Therefore, the threat of new entrants is high for firms.

5) Target Market Selection

Arcadia group target its customers on the basis of country where different products are offered to the customers as per their taste and requirement which is beneficial for the entity in every possible manner. Selecting a target market on the basis of the country provides long-term benefits as a company can easily modify its product range country-wise. The estimation of the target market is a little bit difficult for the business enterprise as large numbers of buyers are present who purchase clothes, shoes and other types of accessories. Segmentation criteria adopted by the organisation are psychographic where the lifestyle and preferences of the target market are considered while targeting them. Further, by adopting this segmentation criterion, business enterprises is obtaining long-term benefits and it is appropriate at the international level also. Consumers prefer to buy clothes on the basis of their lifestyle and it plays an important role.

Psychographic segmentation is the most appropriate for the Nigerian market and through this, customers can easily offer a wide range of products. Moreover, positioning of products is also necessary and for Arcadia Group, the firm can easily position its product range with the help of its attributes and special quality which may not be present in competitor’s products. Positioning with the help of product attributes is considered to be highly effective and it allows the business to retain its loyal customers for a longer period of time. The customer type of Arcadia group is the end customers and the entire product will be offered to them with the help of physical stores. Therefore, it is also beneficial for the company and in short, the needs of target market customers can be easily satisfied with the help of this.

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6) Overview of Marketing Objectives

At the international level, it is necessary for the organisation to set marketing objectives so that overall performance in the market can be enhanced with the help of this. The marketing objective set by Arcadia group for Nigerian market is to enhance the sales volume and profitability margin by 10 per cent. In order to accomplish this aim, the company will introduce sales promotion scheme and another additional offer such as discounts. This can support attracting a large number of customers and can enhance the customer base of the enterprise. Further, the objective set by the organisation is realistic as effective marketing objectives set allow the firm to increase its sales volume along with profitability. Apart from this, to accomplish this objective, a time frame of four months has been set by the management which is favourable for business also. Through this marketing objective, it is possible for the business enterprise to comply with the actual needs and requirements of its target market and thus, it can act as a development tool.

Another market objective set by the enterprise is to enhance awareness in the market of Nigeria so that more customers may know about the range of products sold by Arcadia group. This specific objective set can be accomplished by the enterprise by adopting promotional tools such as advertising and through advertising, more customers would know about the products of the company. Further, for measurement of this objective, market research can be carried out in order to know whether customers are well aware of the range of products of Arcadia group or not. The objective set by management for the international market is realistic as through advertising, sales promotion etc., awareness can be easily developed in the market which is fruitful for business. Apart from this, to attain this objective, time period of five to three months is required and in this duration, the set marketing objective can be accomplished easily and effectually.

7) Critical Review of Entry Mode Strategies

In order to enter into the new international market, it is necessary for businesses to adopt an appropriate entry mode strategy so that operations can be carried out in an appropriate manner. One of the most appropriate entry modes for Arcadia group is a joint venture by considering this strategy, the firm can jointly work with another organisation so as to accomplish its desired goals and objectives in an effective manner (Modes of Entry into International Markets. The main advantage of using joint venture as an entry mode is that it supports gaining access to expertise and it is not required to hire a skilled workforce for the betterment of the company. Further, sharing of the risk of high leverage becomes easy and it directly acts as the development tool for the enterprise.

Apart from this, organisations can easily adopt advanced tools for carrying out overall operations in the market. All these key advantages of a Joint venture can provide a base for Arcadia group in carrying out operations in the international market and it will become easy for the enterprise to target its customers in a highly competitive market. On the other hand, it is required for the management to consider the disadvantages of a Joint venture, that is, sometimes, the objectives of the joint venture may not be clear, imbalance in the level of expertise and partners may not provide enough leadership which is not in favour of the organisation. Furthermore, most of the management of the corporation may not have clear information related to new markets and they rely on the information extracts from the research and development department. Owing to this, it is very important for corporations to assess the uncertainty about the future and bring modifications in the current strategies accordingly. Apart from this, employees should be trained enough to cope up with change. Therefore, all these disadvantages of joint venture directly lead to a decline in its efficiency. On the other hand, the company has less knowledge regarding the market of Nigeria and at the time of entering into the International market, it is necessary for the enterprise to have proper knowledge regarding the taste and requirements of the target market. Control and risk can easily be shared by Arcadia Group after working jointly with other enterprises and it can act as a development tool. Further, it is a well-known fact that due to the high level of risk, the company has to face many challenges in the market and due to this reason; a joint venture is beneficial for the firm in every possible manner.

8) International Marketing Mix

Marketing mix takes into consideration the key factors such as product, price, place and promotion which are directly associated with the growth of enterprise. The main products which will be offered to the target market of Nigeria involve shoes, clothes and other types of accessories. All the products of the company are different from those that are offered by other companies in the market. By offering products in the market, it is possible for the enterprise to target its customers in a proper manner and in turn, it acts as a development tool. Further, the quality of products has been kept high and this can support in enhancing the sales volume of business. Apart from this, moderate prices will be charged from the target market for the products and in short, a penetration pricing strategy has been chosen with the help of which a large number of customers can be attracted easily. This is directly beneficial for the company. For promotion advertising and social media sites, it will be used with the aim of enhancing the overall sales of the company. Moreover, distribution of products will take place with the help of physical stores and this is also effective for the organisation.

Since Arcadia group has been expanding the business in the Nigerian market place; therefore chief emphasis should be given towards all the elements of the marketing mix. Having proper emphasis on marketing elements assists the business entities to persuade a large pool of customers from different segments. All the elements are mentioned in the below section.

Product

While establishing Arcadia group at Nigeria, the brand has to emphasize including several categories of products like wise clothes, shoes and other accessories. Arcadia group has to make sure that quality facets are concerned in all the products so that a large pool of customers can be attracted to the same. The products should have the utility to meet the demands of customers; therefore they should be considered as per the preferences of end users. The product must fulfil the needs of clients and since the economy of Nigeria is not so developed; therefore all the specified products should be a value associated with money.

Price

The prices of clothes, shoes and accessories should be affordable because, in Nigeria, a large number of the population is living below the average standard of life. A price penetration strategy will be adopted by the business where in at the initial stage, products need to be promoted at lower prices and after acquiring a limited market share, the prices of the products can be raised. Prices are those aspects that encourage customers to buy the products in bulk quantity; therefore ultimate concern should be given towards pricing aspects. With the help of a proper pricing policy, Arcadia group will be able to sustain at competitive market place.

Place

In the contemporary scenario, all the business entities have been emphasizing on online delivery of products and services; thus in the present case as well, Arcadia group can also adopt the same mode of placing the product. There should be proper retail stores in Nigeria so that customers can get the services all the time when required. Places should be according to the convenience of customers so that demand can be fulfilled.

Promotion

In order to promote the products, Arcadia group needs to adopt different promotional strategies so that business products can be promoted adequately at market place. Promotional strategies should be as per the use of products so that accurate information about the products can be provided to the clients. Thus, social media websites can be used to promote the products to the customers. Around 88% of the firms operating in the market are using social media for promoting its products and it is fruitful for business where proper information linked with product range is shared with target market.

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9) Internal Marketing Budget Strategy

The marketing budget is necessary as in this; various factors are considered which are in financial terms. Market demand estimated is very high here where it is expected that a large number of customers will prefer to purchase the products of Arcadia group. Further, in the first year, sales of the enterprise are expected to be around 5 lakhs which can support recovering all the major expenses. Net profit is expected to be around 3.5 lakhs after deducting all the major expenses such as marketing and other operating one. Apart from this, the business has to consider some other costs so that an adequate amount of profits can be earned easily which is fruitful for the business. This can allow the company to gain a competitive advantage and in turn, it can act as a development tool for the firm.

Conclusion

After carrying out the entire study, significance of global marketing has been known and it can support enterprise in dealing with the challenges that are present in the business environment. Further, due to rise in level of competition, marketing at global level has become essential especially for companies that are planning to invest in other markets. Further, the international marketing mix of Arcadia group is effective as through this, company can easily enhance its sales volume and this can definitely boost the profitability level of enterprise. Moreover, effective promotional tools are required to be adopted so that more customers may know about the product range.

References

  • Bray, J., Johns, N. and Kilburn, D., 2011. An exploratory study into the factors impeding ethical consumption. Journal of Business Ethics.
  • Carbone, M., 2005. Sustainable tourism in developing countries: poverty alleviation, participatory planning, and ethical issues. The European Journal of Development Research.
  • Constantinides, E. and Fountain, S. J., 2008. Web 2.0: Conceptual foundations and marketing issues. Journal of Direct, Data and Digital Marketing Practice.
  • French, J., 2009. Social marketing and public health: Theory and practice. Oxford University Press.
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