Effects on Tourism and Seasonality

Answer :


Different people have diverse set of perception about travel that they make to different places. People prefer to visit those place which have high impact over their mind so as to select the place they want to visit. Below given are various researches that are conducted by different investigators within an aim to understand the psychological factors that affect attitudes toward tourism and seasonality. Further, it covers the psychological factor affects tourists. Lastly, it also includes areas of controversy and directions for further research.

Six Articles

There are different type of articles that are developed by different authors among which there are many similarities among them. In this context, according to Brida, Disegna and Osti, (2011) people prefer to visit different places depending upon the type of season as they have proper information that the price will raise. On the other hand, there is research that has identified that season play vital role to attract and to increase the rate of tourism at particular region (Harrill, 2004). Further, all the articles that has been selected has implemented similarly residential areas in order to conduct proper evaluation of their findings. Majority of researchers have made use of primary information in order to come up with an appropriate outcome. As per Vogt and Jun, (2005) tourism is not stable as there are certain factors determine them to visit different places. Similarly, Vargas-Sánchez, Porras-Bueno and de los Ángeles Plaza-Mejía, (2014) stated that during season time people to enjoy their vacation and to learn from different type of culture they will visit diverse markets or places.

1. Previous researcher investigation

The research paper emphasizes on evaluation of perceptions of common people towards tourism on tourism policies within an economy. Different viewpoints of researchers has been compared throughout the study. The literature published on part of scholars in past has been evaluated throughout the report. The positive view points of Andereck et. al (2005), Kiriakidaou and Gore (2005) & Kandampully (2000) are compared to the one who opposes them as: Tosun (2002), Brunt and Courtney (1999) & Mc Cool and Martin (1994). Andereck et. al (2005), Kiriakidaou and Gore (2005) & Kandampully (2000) suggested that tourism do support economic development by creating monetary and non-monetary value for the economy. On other hand, Tosun (2002), Brunt and Courtney (1999) & Mc Cool and Martin (1994) argued that tourism may negatively impact quality of local residents residing within an economy. Besides, analysis of secondary information, researcher has also accumulated primary data. In order to collect primary data, the questionnaire method has been selected. It is through face-to-face interaction that reviews of respondents into questionnaire is filled. The data is collected from sample of resident families which excludes second homeowners. The sample of respondents were determined through application of following formula:

As per the estimations, minimum sample size of 435 residents has been anticipated. However, the researcher proposed to distribute 450 questionnaires so as to avoid risk of incomplete and invalid questionnaires. Further, systematic sampling method has been adopted to select with sampling interval of four (Brida, Disegna and Osti, 2011). On the basis of analysis, it is seen that the local residents of mountain community in Folgaria are impacted both in positive and negative manner. For instance, tourism activities increases income of local communities on one hand. However, on other, prices of various commodities and services rises extravagantly due to higher purchasing power of tourists. On the other hand, The article underlines the concept of sustainable tourism development. It suggests that the tourism activities, if are disorganised, may negatively have negative environmental and other impacts. The study is conducted in context of Islands which are exposed to high level of sustainability issues. The literature brings forth a concrete comparison of perceptions of various scholars and researchers. A SWOT analysis is conducted for Easter Island so as to identify the respective strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. As an island, its geographic location, culture, climate accounts for its strengths. It is seen that one group of factors positively impact the Easter Island. On other, another group of factors have a negative impact on Islands of Easter (Harrill, 2004). The primary information is collected in two rounds. In the first round, the relevant information is accumulated by conducting interviews of residents of Easter Islands, Municipality, chamber of tourism, provincial government, tourism agencies and various environmental departments. A total of 23 interviews are carried among different groups into Easter Islands. Further, in second round, a survey in form of questionnaire is conducted among tourists and residents. In this round, a total sample of 171 respondents has been selected. This sample comprises of 99 residents and 72 tourists in all. The analysis of primary and secondary information indicates that the sustainable development at Island is possible by balancing various economic and non-economic systems.

As per the articles there are methods that are used similarly. For this purpose, primary research is conducted by investigators in this research. For this purpose randomly selected 1000 households were selected. In total about 256 questionnaires returned. Random sampling method was implemented so as to come up with appropriate outcome. As per this research, residents of Valdez Alaska were studied in order to understand the attitudes and perception of development tourism in community (Teye, V., Sirakaya, E. and Sönmez, 2002). Further, it covers potential and current levels of tourism is identified. It has been found that residents were asked to rate different tourism markets.

Another research was conduect in which secondary and primary data are used for collection of data. In order to collect primary data, researchers have used observation method in which they made two rounds in which 386 observations in high season and 384 in low season. In total there are about 770 observations made. Proportionate distribution was made in which random sampling method was used. Further, to make proper evaluation of collected data investigator made use of structural equation model with AMOS and SPSS. As per this research, there are several intrinsic and extrinsic variables are identified with the help of different theoretical approaches. These are identified to build explanatory model for residents for development of tourism. Further, in this research, this model was applied on a destination. It has been identified that during season, the rate of visitors increase and it also raises profitability (Vargas-Sánchez, Porras-Bueno and de los Ángeles Plaza-Mejía, 2014). Further, there are different type of approaches and theories used. In this context, it includes The social Exchange Theory and The community Attachment Approach.

With time there are many changes that take place within tourism and planners increasingly try to change travel and tourism into viable economic development strategy. As per the findings, there are many residents that are exposed to tourism for first time but there are destinations that are already developed and there is increasing volumes of tourism (Vogt and Jun, 2005). There are challenges that are faced by planners in which it includes ways understanding public perceives tourism so as to gain local support for taking initiatives and for tourism projects. This research covers six different areas that are attitude of resident towards tourism with respect to socioeconomic factors. Further, it covers dependency of economics, spatial factors, community typologies. Lastly, it also includes different theoretical perspectives like growth machine theory, social exchange theory and community attachment.

The researcher has used secondary research in order to conduct the research. Further, there are different set of articles and journals that are evaluated through which investigator got to know the people prefer to visit different place not in season time as they know the rates will be high during off season residents can enjoy same benefits at lower price. Further, in accordance with findings, it has been found that when the distance from tourism zone increases, then the positive impact perceived is less favourable. As per the key empirical evidence, the psychological factor shows that residential people prefer not to visit tourist places during season time as because they understand the variations that take place in pricing.

In an article, the sample size selected was 249 residents in Cape Coast and 215 of Elmina. Further, to get most relevant information, it was decided to make the sample size to 250 from each community. Moreover, non-probability sampling method was used by the investigators. Moreover, In order to collect the data, investigator has used primary information. So as to collect primary data, investigator has used interviewing method for administering survey questionnaires. In addition to evaluated the data, independent sample t-tests were conducted. For several countries of Africa, tourism has played significant role in the economies. This research paper has aimed at identifying the attitude of residents of two towns for tourism development (Vogt and Jun, 2005). The attitude is measured with the help of seven factors related to tourism which are as follows: perception of crowding, sexual permissiveness, economic costs, negative interference in daily life, welfare impacts, beneficial culture influences and social interaction.

2. Psychological factor affects tourists or visitors

As per the findings, it has been identified that people prefer to visit different places during season time (Brida, Disegna and Osti, 2011). This is because, it is the time when people get holidays and to enjoy their trip. However, people generally prefer to understand the changes that take place in technology as it helps them to make sure that they will get to experience different things. Further, price play vital role as it affects visitor high (Teye, Sirakaya and Sönmez, 2002). When the price of the market in other works the products and services that are provided is high then people, then the rate of visitor will get affected. Further, there also cases in which services also affects the visitor. In case the services that are preferred by people is not satisfied, then affects the tourism (Vargas-Sánchez, Porras-Bueno and de los Ángeles Plaza-Mejía, 2014). There are cases in which people have different set of expectations and requirement when these are not satisfied, then people will not prefer to visit.

3. Area of controversy

As per the area of controversy, these type of research can be identified that the research is conducted in particular areas and that is Spain (Brida, Disegna and Osti, 2011). This research can be conducted at different markets as the information that will be identified will be different. On the other hand, as per other article, it is suggested that planners of mountain community should consider preference of local communities while planning for tourism activities (Harrill, 2004). Further, the published research work is considered to be valuable for extending research over different regions and time periods. Moreover, research can be conducted in which more different type of markets can be considered (Teye, Sirakaya and Sönmez, 2002).

As per the area of controversy, the data was collected for two regions and there are many other areas in which these findings can be conducted and so research can be further conducted at many other areas (Vargas-Sánchez, Porras-Bueno and de los Ángeles Plaza-Mejía, 2012). On the other hand the controversy states by an article is about the list of areas among which balance is required are as follows: economic, social/demographic, cultural, political, physical and ecological (Vogt and Jun, 2005). Further, the research work would help to boost up sustainability on Easter and other group of Islands. Moreover, In accordance with the controversy of an article, this research covers all the important area through which adequate information is gained (Brida, Disegna and Osti, 2011). However, as per the total questionnaires that were returned were less when compared with the total number it was sent. The area of research can be conducted in which different type of data collection method can be implemented.


  • Brida, J. G., Disegna, M. and Osti, L., 2011. Residents’ perceptions of tourism impacts and attitudes towards tourism policies in a small mountain community.
  • Harrill, R., 2004. Residents’ attitudes toward tourism development: A literature review with implications for tourism planning. CPL bibliography. 18(3). pp.251-266.
  • Teye, V., Sirakaya, E. and Sönmez, S. F., 2002. Residents' attitudes toward tourism development. Annals of tourism research. 29(3). pp.668-688.
  • Vargas-Sánchez, A., Porras-Bueno, N. and de los Ángeles Plaza-Mejía, M., 2014. Residents’ attitude to tourism and seasonality. Journal of Travel Research. 53(5). pp.581-596.
  • Vogt, C. A. and Jun, S. H., 2005. Residents? Attitude Toward Tourist Market Segments and Tourism Development in Valdez, Alaska: A Comparison of Residents? Perceptions of Tourist Impacts on the Economy and Quality of Life.
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