Effects on Tourism and Seasonality


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Different people have a diverse set of perceptions about travel that they make to different places. People prefer to visit those places which have a high impact on their minds so as to select the place they want to visit. Below are various researches that are conducted by different investigators with the aim of understanding the psychological factors that affect attitudes toward tourism and seasonality. Further, it covers the psychological factor that affects tourists. Lastly, it also includes areas of controversy and directions for further research.

Six Articles

There are different types of articles that are developed by different authors among which there are many similarities among them. In this context, according to Brida, Disegna, and Osti, (2011), people prefer to visit different places depending upon the type of season as they have proper information that the price will rise. On the other hand, there is research that has identified that seasons play a vital role in attracting and increasing the rate of tourism in a particular region (Harrill, 2004). Further, all the articles that have been selected have implemented similar residential areas in order to conduct a proper evaluation of their findings. The majority of researchers have made use of primary information in order to come up with an appropriate outcome. As per Vogt and Jun, (2005) tourism is not stable as there are certain factors that determine them to visit different places. Similarly, Vargas-Sánchez, Porras-Bueno, and de los Ángeles Plaza-Mejía, (2014) stated that during the season time, people enjoy their vacations learn from different types of cultures and will visit diverse markets or places.

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1. Previous Researcher Investigation

The research paper emphasizes on evaluation of perceptions of common people towards tourism on tourism policies within an economy. Different viewpoints of researchers have been compared throughout the study. The literature published on the part of scholars in the past has been evaluated throughout the report. The positive viewpoints of Andereck et. al (2005), Kiriakidaou and Gore (2005) & Kandampully (2000) are compared to the one that opposes them as Tosun (2002), Brunt and Courtney (1999) & Mc Cool and Martin (1994). Andereck et. al (2005), Kiriakidaou and Gore (2005) & Kandampully (2000) suggested that tourism does support economic development by creating monetary and non-monetary value for the economy. On the other hand, Tosun (2002), Brunt and Courtney (1999) & Mc Cool and Martin (1994) argued that tourism may negatively impact the quality of local residents residing within an economy. Besides, the analysis of secondary information, the researcher has also accumulated primary data. In order to collect primary data, the questionnaire method has been selected. It is through face-to-face interaction that reviews of respondents in the questionnaire are filled. The data is collected from a sample of resident families which excludes second homeowners. The sample of respondents was determined through the application of the following formula:

As per the estimations, a minimum sample size of 435 residents has been anticipated. However, the researcher proposed to distribute 450 questionnaires so as to avoid the risk of incomplete and invalid questionnaires. Further, a systematic sampling method has been adopted to select with a sampling interval of four (Brida, Disegna, and Osti, 2011). On the basis of analysis, it is seen that the local residents of the mountain community in Folgaria are impacted both in a positive and negative manner. For instance, tourism activities increase the income of local communities on one hand. However, on the other, prices of various commodities and services rise extravagantly due to the higher purchasing power of tourists. On the other hand, The article underlines the concept of sustainable tourism development. It suggests that tourism activities, if disorganized, may negatively have negative environmental and other impacts. The study is conducted in the context of Islands which are exposed to high levels of sustainability issues. The literature brings forth a concrete comparison of perceptions of various scholars and researchers. A SWOT analysis is conducted for Easter Island so as to identify the respective strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. As an island, its geographic location, culture, and climate account for its strengths. It is seen that one group of factors positively impacts Easter Island. On the other, another group of factors have a negative impact on the Islands of Easter (Harrill, 2004). The primary information is collected in two rounds. In the first round, the relevant information is accumulated by conducting interviews with residents of the Easter Islands, the Municipality, the chamber of tourism, the provincial government, tourism agencies, and various environmental departments. A total of 23 interviews are carried out among different groups in the Easter Islands. Further, in the second round, a survey in the form of a questionnaire is conducted among tourists and residents. In this round, a total sample of 171 respondents has been selected. This sample comprises 99 residents and 72 tourists in all. The analysis of primary and secondary information indicates that sustainable development on the Island is possible by balancing various economic and non-economic systems.

As per the articles, there are methods that are used similarly. For this purpose, primary research is conducted by investigators in this research. For this purpose randomly selected 1000 households were selected. In total about 256 questionnaires were returned. A random sampling method was implemented so as to come up with an appropriate outcome. As per this research, residents of Valdez Alaska were studied in order to understand the attitudes and perceptions of development tourism in the community (Teye, V., Sirakaya, E. and Sönmez, 2002). Further, it covers potential and current levels of tourism is identified. It has been found that residents were asked to rate different tourism markets.

Another research was conducted in which secondary and primary data were used for the collection of data. In order to collect primary data, researchers used the observation method in which they made two rounds in 386 observations in the high season and 384 in the low season. In total, there are about 770 observations made. Proportionate distribution was made in which a random sampling method was used. Further, to make a proper evaluation of the collected data investigator made use of a structural equation model with AMOS and SPSS. As per this research, there are several intrinsic and extrinsic variables are identified with the help of different theoretical approaches. These are identified to build an explanatory model for residents for the development of tourism. Further, in this research, this model was applied on a destination. It has been identified that during the season, the rate of visitors increases and it also raises profitability (Vargas-Sánchez, Porras-Bueno, and de los Ángeles Plaza-Mejía, 2014). Further, there are different types of approaches and theories used. In this context, it includes The Social Exchange Theory and The community Attachment Approach.

With time there are many changes that take place within tourism and planners increasingly try to change travel and tourism into viable economic development strategies. As per the findings, there are many residents who are exposed to tourism for the first time but there are destinations that are already developed and there are increasing volumes of tourism (Vogt and Jun, 2005). There are challenges that are faced by planners which include ways to understand public perceives tourism so as to gain local support for taking initiatives and for tourism projects. This research covers six different areas of the attitude of residents towards tourism with respect to socioeconomic factors. Further, it covers the dependency of economics, spatial factors, and community typologies. Lastly, it also includes different theoretical perspectives like growth machine theory, social exchange theory, and community attachment.

The researcher has used secondary research in order to conduct the research. Further, there are different sets of articles and journals that are evaluated through which investigators got to know the people prefer to visit a different place not in season time as they know the rates will be high during off-season residents can enjoy the same benefits at lower prices. Further, in accordance with findings, it has been found that when the distance from the tourism zone increases, then the positive impact perceived is less favorable. As per the key empirical evidence, the psychological factor shows that residential people prefer not to visit tourist places during the season time because they understand the variations that take place in pricing.

In an article, the sample size selected was 249 residents in Cape Coast and 215 of Elmina. Further, to get the most relevant information, it was decided to make the sample size 250 from each community. Moreover, a non-probability sampling method was used by the investigators. Moreover, In order to collect the data, the investigator has used primary information. So as to collect primary data, the investigator used an interviewing method for administering survey questionnaires. In addition to evaluating the data, independent sample t-tests were conducted. For several countries in Africa, tourism has played a significant role in the economy. This research paper has aimed at identifying the attitude of residents of two towns for tourism development (Vogt and Jun 2005). The attitude is measured with the help of seven factors related to tourism which are as follows: perception of crowding, sexual permissiveness, economic costs, negative interference in daily life, welfare impacts, beneficial cultural influences, and social interaction.

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2. Psychological Factor Affects Tourists or Visitors

As per the findings, it has been identified that people prefer to visit different places during the season time (Brida, Disegna, and Osti, 2011). This is because it is the time when people get holidays and enjoy their trip. However, people generally prefer to understand the changes that take place in technology as it helps them to make sure that they will get to experience different things. Further, price plays a vital role as it affects visitors (Teye, Sirakaya, and Sönmez, 2002). When the price of the market in other works the products and services that are provided is higher than people, then the rate of visitors will get affected. Further, there also cases in which services also affect the visitor. In case the services that are preferred by people are not satisfied, then tourism (Vargas-Sánchez, Porras-Bueno, and de los Ángeles Plaza-Mejía, 2014). There are cases in which people have different sets of expectations and requirements when these are not satisfied, then people will not prefer to visit.

3. Area of Controversy

As per the area of controversy, this type of research can be identified that the research is conducted in a particular area and that is Spain (Brida, Disegna and Osti, 2011). This research can be conducted in different markets as the information that will be identified will be different. On the other hand, as per other articles, it is suggested that planners of mountain communities should consider the preferences of local communities while planning for tourism activities (Harrill, 2004). Further, the published research work is considered to be valuable for extending research over different regions and time periods. Moreover, research can be conducted in which more different types of markets can be considered (Teye, Sirakaya, and Sönmez, 2002).

As per the area of controversy, the data was collected for two regions and there are many other areas in which these findings can be conducted so research can be further conducted at many other areas (Vargas-Sánchez, Porras-Bueno and de los Ángeles Plaza-Mejía, 2012). On the other hand, the controversy stated by an article is about the list of areas among which balance is required as follows: economic, social/demographic, cultural, political, physical, and ecological (Vogt and Jun, 2005). Further, the research work would help to boost sustainability on Easter and another group of Islands. Moreover, In accordance with the controversy of the article, this research covers all the important areas through which adequate information is gained (Brida, Disegna, and Osti, 2011). However, the total number of questionnaires that were returned was less when compared with the total number it was sent. The area of research can be conducted in which different types of data collection methods can be implemented.

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  • Brida, J. G., Disegna, M. and Osti, L., 2011. Residents’ perceptions of tourism impacts and attitudes towards tourism policies in a small mountain community.
  • Harrill, R., 2004. Residents’ attitudes toward tourism development: A literature review with implications for tourism planning. CPL bibliography. 18(3). pp.251-266.
  • Teye, V., Sirakaya, E. and Sönmez, S. F., 2002. Residents' attitudes toward tourism development. Annals of tourism research. 29(3). pp.668-688.
  • Vargas-Sánchez, A., Porras-Bueno, N. and de los Ángeles Plaza-Mejía, M., 2014. Residents’ attitude to tourism and seasonality. Journal of Travel Research. 53(5). pp.581-596.
  • Vogt, C. A. and Jun, S. H., 2005. Residents? Attitude Toward Tourist Market Segments and Tourism Development in Valdez, Alaska: A Comparison of Residents? Perceptions of Tourist Impacts on the Economy and Quality of Life.
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