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Travel & Tourism Management

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Introduction of Tourism & Travel Management 

Travel and Tourism is a vibrant and spirited business that requires the capability to persistently settle into customers' changing needs and desires, as customer satisfaction, safety, and enjoyment are particularly the focus of travel and tourism businesses. Tourism acts as a unifying force as people traveling can bystander the vitality of their own country at work and gain knowledge about their own nation (Bernick and Boo, 2013). This familiarity helps in fostering friendliness and understanding between various linguistic, sacred, and collective groups living in different parts of the country. Travel and Tourism is an indivisible part of the world that aims to live by making a momentous involvement to the country’s economy, as well as to the superiority of life of its citizens. Travel and tourism is serving strange customers in specific destinations and providing them with destinations through travel agencies and tourism and enjoying high employment and foreign exchange (Gray and et. al, 2000).

History Development of Travel and Tourism

Travel and tourism originated with buying and selling between communities. Once agriculture urbanized ahead of the continuation level in areas of Africa, Asia, and Europe, thousands of years before Christ was born, communities began to do business with agricultural products. This led to the augmentation of markets, and producers travelled sometimes hundreds of kilometers to take their manufacture to market (Harrison, 2006). In the Middle Ages route was a conduit for the transportation of a wide variety of goods from Asia to Europe and vice versa. In Europe, tourism for health becomes extremely important with many Spas offering health-giving mineral waters. In the nineteenth century, Europe was facing competition from health resorts and this led Europe to replace it with seaside holidays. An example of historical development is Dubai, its tourism investment was started in 1994-1996 and it reached as much as 35% (Harrison, 2006) of all investments in the United Arab. It has developed the richest infrastructure in the world like hotels, tourism, and shopping centers.

Since 1945, the socio-economic status of most households in the UK changed. Many of them owned cars and were able to travel more. Technological development also brought an improvement in this sector as people were able to travel both domestically and overseas. Seaside resorts were also developed, as well as holiday packages, which encouraged people to travel more. If we compare Australian and UK travel and tourism it is found that Australian tourism is an important sector for their economy as it contribute 2.5% (Mehmetoglu and Normann, 2013) of Australian GDP in 2010/11 a value of approximately $35 billion to the national economy. On the other side travel and tourism in UK stand in 7th position in the world and contribute €35.6 (Petia and Peter, 2004) billion to the UK economy. Arrivals of tourism in Australia recorded several overseas in the year 2010/11 with 5.9 million, providing employment for around 513700 people in Australia and contributing export around 8% in 2010/11 while on the other side, UK witness the number of visitors in 2011 with 29.2 (Bernick and Boo, 2013) million tourists in their country. This sector in the UK provides employments around 950000 jobs in the UK economy.

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Component and Structure of the Travel and Tourism Industry

  • The travel and tourism industry is not just limited to tours and tourists, it is on the other hand widely categorized into the following components. They are:
  • Hotel and accommodation. It includes lodges, resorts, tourist homes, guest houses, eating establishments
  • Transportation services include air, water, road, rail, and foot. 
  • Entertainment services that is casinos, social halls, churches, and mosques. 
  • Information services that is travel agencies, tour operators, etc. 
  • Government agencies for instance in Kenya have Bomas of Kenya, Kenya Wildlife Service, etc. 
  • Attraction services both natural and manmade (Uriely, 2009). 
  • Education and research that is tertiary colleges and universities. 
  • Stakeholders that is shareholders, the local community, and the government.

Travel Structure

  • Distributor: In the case of the travel industry, distributors are the persons, groups, or firms that deliver products and services to travel consumers. People included in the travel industry are as follows: Travel agents, Travel suppliers, Sellers (who sell directly to consumers), and Firms selling on the Internet (Vrana and Zafiropoulos, 2006).
  • Regulatory bodies: when an organisation sets up its office in a host country other than the parent company then these bodies are known as regulatory bodies. They guide people in giving brief information about travel and information regarding countries or cities.
  • Public sector organization: Public sector organisation are those organization that provides various institutions or departments which provide help in respect of transports, culture, media, sports, and common wealth (Zehrer and Siller, 2007).
  • Transport: Means through which people travel around the world. Various means of transport are Road, Air, Sea, and Railways.
  • Other industry players: Another industry player that also serves products of travel is the hiring of cars and an insurance firm that provides insurance to people who go traveling.

Functions of Local and International Government in Travel and Tourism Industry

To enhance the travel and tourism industry, national and international government plays a vital role. Key roles are: Maintaining heritage places, it is the government only who manages and maintains heritage places and also renovates the same if needed.

These heritage places attract a large number of tourists. Providing proper safety to tourism The government should provide proper safety measures for tourism. Tourism is when people expect strangers to serve them best and also trust them. So it is our duty to serve as per their expectation (Oliver and Dale, 2005). Limit tourism, The Government should also form rules and regulations for tourism to maintain their record and also to limit them from entering to other countries. Going beyond the limit may create problems of proper tracking of them.

Encourages private sector, To provide quality and better services without any threat, the government must provide proper and full support to the private sector to serve tourism like hotels, villas, and apartments (Rodgers, 2001.). Tax relief, The Government should provide tax relief benefits and also provide some amount of incentives. This lets the private sector feel secure and motivated and think more creatively to attract more tourism. Higher subsidies, The Government must provide a higher amount of subsidies to private sectors or hotels in seasonal times (Rodgers, 2001.).

To facilitate the improvement in the travel and tourism industry, national tourism organization also plays a vital role in attracting large numbers of tourists to a specific destination. The roles that they play are: To introduce a specific destination globally as a top tourist destination and develop its tourism prospects and facilities.

To establish tourism infrastructures in specific destinations like in the UK. Provide complete support to develop, expand, and promote the tourism business in UK (Sharpley, 2006). Their aim is to educate and create awareness among the people about travel and tourism. Another role that they play is to establish institutes for instruction and training of potential tourism personnel and last but not the least is to publish tourism publications.

Now the roles of international tourism organization are: WTO activities include: they are developed to perform the role of undertaking development cooperation projects to attain large number of tourists into specific destination (UK), promoting regional activities, research and studies, including those on specific issues such as IT applications or sector, implementing several human resource development programmers aimed at enhancing tourism education at various levels, close cooperation with the private sector, including industry networking, promoting sustainable development, quality and trade, gathering, processing and analyzing data and information, and producing several publications and reports (Sisay, 2009). Other than these roles they also serve through websites and provide functions like statistics, among which is a forecast study, Tourism 2020 Vision, including a full chapter dedicated to Europe, publications, a documentation center, including links to the tourism legislation database and the tourism information and documentation resource centers database, news releases, providing access to a quarterly magazine with issues available since 2002 and events calendar.

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Travel & Tourism and Political Change and Economic Policy

Over the last two decades, Travel & Tourism have played an all the time more imperative role in the economic augmentation of many countries (Swarbrooke and Horner, 2012). An assortment of factors enlarged travel across the globe: upper real incomes, more free time, enhanced and highly handy transportation systems, highly valuable communication systems that smooth the progress of marketing, and momentous numbers of tourism services and options have been coming online in many countries. Economic policy analyzes the wider economic impacts that are attributable to the Travel & Tourism sector. These include: Superior admittance to international markets and improved trade opportunities, Amplified foreign investments, Investments in public and private infrastructure and Local economic improvement (Swarbrooke and Horner, 2012).

Change in the Political aspect that affects the travel and tourism industry is the Security concerns over the travel and tourism industry, which lead to bigger business failures, termination of definite destinations, and hammering of normal expansion in other destinations. Politics is troubled with both the implementation of power and manipulation in society and in specific decisions over public policy (Talwar, 2006). Tourism policy is an itinerary of government accomplishments or functioning in specific relation to tourism.

It is exactly so as to discriminate sightseeing policy from other policy fields, such as environmental policy, transport policy, and international relations that can have a massive impact on tourism but are not developed as tourism policies. Political change that can be seen in the areas of public benefit is hampered, economic competitiveness lower, risk of investor increases, inculcating new technology for travel and tourism may be restricted, unable to assist population awareness, and failure to provide relevant information to the customer about specific destination (Talwar, 2006).

Demands of Tourism

Tourism demands can also be explained as the schedule of the amount of any product that people are willing to pay at a specific price in a set of possible prices during a specified period of time. That is known as tourism demand (Tivers and Rakić, 2012). Tourism is divided into three categories. Actual demand means the actual number of participants who are participating in the travel and tourism industry means who are willing to travel and who are traveLling. This concept is known as the de facto concept. Suppressed demand, means those people who are very eager and willing to travel other country or cities but for some reason or because of some purpose they are unable to do so. They are known as potential customers and demands are considered potential ones. No demand: In this category of demand, those people are included who don’t wish to travel to other countries. This constitutes them in the no demon category (Goldstein and Primlani, 2012).

Tourism demands distinguish between demand for travel to a specific destination and demand for a particular tourism product. Demand that is being analyzed at the end of a specific destination is the price and non-price factor. The price factor includes the cost that is being incurred on transport and from the destination and the cost of ground. Currency exchange rate also affects the demand of specific destinations i.e. price they pay in their home country and the price they are paying in a specific destination (Organizational structure and services of Star category hotels, 2013). Tourism demands to have a positive environment in the factors of socio-economic, and demographic i.e. population, income, education, occupation, availability of leisure time, cultural ties, etc. Next is the income effect which says that the cost of travel and tourism must fall down so that many people can afford to take benefit of this industry. Last is substitution income, which provides more relatively products which is cheaper tourism products substituting others (Role of the Government in Tourism. 2011).

Empirical models of tourism demand borrow heavily from consumer theory which predicts that the optimal consumption level depends on the consumer’s income, the price of the good in question, the prices of related goods (substitutes and complements), and other demand shifters. The demand for tourism in the UK is getting more and more and is growing at a faster pace in the field of travel and tourism (i 2004). These demands of tourism allow the organization or tourism of the UK to provide or to supply maximum facilities like accommodation facilities, developing hotels, tourist operators, guides, proper and maintained infrastructure, and so on. These supplies of facilities for tourism provide a state of equilibrium with demand for tourism and travel. The relationship between travel and tourism supply and demand is at the apex that it provides the following results: the establishment of around 70,000 hospitality including restaurants, clubs, and pubs to entertain the tourist. The attraction that leads to high demand for tourism developed till now is 7000 businesses. Events supplied are 25,000 (Tivers and Rakić, 2012) businesses for staging and organizing events for tourism. Another development seen in the UK is the development of 10,000 aviation in railways, roads, and seaways, and along with that 2,500 travel agents are also given licenses to entertain tourism.

Supplier Responds to Changing Tourism Demands

For the travel and tourism industry, hotels, tour operators, travel agencies, and transport agencies are the suppliers in the travel and tourism industry. As per changing demand, they respond accordingly: Hotels plan out their infrastructure and rooms as per tourism demands. They put efforts into making it so fascinating that can attract large number of tourists to their country and their hotel as well. Providing food as per their taste, it is not necessary that tourism will experience specific destination food only (Williamson, 2013). There are some tourist, who is addicted towards their country’s taste and food.

So hotels served accordingly. Insurance agencies did not prevail earlier but when people came to know that there exists risk in travel this gave rise to travel insurance policy. Earlier people were demanding policies for their life now they demand policies even for their items and insurance agencies performing as per their demands (Williamson, 2013). Tour Agencies, People are now demanding to have the complete package for their tour. People are demanding to have accommodation from renowned hotels, providing vehicles, guides, etc. They are responding as per their demands.

Travel and tourism industry is affected by various factors:

1. Economic Impact on Travel and Tourism in UK:

The economic impact that can be seen in travel and tourism is leakage which means tourism demands better food, accommodation, and hotels those poor countries fail to provide so (Chen and Choi, 2008). These lead to slow down the footins of tourism in a specific destination. on the other side, countries like UK which is considered a rich country are better likely to profit from tourism than poor ones. Whereas the least developed countries have the most urgent need for income, employment, and a general rise in the standard of living by means of tourism, they are least able to realize these benefits

2. Environment Impact:

Another major impact that affects the bar of the travel and tourism industry is an environment that comprises of planes, trains, automobiles, hotels, motels, and cruising for environmental disasters in all these places environment is a major concern (Raybould and Travel & tourism and political change and economic policyWilkins, 2005). Jet planes and other emit fuels that pollute the environment of UK, in the case of hotels they must properly wash all the food-related stuff as chemicals are sprayed over them to make them remain fresh, and last in the case of cruises they draw waste and sewage into the water which is equivalent to a midsized city.

3. Social impact on Travel and Tourism on Specific Destinations:

It is also one of the major issues that have a great impact on travel and tourism. In this, it is being viewed how the people of UK welcome their tourists who contribute to their economy. How they are being treated and how they are being respected over there (Mehmetoglu and Normann, 2013).

A strategy that should be used to remove the negative impact of tourism is diversification. It means putting an increased focus on diversifying their country's products which range by opening up new adventure spots like rafting, sailing, and canoeing. This helps to achieve a better distribution of tourist activities throughout the country. Along with that eco-tourism should also be considered to remove some environmental issues to attract large tourism. In the area of travel and tourism between two destinations researcher has chosen Dubai and Australia. Dubai also attracts people through its lavish infrastructure, its desert which provides a complete package of relaxed holidays and complete enjoyment in Dubai (Chen and Choi, 2008). They also provide sea spots on their beaches so as to entertain tourist at their most in comparison with Dubai, Australia also faces tough competition in the area of travel and tourism by maintaining their wildlife as all know that Australia is signifies with a kangaroo. So their aim is to maintain their wildlife and attract on this basis (Sisay, 2009).

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How a Destination Can Overcome the Negative Impacts of Tourism

To overcome the problem of environmental impact in specific destinations, that country should provide a visa after discussing with the weather department whether is it the right time to allow tourism in our country. By doing so, they can be able to predict what they will perform in their country and what arrangements can be made for their safety against the environment (Rodgers, 2001.). To overcome the impact of social, specific destinations must educate their people that they are the only source who contribute maximum to their economy and provide a large number of employment. Economic impact: To overcome the economic impact, specific destinations charge few taxes on private sectors like hotels, travel agencies, and tour operators and reduce the cost of fuel so that a maximum number of people can travel in a specific destination (Talwar, 2006).

Conclusion

From the above report, it is concluded that travel and tourism is a cream industry in the sense of profit-making. Even the government has now understood that this industry is very useful for enhancing the country’s economy. Overall it is being found that travel and tourism have importance for people and for the country. Travel and Tourism is an indivisible part of the world that aims to live making a momentous involvement to the country’s economy, as well as to the superiority of life of its citizens.

References

  • Bernick, N. L. and Boo, S., 2013. Festival tourism and the entertainment age: interdisciplinary thought on an international travel phenomenon. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research. 7(2). pp.169 – 174.
  • Chen, J. P. and Choi, Y., 2008. Generational differences in work values: a study of hospitality management. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management. 20(6). pp.595 – 615.
  • Gray, J. B. and et. al, 2000. Improving the performance of hospitality firms. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management.
  • Harrison, D., 2006. Dictionary of Leisure, Travel and Tourism (3rd edition). Reference Reviews, 20(3). pp.52 – 52.
  • Mehmetoglu, M. and Normann, O., 2013. The link between travel motives and activities in nature-based tourism.
  • Petia Petrova and Peter, M. P., 2004. The value of tourism degrees: a Luton-based case study. Education

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