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Introduction

Human Resource Management (HRM) is the term used to determine formal systems devised for the management of people within an organisation. Human capital management is the comprehensive set of the practices for recruiting, managing, developing and optimizing the human resources of the company. HRM is the backbone of the organisation and it plays a very important role in any of the company. Each and every organisation should provide some important task to the human resource management. The present report is based on Nandos Company and it is the international casual dining restaurant chain in South Africa. In this present report, models of human resource management and recruitment process are covered. Along with this, selection process of HRM and approaches of the Human Resource Development (HRD) are discussed. Moreover, in this report classical theories of motivation and characteristics of effective leaders are discussed.

Task 1 Model of human resource management used in Nandos

Models of HRM provide an analytical framework for studying human resource management and development. They provide the characterization of HRM that establishes variables and relationship to be researched. Through it, they can understand the world for determining the nature and significance of key HR practices. There are different types of models which can be used in Nandos organisation. This company is providing their effective restaurant services in South Africa. Along with this, it is the largest chain organisation and they want to expand their business in more areas. However, they want to change their human resource policies and management, so they can improvement in the company's environment and employees (Chatterji and Patro, 2014). There are four models have been identified on HRM and all these serve many purposes. These models are given below:

The Fombrun, Tichy and Devanna model:- This is one of the important and effective model which can be used by the organisation. Being the first model, this emphasizes just four functions and their interrelatedness. The four functions of this model are selection, appraisal, development and reward. This model is only the focus on the four functions of the human resource management however it can impact on the HR functions. This model of the human resource management play the important role in the organisation, but with this model they are not able to focus on another functions of the human resource functions. Through this model Nandos Company can use these four functions in the business. Other than that, they can use this model with another effective models, however they can able to focus on entire functions of the human resource management. This model makes appropriate process of the selection, appraisal, development and rewards. There are different types of employees and department in the organisation. When human resource team hire the people as employees of the organisation, then they should provide them effective development according to model. However, they can able to increase their information, knowledge, abilities and skills. This model is based on the development of the employees, business and company. So, they can able to provide their productivity to the organisation. Through this model, human resource management can select the best people in the organisation and other than that, they can do the better appraisal of the employees. Moreover, development and reward are also the effective function of the human resource management. Nandos Company should use this model in their organisation, so they can able to provide effective products and services to their customers. Through restaurant business, they can provide accurate and appropriate services to their customers (Morris and Bohlander, 2015).

The Harvard model:- Another important model of the human resource management is the Harvard model which can be used by the Nandos organisation. The Harvard model is based on the six critical components of the human resource management. The dimensions include in the model are stakeholder, situational factors, interests, human resource management policy choices, human resource outcomes and long term consequences. Through this model, they can establish the effective human resource management in the organisation. HRM policies are very important in he company , because through it they can provide effective training to the employees. human resource flow, reward system and work systems of the organisation. In the human resource management outcome, they can include commitment, competence, congruence and cost effectiveness. Human resource management consider the all points in the company then make some effective decision. However, organisation should use this type of model in their company, so they can able to manage good human resource team and able to increase their brand value in the entire market. On the other hand, Nandos Company can expand their business in different types of locations, so people can get the effective products and services of the restaurant business.

The Guest model:- This model is developed and described by the David Guest in 1997 and claims to be much superior to the models. In this model, they determined about the outcome of the human resource management and employees of the organisation. In the outcome, they included the behavioural, performance related and financial rewards of the company. However, through this model, they can able to evaluate of the productivity and performance of the employees and human resource management. Other than that, the model emphasizes the logical sequence of six elements as HR strategy, HR practices, behavioural benefits, performance results and financial consequence (Mann and Gaddy, 2016). Nandos restaurant organisation uses this model in their business, so they can improve their human resource management. Through it, they will also able to provide their effective performance to the company.

The Warwick model:- The model is described and developed by the Hendry and Pettigrew of university of Warwick. This model also has five elements like another models and that are outer context, inner context, business strategy content, human resource management context and human resource management content. This is also the important ad effective model which can be used by the company. If they want that human resource management of the company will provide their performance then they should use this model in their organisation. Through this model, company can analysis about the macro environmental, and micro environmental of the organisation (Armstrong and Taylor, 2014). Through these both analysis, company can identify the numbers of strength, weakness, opportunities, and threats of the business. Other than that, they can get the information of the all environment of the market, however it will easy to expand their business in more areas.

Task 2 Recruitment and selection process of human resource management in Nando's

The recruitment and selection process is important for new and established enterprises. Human resource management has the support and expertise of employment specialists who assist hiring managers with procedures to ensure the company's leader are making wise hiring decisions. Selection and recruitment process are the very important for the human resource management and company, because through it they can get the best employee who can provide their effective performance to the organisation. Through, human resource management company can get the better employees. (Barbulescu and Mollick, 2015). Human resource management of organisation should follow the given process for recruitment and selection:

Sourcing candidates:- This is the first step in the recruitment and selection procedure. There are different types of ways to find people who need the job. On the other hand, there is numbers of sources and methods to find suitable candidates for job vacancies. Human resource team can find the candidates through online, consultancy or any other method. Sourcing candidate is the main process of the selection and recruitment process, because through it, they can take an interview of the candidates and then accomplish the process of selection for the company. Along with this, sourcing candidates can be done via online advertising on job and career sites or professional networking and participation in trade associations.

Tracking applications:- The second step is the tracking applications and reviewing the resumes in the selection and recruitment process. This is one of the important procedures of the human resource management of the organisation. Through this methods, candidates can know about the entire vacancies of the company, however they can able to apply on the provided position of the company (Manuti and De Palma, 2016). Other than that, this technology aids in the management of job vacancies and applications for each and every open position of the organisation. Applicant tracking system has the strong power to provide and manage the entire application of the people or candidate who wants to apply for the positive given by the organisation. Through this system, human recourse management can get the effective application from the applicant tracking system. Through it, they can review on the application of the candidate. Moreover, human resource management can analysis the all candidate through the applicant tracking systems.

Preliminary phone interview:- This is the third step of the recruitment and selection process of the human resource management of the Nandos Organisation. Through it, they can take the Interview on the phone, however they can get the all information about the candidates. It is the essential for obtaining information about the applicant's background, work history and experiences. Through this interviews, human resource team can know about the information of their previous experiences, background and history of work. The company can also use this process in their human recourse management, however they can make the effective work environment in the company (Li and Pow, 2017).

Face to face interview and selection:- One of the effective step of the recruitment selection process is the face to face interview of the candidate. In this step, human resource management can ask question to the candidate, and they should answer in appropriate way to the managers. Other than that, in this step of the recruitment and selection process, the hiring manager reviews the candidates and resumes the employment specialist forwarded to them. The hiring manager can invite the candidates for the face to face interview. Through it, they can communication with candidates and get the all information about the background, experiences, and history. Along with this, hiring manager should ensure that candidates are qualified or not for specific job. Further, they can provide them all information about the job profile, however candidates can take decision for the job. Moreover, if they found that candidates are not able to do that job or they are not qualified as requirement of the company then hiring manager has authority to reject that candidate for the job. It is the most important process of the human resource management, because through it they can not select the non effective employee for the organisation.

Extending an employment offer:- Once the human resource management decides which candidates are most suitable for the job vacancy, then hiring manager should inform the candidates of the employment rules and regulations of the organisation. Other than that, hiring manager should get the appropriate medical test of the candidates and licensing information of them (Fulmer and Ployhart, 2014). This is the important process of the human resource management in selection process. Through it, candidates can take the decision about the job, however they can accept or denied the offer which is given by the human resource management. When they accomplish the entire process of recruiting and selecting then hiring manager should provide the offer later of the job to the candidates via mail or physically.

Consideration:- This is the last and final step of the recruitment and selection process of the human resource manage of the company. Through this step hiring manager can consider the candidates as their employees, and then they can able to give all information about the company to the candidates. Other than that, through this process human resource manages can know about the performance of the company in the market, however it can be possible by the candidates who was coming for the job interviews. Hiring manager should consider the candidates as their employees and they tell them that, they should follow the rules and regulation of the previous company. However, candidates can serve the notice period of the organisation, then they can able to resignation of the job. So, hiring manager can ensure about the candidates for the specific job (Comănescu and Sabie, 2016).

Recommendations ways of improvement process:-

  • Company should have effective team of the human resource management, however they can able to follow the entire models and recruitment and selection process.
  • They should prepare the website, so candidates can apply on the career site of the organisation.
  • Human resource department should be attractive in the company premise, so candidates can not feel the strange in the company (Sun and Markóczy, 2015).
  • Hiring manager should have appropriate knowledge and information about the human resource management. Other than that, communications skills and another effective abilities are also necessary in the hiring manager of the company.
  • Human resource management team should have accurate knowledge and information, so they can determination about the candidates. Moreover, through it they can know about the candidates and then select them according to their qualification, knowledge and abilities or skills.
  • Nando's human resource department should be very attractive with effective infrastructure, however people will want to work with the company (Meghir and Shaw, 2016).
  • Hiring manager should provide the entire rules and regulations, required documents of the candidates, term and condition to the entire candidates. Along with this, further accomplish the selection process, they should provide the appropriate training session and development program for the employees, so they can know about the company and increase the information, skills and abilities.

Task 3 Approach to human resource development

Human resource development is the framework for helping employee develops their personal and organisational skills, abilities, information, and knowledge. Human resource development is the one of the important significant opportunities that employees seek when they consider an employer. Employee development is very necessary in the organisation, however, human resource management should provide the training session and development program to their entire employees of the organisation. There are different types of approaches to the human resource development which are mentioned below:

Individual and organisational learning:- It is one of the effective approach of development in the employees. Through this approach, hiring manager can arrange the training session and development program for the employees, so they can able to increase the learning of organisational and individual (Hollenbeck and Jamieson, 2015). It can support the employee in increasing the individual knowledge and information and organisational skills and abilities which is required by the human resource development.

Learning should address impact:- When human resource management provide the training session and development program to the employees, then they should examine that employee are able to getting all information and knowledge or not. However they can know about the all impact of the training session and development program which are given by the human resource management for the employees. Training and learning session of the human resource development should be attractive, however, employee can addition the knowledge and abilities from it. It can help them at their work place (Werner, 2014).

Approach to learning includes multiple methods to meet multiple need:- Human resource management is providing the effective training session and development program for the employees, but they should use the multiple methods to achieve the multiple need of the company. On the other hand, they should accomplish the numbers of learning session for the employees, so they can able to learn the ways to use of the approaches at their work place in the organisation. Generation and cultural differences affect how people learn, and an approach to learning must take that into account.

Inside out and outside in learning approaches:- This is the most important and valuable approach of the human resource development of the organisation. They should use this approach in their organisation, however they can able to provide the appropriate knowledge about the familiar with formal education. Through it, employees can increase their information, knowledge, skills and abilities through the presentation, models and procedures of the training session and development program (Grenier and Collins, 2016). Some of the key consideration in incorporating the art and science of instructional design include:

Creating and resolving the problems:- There are different types department and numbers of employees in the company and manager allotted them different types of task. When they start the work for accomplishment, they can face some problems and issues, however, human resource management should resolve the problems and issues of the employees. Other than that, there are different types of tension which can be faced by the employees in the organisation, and they can get the appropriate solution from the human resource development team.

Dealing with learner emotions:- There are two aspects to dealing with the emotions of adult learners. Through it, they can deal the emotions of the adult employees in the company. This two aspects are confidence in their ability to learn is critical to their successful use of the abilities on the job and second is, many adults are risk averse and need to safe environment in which to practice new skills.

Collaborative learning:- In this approach, collaborative learning is very important, because through it, employee can able to help each other at their work place. Human resource management should include collaborative learning in their training and development program, however employee can work together in the team. In any of the company, team work is greater then individual work, so they should arrange the training of collaborative learning. Nandos organisation should provide the training and development program with effective learning and collaborative learning to their employees. It is useful learning for the each and every employee in the company. Through it, they can understand the problems and issues of another employees then they also can able to resolve their problem and issues with effective solution at their work place (Reynolds, 2017).

Ways of improvement:-

  • Organisation can arrange the effective training and learning session for the employees, so they can improve themselves for the company.
  • They should start the effective activities for the employees, however they can able to understand the situational context.
  • Manager can arrange the development program to the employees, so they can increase their own and organisational development (Wit and Folke, 2015).
  • Human resource management should provide the motivation classes for the employees, so they will be able to increase their confidence at their work place.
  • They should provide the skills of communication, team leading, time management, and work handling, however they can able to manage the team with good behaviour and confidence.

Task 4 Classical theories of motivation

The motivation concepts were developed around 1950s. Three most important theories were made during the period. These three classical theories are given below:

Maslow's hierarchy of need theory:- In this theory five needs are described which can be used in the human resource management. Five needs of this theory are mentioned below:

  1. Physiological need:- This is the basic need of air, water, food, clothing and shelter. Through it, people can survive easily and it is the important needs of the human.
  2. Safety needs:- In this needs, include the physical, environmental and emotional safety and protection. Through this need, company should provide the safety to the employees and that safety can be job security, financial security and family security.
  3. Social needs:-In this needs, human resource management should include the need for love, affection, care and friendship (Werner, 2014).
  4. Esteem needs:- These needs are of two types: internal and external esteem need. In the internal esteem needs, they can include self respect, confidence and achievement. Moreover, in the external esteem needs, they can include recognisance, power, status, and attention.
  5. Self actualization need:- It is another important need of this theory. In this needs, they can include the growth, opportunities, self contentment and social services.

Herzberg's two factor theory of motivation:- This is another effective theory of the motivation. In this theory, human resource management can include the hygiene factor and motivational factors. Along with this, hygiene factors are those job factors which are essential for existence of motivation at work place. In the hygiene factors, they should provide the salary on time to the employees (Classical theory of motivation, 2018). Moreover they should provide them fringe benefits, so employees can increase their motivation. According to this theory, human resource management should maintain the relationship between employment and employees. Other than that, they can provide the job security to the all employees. In the motivation factor, they can include the recognition, sense of achievement, responsibility and meaningful of the work.

These both theories are important in the human resource management of the Nandos organisation. From the above theories, human resource management should get the effective point of the theories, however which can be useful for the organisation. Other than that, they should provide the safety need to the employees. Moreover, esteem needs and self actualization need also can be useful in Nandos’ human resource management (Rao, 2014). Hygiene factors are very important of the human recourse management in the Nandos organisation, because each and every employee need salary, and fringe benefits. However, company should provide the effective salary and job security to the employees. Along with this, according to theory, they should include the family security, and insurance to the employees, so they will not feel unsecure from their job and company. Moreover, these both theories are meaningful for the organisation.

Task 5 Characteristics of Effective Leaders

There are different types of leader in the organisation, but in Nandos Company, they should hire the leader who has the effective skills and abilities. The skills and abilities have power to manage the team and time both. On the other hand, leader should clear about the needs and requirement. They can express their vision of the describe future in simple language. Leader should has different types OF qualities which can be useful for the organisation. Along with this, there are different types of task in the company, however leader should has skill to accomplish the entire task in professional way. They should have appropriate communication skills to interact with superiors and team (Fulmer and Ployhart, 2014). It is one of the most important skills and ability of the leaser, because through communication skills, they can able to solve lots of problem and issues in the company. Other than that, through it they can deal with their dealer or any third party company which can be very beneficial for the organisation. Moreover, leader should has the power of resolution and creative thinking which is useful for the problem solving. Employee can face the number of problem in the company, however leader should solve it through this problem skills. In order to resolve the problem they can use the skills of problem solving in the organisation Characteristics of effective leader, 2018(). Moreover, they should have skill of team handling and time management, however they can able to coordinate with team and accoplish thir task on time.However, leader should have knowledge of team handling, so they can manage the team and motivate them in very professional way. An effective leader is the risk taker, self control, caring individual, modest, balanced, resolute, motivational, communicator, visionary, and ethical. The most important skills is sense of humour, which is more beneficial for the organisation, however, leader should has a sense of humour. Leader's skills and abilities are most important for the organisation.

Conclusion

In the present report, it has been recognised about the Human Resource Management and development of organisation. Other than that, in the present report, it is concluded about recruitment and selection process of HRM and approach of the human resource development of the company. Along with this, it is also concluded that, Nandos organisation should use the classical theories of the motivation and their leaders should have the appropriate and effective skills as well as abilities in their company. Moreover, leaders are the main power of the organisation, who can make effective decision in the business.

References

  • Armstrong M. and Taylor, S. 2014. Armstrong's handbook of human resource management practice. Kogan Page Publishers.
  • Barbulescu R. and Mollick, E. 2015. I used to work at Goldman Sachs! How firms benefit from organizational status in the market for human capital. Strategic Management Journal. 36(8). pp.1164-1173.
  • Chatterji A. and Patro, A. 2014. Dynamic capabilities and managing human capital. The Academy of Management Perspectives. 28(4). pp.395-408.
  • Comănescu M. and Sabie, O. M. 2016. The role of human capital in the knowledge-networked economy. Psychosociological Issues in Human Resource Management. 4(1). pp.168-174.
  • Fulmer I. S. and Ployhart, R. E. 2014. “Our Most Important Asset” A Multidisciplinary/Multilevel Review of Human Capital Valuation for Research and Practice. Journal of Management. 40(1). pp.161-192.
  • Grenier R. S. and Collins, J. C. 2016. “Man, Have I Got a Story for You” Facilitated Autoethnography as a Potential Research Methodology in Human Resource Development. Human Resource Development Review. 15(3). pp.359-376.
  • Hollenbeck J. R. and Jamieson, B. B. 2015. Human capital, social capital, and social network analysis: Implications for strategic human resource management. The Academy of Management Perspectives. 29(3). pp.370-385.
  • Li S. C. and Pow, J. 2017. Developing and managing school human capital for information and communication technology integration: a case study of a school-based e-learning project in Hong Kong. International Journal of Leadership in Education, pp.1-15.

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