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In last few decades, there are various significant changes that have taken place in human resource due to globalization, information technology, and shift from manufacturing to service industry and other demographic changes. It can decrease standard employment and employee-employer relationship which can lead to increase in the precarious work (Hurrell, Scholarios, 2014). The present report is based on vulnerable employment and precarious work which can increase risk like poverty and injustice as well as adversely impact the employment relationship. The objective of this report is to show how HR and people can help such kind of workers to maintain employment relationship.
Introduction: Literature review provides entire overview of the topic as earlier discussed. There are so many sources of informations for gathering of relevant data. The available research also took various mode of informations for developing sense of insight of authors and certain government authorities and enable them to create information so as to give productive outcome for the specific topic (Pilbeam and Corbridge, 2010). After all,researchers is able to get productive informations on behalf of gathered data. It creates most efficient tool for the researchers to gather productive informations. Apart from this, literature review is completed by way of structured research aim and objective helps to build relevant themes and correspondingly accomplish the whole lesson of literature review.
The commission report says that in 19th century employment practices exploited and it is still ongoing. It is to say that vulnerable task never be inevitable. Approximately two million people are decoyed in regular round of less paid and insecure task where unfair treatment is the norm (Gold and et. al., 2013). People providing services which is inevitable to our society and give them fair wages of their work. So that their living standard can be improved.
Due to their less education, their contribution on making decision is extremely low. enhancement in precarious work has led to enhance awareness to and make debate by which more precarious workers can be protected. With the help of HRM participation in the service industry the improvement of vulnerable workers can be improved and actively participation in company's decision making. Using of 2010 European working condition research of approximately 30000 employees,it is mainly concerned on employees' involvement and participation,focusing the circumstances of vulnerable employees,women and half educated people (Hurrell,and Scholarios, 2014). By adopting an individualised approach,the research focused on direct communication and work based involvement.
Actively participation of team members: by active involvement of team members, employees feel indispensable in the organisation. One must be assigned their responsibilities so that they can be aware of their duties. On the other hand their targets must be quantitative and achievable, they must be as per the individual ability of employee so that they can easily achieve those targets and they can feel less stress in working in the working environment of cited entity.
Avoidance of exploitation: Some of the organisations which are effective in United Kingdom they are exploiting their labour force by paying them salary which their hard work deserves. Their are certain legislations which helps those employees for the betterment of lifestyles of such employees. Cited entity needs to maintain their policies as per legislations so that any misconduct will not be there which may lead defame organisational reputation.
Globally, there are various conventions which addresses vulnerable workers and precarious employment. these types of conventions represents global standards on recovery of workers and they have specified to be key techniques in explaining domestic law. International law is mainly effective in the latest jurisprudence (Rayner and Lewis,2011).
In an organisation to perform great, it is essential that employees' give their utmost contribution to the organisation . People in the company feel energetic and motivated to do better work and feel their work instead of taking it as a burden. It is necessary that management urge good atmosphere to create a fair employee relationship. Competition is vital important part of any organisation until it creates adverse situation or enmity among the employees (Sarker and Afroze, 2014).
There are some actions that can be taken to maintain healthy employee relationship in the organisation. Some of them are as a follows:
Actively participation of team members: by active involvement of team members, employees feel indispensable in the organisation (Parry and Tyson, 2011).
There are various factors such as increased contract workers, decline of manufacturing sectors, information revolution and demand for higher education level can lead to increase precariousness of work. The nature of precarious work includes job insecurity, lower wage rate, lack of employment benefits and degree of control over the process and system. It can increase the chances of accidents and injury which is not beneficial for both the organization as well as employee (Rahman,Islam,2010).
Due to various other disadvantages which can be related with gender, religion, cast, immigration, and other characteristics they can exploit them. Due to increase in international business activities around the world, it can lead to movement of guest workers. There are various people such as women, racialized peoples, freshers, immigrants, migrant workers, and disable person likely to performed such kind of work (Rayner and Lewis, 2011).
Precarious work has huge impact on the lives of vulnerable worker rather than employment. It can increase accidents rate due to lack of proper training, stress, and health issues. It can also affect the personal life of an individual like family relationship, social and community engagement. Apart from that, it is difficult to adopt training and education due to lack of time. Older people, who have taken suck kind of work does not get pension and other employment benefits. It can lead to increase poverty and dissatisfaction among employees (Sarker and Afroze, 2014). It can also create problem in front of government especially in the economic crises and increase unemployment rate which is not good for the economy.
There are various types of business organization where HR unethical practices from 19th century to till now. It reveals that vulnerable work is not inevitable, and men, women, ethnic minority groups suffer its implications. According to TUC commission of United Kingdom, there are around more than two million workers who are trapped in suck kind of work. According to their report, they saw that home workers are being paid less than 1 pound item of clothing and they do not get paid holiday and sickness leave. In another industry, situations are worse especially in the construction industry (Waring, 2013). In this industry, injury rate has been increased due to lack of proper training and equipment. Office workers like cleaners told them they do not have choice to stop their work even they were sick. There are large numbers of workers in cities, towns and villages who spend approx 70 hours a week at 2 pound an hour.
It is not only because that there are loopholes in the laws and legislation but also in the social and government policies (Parry and Tyson, 2011). The lack of legal and financial protection is like treating employees unfairly and unethically is acceptable in the country. But improving the laws and policies in only one part of solution. It needs to be more awareness in the society and community. It is government responsibility to provide job opportunities; coordinated efforts with various industries such as construction, hospitality, and manufacturing etc., and provide training and development programme to their employees.
According to government authorities, there are following types of vulnerable worker who are working as given below:
Women and Single Parents: According to the government authorities, women are more likely to be working in precarious work than men. For example, women are more interested in part time and temporary work at the lower income than their male counterparts.
Racialized People: There are various people who racialized and suffer a lot as compare to other persons in the country. They experience high rate of unemployment which can lead to increase vulnerability in such kind of work. In general, racialized person get less wage rate then non- racialized people.
Newcomers: New comers in UK are also contributing in the precarious employment. As the country is an education hub which can attract large number of students. Therefore, to manage their expenses, they have to work in various areas to earn money which can be exploited by various small and large organizations (Raidén and Sempik, 2013).
Temporary Migrant Workers: Workers can legally enter in United Kingdom in for lower and semi skilled job. As the country is part of European Union, other country workers can easily enter and work over here. It can also increase rate of precarious work in the economy.
Disable Persons: Person who are physical disable have been disadvantages in the industry. When a person with disable are employed for part time jobs with characteristics of precarity. These jobs to pay lower than a normal worker in the labour market.
The Economic Backdrop:
European countries transitioned away from dependence on manufacturing and agricultural sector to dependence on service and education based sectors in late 1980s. I trends began across the manufacturing and labour based sector in those countries including United Kingdom which can increase temporary work at in the economy (Christopher, Ogunyomi and Badejo, 2012). Forth-more, global economic crises also leads to increase the level of precarious types of jobs.
It is the responsibility of human resource department is to maintain a sound relationship with vulnerable worker in order to maintain profitability and efficiency. There are various challenges among precarious employees to maintain their productivity and performance with consistence in an organization. Because their performance and productivity can be affected by various factors such as fear of job insecurity, unsecure working conditions and personal and family pressure. Therefore, it is a challenges in front of HR they have to use various tools and techniques which can create a sound relationship with them (Tansley, Kirk, Williams and Barton, 2014).
Decrease in output: It is important for an organization that they have to make effective programmes which can satisfy their contractual workers. If the relationship is not sound between employer and employees, it can decrease the output of the company which can reducing their revenue and profits.
Increase in Conflicts: There are various labour unions and other groups which can provide contractual workforce to the business unit specially in the manufacturing and construction industry. Companies can hire these worker for a shorter period of time or for a specific projects (Raidén and Sempik, 2013). In this situation HR department played a prominent role in order to maintain relationship with them. If these relationship is not sound or there are large communication gap, it can leads to increase conflicts in the company which can adverse impact on organizational performance.
Impact on Productivity and Performance: Strong employment relation create a sound atmosphere at the workplace. It can increase the motivation level of contractual workers and also increased employee morale. But on the other hand if such relationship is not sound it can reducing worker motivation which can leads to impact on their performance and productivity.
Customer Dissatisfaction: General precarious worker are working in construction, manufacturing industry. If the relationship between trade unions and organization is not good it can affects the quality of work and product performance which can leads to increase dissatisfaction level of their customers (Christopher, Ogunyomi and Badejo, 2012).
Impact on Firm's Image: Today the image and brand value played a significant role in the success of each and every business unit. If relationship between precarious employees and management are not up to the mark, it can increase the conflict and can be exposed in public which have adverse impact on the business.
There are various HR tools and techniques which can overcome conflicts among contacting worker and create a good relationship with them. It is the responsibility of HR department is to careful analyses the behaviour and try to understand their personal and professional problems (Kudonoo, Schroeder and Boysen-Rotelli, 2012). It can can help make a general idea and use their strategies accordingly. These tools as given below:
Effective Communication: This is one of the important part to improve relationship between employee and employer. There are various initiatives which can be taken by the HR department to manage such relationship effectively. If HR manager can informed about their restructuring programme, so that worker can bale to manage with job insecurity. HR department required to realistic and honest communication with their precarious workers between restructuring process. It can leads to increase loyalty and improve their relation.
Provide Social Support: This is another techniques which can be used by HR department is to provide social support to their vulnerable worker in order to maintain good relationship between them (Tiemo and Arubayi,2012).
Government also played a important role in this relationship in order to provide legal and policy support. There are following initiative which can be taken by the government:
Provide Government Support: There are various policies which required to change to protect precarious work in the country. For this they can make different rules and regulations which can provide legal right that no can exploit them. They can also make various programmes which can support precarious workers. They can provide financial assistance during unemployment situation. So that they can not suffer financially and overcome poverty in the economy (Gill and Meyer, 2011).
Provide Training and Development: This is one of the tools which can provide motivational support to precarious workers. HR department can provide required training season to them, so that they can improve their skills and capability which is essential in employment. Apart from that government also can conduct skill training and development programmes which can help to overcome their errors and make their personally and professionally employable in the labour market. There are always demand for skilled workforce in each and every sectors. It can help to overcome poverty line in the economy and improve their living of standards.
The above concluded report having detail researches on the entrepreneurship in the UK and how it is having influence on the economy. It is essential for the entrepreneurs to have some experience in their fields to make better decisions in the different sectors like; finance, management, marketing etc. Characteristics and competencies increase the efficiencies of the entrepreneur. Discipline, confidence, self motivation helps to them to take better work related decisions. Most of the entrepreneurs starts with the small business enterprises which helps to them to implement their business ideas in actuality. Random changes in the small business can helps them to increase the productivity according to the demands from stakeholders. Small business enterprises are essential for the economical development and as well as to reduce the errors of its.
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