Human Resource Management for Service Industries


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Business enterprises use various resource at the time of proceeding towards their mission and vision. Employees are considered as key asset for an organisation because workers do all the major tasks which is required for attaining set objectives like make plans and execute them (Welch and et. al., 2011). Human resource management is a process of dealing with ''human relations'', it starts with selecting employees and include all the activities that are related with personnel’s like training and development, motivation etc. Airlines industry is an emerging part of service sector. British Airways is a leading company in aviation business and this assignment is based on British Airways. Purpose and role of HRM will become part of file along with the human resource planning which will be based on analysation of supply and demand. Present state of employee relation and the impact of employment laws on HR management will be included in this project. Discussion on job description and person specification is a part of task 3, comparison between selection process of two different job profile in service industries will become an important part of the assignment. Training contribute to in effective operations, this topic will be discussed at the end of this report.


1.1 Role and purpose of HRM in British Airways

The concept of human resource management concentrate on keeping healthy relationship with employees. It is gaining popularity because of every business organisation understand that they cannot achieve their targets until company get workers support. British Airways signed an agreement which allow them to start flights between Heathow and Maderia. These operations can achieve success if the HR division understand their responsibilities.

Role of HRM in British Airways is mentioned below:

Planning and Forecasting- At the time of commencing new operations, an organisation have to recruit or transfer people in order to manage workforce in a better way. HR team of British Airways has to plan total number of candidates which they have to select in upcoming time (Unger and et. al., 2011). They have to play an important role in planning and predicting requirement of human resource in forthcoming time. The issues of excess and shortage of employees can be avoided in company if HR wing make right prediction and effective plans.

Recruitment Process- If an enterprise has to hire an employee, they have to follow a lengthy process which start from finding eligible candidates and end when applicant selected/rejected for a post. At British Airways, this procedure involves seniors of respective departments because they check technical knowledge of interviewee. But, beside this, all the work is responsibility of HR team. Their role is crucial in coordinating interviews, screening of candidates and background checks.

Employment Contract- Human resource management make and explain employment contracts to all the selected applicants (Storey, 2014). This document contains various terms and conditions like salary of workers, leave policies etc. HR department of British Airways is responsible for getting signature of workers on these contracts and they are accountable for any flaw which is present in it.

Monitoring of Employees- The tasks of evaluating performance of workers is done by their seniors as well as HR department. As mentioned earlier, human resource management is related with strengthening relationship with employees. This work cannot be done with keeping an eye of performance of personnel’s.

Training and Development- In monitoring, HR team of British Airways identify training and development needs of workers. Their role is not limited to finding and analysing flaws in employees, they also arrange complete training and development program for personnel’s.

Budget Monitoring- Human resource division has to manage the money which is management allotted to them. It is the role of HR manager to assure that budget cover all the major and significant expenses.

Purpose of HRM in British Airways

There are two approaches of HRM, hard and soft. Purpose of human resource management differ according to the model which is present in the organisation.

Hard Approach- Business enterprise is consists with resources and employees but it should not differ from each others (Sparrow, Brewster and Chung, 2016). They should be treated like all the available assets like money, machine etc. This approach basically concentrates on three elements i.e. hiring, moving and firing. Little or no power is given to employees if a company has adopted this point of view. British Airways do not use this model.

Soft Approach- When an organisation sees employees as more than an asset and they treat them like a human being then it means that they have adopted Soft approach. British airways concentrate on needs of workers and they give rewards to workers in order to motivate them. Key purpose of this HRM approach is to start a two-way communication process on regular basis. The main reason behind existence of human resource department in British Airways is that it works as a bridge between management and employees. HR manager communicate the demands of workers to the employer.

1.2 Creation of Human Resource Plan by Analysing Supply and Demand

British Airways is starting 4 new flights, for peak season, and 3 for rest of the year. They have to recruit around 20 flight attendants and 4-5 Airline administrative supporter for maintaining a balance between demand and supply. Below is human resource plan based on identified requirements:

Source of Recruitment- There are two sources of recruitment, internal and external. For hiring new flight attendants, British Airways has to go with later one option. They can choose methods like Walk-ins and campus placement. This will allow them to locate fresh talent which will be available to company at a decent cost (Sheehan, 2014). Management consultants can be used for finding Airline administrative support staff with desired experience. This method is appropriate at the time of selecting an employee for a job post which require variety of skill in a single person.

Selection Procedure – The process of hiring will have three steps. First is to analyse C.V of the applicant and call them for further procedure. After this, HR team should take written test of selected candidates which will also include group discussion. The last stage is personal interview where communication and other skills of potential employees will be checked.

Determine Compensation – Once an applicant is selected in the organisation then next step is to decide their salary and incentives. If they agree on remuneration policy, then company will provide them joining date.

Provide Training – Orientation and training programme will be organised for flight attendants and administrative support staff so they can get basic information about organisation's working style and their responsibilities.

Appraise Performance – The work done by recently selected employees will be monitored and analysed by seniors in order to check that whether new joiners are following their roles. Below are few responsibilities of flight attendants and Administration support staff:

Flight Attendants

  • Assure passengers comfort like distribute them blankets at the time of sleeping.
  • Keep track of the money which is earned through sold beverages or used headsets.
  • Assuring safety of passengers by providing them directions relating to emergency landing.

Airline administration support staff

  • Answer queries of customers by managing desk of receptionist.
  • Resolve issue of workers.
  • Provide training to employees.

Performance appraisal will help company in managing demand and supply in off season. Those personnel’s who will fail to meet organisation's expectation, may face termination and the time between normal season and peak load will be used for hiring new talent.


2.1 Employee relation's present state in aviation business

Like of every industry, aviation business also faced issues related to employers ignoring demand of workers. This problem was not too serious compared to some other sector like manufacturing but still, regulation authorities and government made some rules for keeping balance between distribution of power (Schermerhorn and et. al., 2014). Employee relation is known as the connection among employees in an enterprise. Interrelation between employer and workers is also considered as its crucial part. Power of trade unions is getting dilute because of recent deregulations.

Role of Unionisation

Union is a group of people who work as a voice of workers. These units communicate the message of workforce to management but their position is not strong in present business era. Role of unions is limited and it is only popular in those industries where blue collar job is present. Labour union work as an intermediator between employee and employer. They communicate demand of workers to top level management of an organisation like British Airways. A new culture is developing in Airline industry where viewpoint of workers at middle and lower level position are considered at the time of making a call. The concept of collective bargaining is getting popular in this business. It assists an organisation is resolving problems related to salary, working environment etc.

Employee Participation

Employee participation is a tool for motivating personnel. There was a time when workers were not included in decision-making system. Now the time has completely changed because of the employee participation concept. Instead of receiving direct orders from highest authorities, staff members of different Aviation sector companies are offering their thoughts to top level managements. They are getting involved in improving different process which are present in the organisation. When personnel become part of a decision then managing conflict get easier (Rubery and Urwin, 2011). Many firms in Airline industry use dispute management so they can assure healthy relationship between employee and employer. Deciding shift timings of staff members is always a big issue for companies. Airline Corporations run their business for 24 hours and 7 days. Workers normally do not prefer to work in odd shifts like 3 am to 11 am in winters and it ultimately create big disputes among managers and their subordinate on daily basis. This problem is getting resolved because workers are getting additional money for working in odd timings. This approach presently tastes success due to involvement of workers in making plans.       
(Source: Employee Participation. 2017

Grievance Procedures

A method, used for resolving conflicts relating to employees, suppliers, competitors etc., is known as grievance procedure. In the Aviation sector, there are many rules and regulation which has to be followed by every individual. If any stakeholder of an organisation faces injustice then they can register a formal complaint against company. Although, there is no necessity that grievance procedure is always formal. It can be considered as a part of collective bargaining. Employer have face issues with employees and disciplinary procedure help them in dealing with misconducts of workers. Both of these processes play significant role in maintaining good relationship between companies and their staff. They check dispute at the point of its generation.

2.2 Effect of employment legislation in human resource management

Employment legislation refers to all of the acts which are formulated to protect to employee in all kind of scenario whether it is related to mental pressure or monetary terms (Renwick, Redman and Maguire, 2013). It can be said that changes in legislation also impacts over management of resource department as they have to update their policies for meeting the requirement of legislation. It is the responsibility of Hr manager of British airways to evaluate working environment of the company effectively so that they can identify actual problems of employees.

Employment Relations Act: The act mainly protects relationship of employee, unions and employer. According to the act, it is mandatory for employers to provide fair judgement towards employee as well as union. It also protects the right of employee whether they want to remain part of union team or not.

Employment Right Act: It states that all the basic rights of employee are protected under this act. This act has its own impact on human resource management as it is the responsibility of the HR manager to ensure that all employees who works in their company should remain safe (Messersmith and et. al., 2011). Along with this, management team of British Airways is required to develop their own policies and procedure according to the latest updated version of this act in order to apply all the mandatory things at workplace.

As per the employment legislation it is mandatory for employer to provide equal opportunities to every employee so that they can place their best output for organisation. It also contributes in building positive relationship between employer as well as employee which is helpful in achieving targeted goals and objective of company in less period of time.

Contract of employment: It is a legal contract which is made between employer and employee of an organisation. It entails description about date of joining, induction period, type of training, joining and termination procedure, employee rights, appraisal procedure and more. The contract protects both employer and employee from various circumstances which might take place in the organisation in future. In context to British Airways this contract includes different situations of termination too such as resignation, ill health retirement, dismissal, maternity and paternity right and parental leaves. Some of them are described as below:

Redundancy: It is considered as form of dismissal which might happen in a company when employers need to reduce its workforce. Therefore, contract made between employees and owners of a firm includes some major rights which protect from unfair dismissals. It includes redundancy pay, options to move from given job, notice period and more (Marchington and et. al., 2016). As British Airways is a large online organisation in UK therefore, before make any type of job employment contract, its managers are required to seek over concept of redundancy procedure.

Maternity and paternity rights: In UK, it is amendable for every organisation whether small or big, to give maternity and paternity rights to employees. As per this right, male workers can take paid leave of two weeks for caring their child. While female employees can take paid leave till 12 weeks after delivery. Thus, in this regard, staff members of British Airways get rights to take maternity or paternity leaves as per own manner.

Few more samples on Human Resources Management-


3.1 Job Description and Personal Specification 

Human resource managers of a company carry out activities to hire best employees at workplace. In context with British Airways, its management team which includes five expert members, use some effective internal and external approach of recruitment for the cabin crew in human resource department (Alfes and et. al., 2013). In this regard, they have prepared some documents to give advertisements on print media and the company’s websites. It includes job description, personal specification, job analysis and more. This would help in giving awareness among desired people about its vacant position. Some documents in this manner, are mentioned as below:-

Job Description

Job Details 

Post: Cabin Crew


Job Purpose 

· Effective staff handling and workmen grievance, analyze repeated grievance and suggest corrective measure. Also to counsel passengers whenever necessary.

· Responsible for managing conflicts among passengers, Welfare and administrative activity, Security and Safety.

· Responsible for all legal compliances.  

Roles & Responsibilities 

Attend briefing of pre-flight’s as per the details of flights

Check availability of refreshment according to the number of passengers.

Ensuring required on emergency equipment are available or not.

Display or show procedure of using emergency equipments  

Ensure all the passengers have tied up their seatbelts during take-off and landing.

Fulfil basic requirement of every passenger during their travel.

Offer refreshment, meals and beverages to every passenger.

Sell chargeable food items during travel

Usage of first aid in systematic and hygiene manner at the time of requirement.

Take appropriate decision in favour of maximum number of passengers at the emergency or critical situation.

Manage conflicts among the passengers within the flight.

Instruct passengers during emergency situation.

Recheck number of passengers before take-off the flight and after landing too.


                                                              Curriculum Vitae 



e-mail id:

Contact No.:


To seek challenging career in professional organization, that can provide new horizons and excellent working environment.

Academic Qualification: 

· Master of Business Administration

· Graduate in Business Administration


Two Years of experience in airlines industry as a cabin crew in UK.


In a Professional Carrier Spanning over two years, I have had the opportunity to handle wide spectrum of activities related to cabin crew functions of few prestigious and renowned organization. This covers the field of Handling passengers, Resolving their issues and studying requirement list of passenger.

Skills and abilities

· Self motivated and quick learner with strong analytical and logical abilities.

· Good verbal and written communication skills.

· Adaptability to changing environment and emerging trends.

· Good problem solving skills in critical situation.

Technical Skills: 

Ø Taxation knowledge.

Ø Basic MS Office ( Excel, Word, Power Point)


· Driven and energetic

· Sense of urgency

· Competitive nature


I hereby declare that all the information given above is correct up to my knowledge and certificates issued by recognized board/university. 

3.2 Difference between recruitment process of British Airways and Transport for London

It is very essential for both the companies to hire candidates who are efficient in their work and who possess the passion towards the job they are applying for, However, recruitment process of British Airways and Transport for London have a few differences depending on their job requirements. These differences are mentioned below:

  • While there are multiple eligibility criteria for being a part of cabin crew in British airways, Transport for London provides the candidates with fewer options, which indicates a rigid requirement to fill a post, driving out many potential candidates at the very first step.
  • The application form design of Transport for London differs from that of British Airways. British airways uses more interactive videos, guiding the candidates at every step and helping them know more about the firm before further assessment. Transport for London, however, weighs on a simple detailed description about their needs and requirements from the candidates.
  • British Airways recruit’s candidates through online applications while Transport for London in addition to online application uses services of recruitment agencies. The selection process of Transport for London is better as it is less time consuming. Tfl does not require applicants to go through psychometric tests as in case of British Airways.
  • The assessments of both the companies are quite complex for average candidates to succeed. While there are many other tests included in the assessment, the main focus of Transport for London is on written and mechanical assessments for engineering schemes. Whereas, British Airways tests the candidates on different verbal and spatial reasoning along with numeric abilities.
  • While Transport for London provides a portal at the very first stage, British airways provide a log-in to those who meet their requirements after the submission of online application forms.
  • There are vast differences in which both the companies organise their assessment days. While Transport for London focuses on the personal interview, British Airways focuses on situational multiple choice questions, role play and group exercises.
  • In British Airways, the applicants who pass the background and medical check are offered their training place. There are given a week long safety course. Also, there is a six week cabin crew training course which they have to go through. Whereas the selected applicants are given their job roles after filling a detailed medical questionnaire. Also references are taken from them for background check.

British Airways recruit’s candidates through online applications while Transport for London in addition to online application uses services of recruitment agencies. The selection process of Transport for London is better as it is less time consuming. Tfl does not require applicants to go through psychometric tests as in case of British Airways.


4.1 Assessing contribution of training and developing in operation of British Airways

Training and development sessions are considered as main part of every organisation related to every industry as it contributes in developing skills of working staff. It directly enhances working capability of employees which helps in achieving targeted goals and objectives of the company.

Different Types of Training

Online Training: It is a latest type of training is opted by most of the organisation as it helps them train employees by using computers. It can be said that online learning is best among all the training types as learner take the training any time according to its own suitable time.

Apprentice Training: This type of training is conducted for those workers who work under the observance of superior. Apprentice training is conducted for a limited period of time. In relation to management team of British Airways, it superior manager provide this training to new employees as they require high level of guidance.

Induction Training: Induction sessions for new employees are also considered as a type of training as it helps employees to understand rules and regulation of organisation. It also familiarises employees with existing employees and code of conduct which helps them performing their work in future.

Role and Need of Training Program

Training session’s plays crucial roles in every organisation as it improves level of knowledge and skills of employees (Budhwar and Debrah, 2013). That is helpful for the company to gain competitive advantage at market place. In relation to British Airways, the airlines company deals in service n which its employees have to interact huge number of passengers at daily basis. In order to satisfy each and every passenger, it is mandatory for its HR manager to training to all the existing as well as new staff so that they can perform their task in effective manner. Training sessions needed as it helps in upgrading the knowledge of working staffing so that they perform their job responsibility effectively without facing any trouble.

Difference between Training and Development



· Training is conducted for fulfilling specific requirement of job.

· Training sessions are mainly conducted for fix duration of time. It is a short procedure in comparison with the development.

· On the other hand, development focuses on growth of individual in future.

· It is ongoing process which is conducted for developing whole organisation. Therefore, development is considered as long term process.

Benefits of Training and Development:

Training and development sessions are beneficial for British Airways as it helps in developing skills and knowledge of overall staff. This supports employees to perform their all of the assigned task in effective manner within less period of time. Some of its main benefits are described as below:

  • Training and development motivates employees as it avails them opportunity for their career growth. It is also beneficial for the company as their staff is eligible to difficult task in less time.
  • Overall training and development sessions provide monetary gain to the British Airways as ultimately development of employee’s skills invites the innovation for the company. This can be used to attract more number of customers.

As per the above observance it can be said that training and development sessions are beneficial for British Airways as it employees are now able to perform all the operational activities in effective manner (Chelladurai and Kerwin, 2017). This can be done easily because HR manager of British Airways conducts training session for employees at regular basis which motivates them to perform the work with their best possible output. These training sessions also guides them the ways through which they can satisfy customers. As it is an only ultimate goal of the organisation for sustaining longer at market place.


From the above mentioned report it has been evaluated that human resource management is considered as essential component of organisation. It has been identified that main purpose of Human resource management is to maintain positive relationship between employer as well as employee as it is beneficial for attaining targeted goals and objectives of the company. It can be said that there are numerous of employment law which influences management of HR department and also helps the organisation to protect themselves from legal issues. This has been observed that firm now a use online test for recruitment and final section is done further through interview. Training and development session contributes equally in enhancing skills of employees which is ultimately beneficial for both employees as well as employer.


Books and References

  • Alfes and et. al., 2013. The link between perceived human resource management practices, engagement and employee behaviour: a moderated mediation model. The international journal of human resource management. 24(2). pp.330-351.
  • Budhwar, P. S. and Debrah, Y. A. eds., 2013. Human resource management in developing countries. Routledge.
  • Chelladurai, P. and Kerwin, S., 2017. Human resource management in sport and recreation. Human Kinetics.
  • Huselid, M. A. and Becker, B. E., 2011. Bridging micro and macro domains: Workforce differentiation and strategic human resource management.
  • López-Nicolás, C. and Meroño-Cerdán, Á. L., 2011. Strategic knowledge management, innovation and performance. International journal of information management. 31(6). pp.502-509.
  • Marchington and et. al., 2016. Human resource management at work. Kogan Page Publishers.
  • Messersmith, J. G. and et. al., 2011. Unlocking the black box: exploring the link between high-performance work systems and performance. Journal of Applied Psychology. 96(6). pp.1105.
  • Renwick, D. W., Redman, T. and Maguire, S., 2013. Green human resource management: A review and research agenda. International Journal of Management Reviews. 15(1). pp.1-14.
  • Rubery, J. and Urwin, P., 2011. Bringing the employer back in: why social care needs a standard employment relationship. Human Resource Management Journal. 21(2). pp.122-137.
  • Schermerhorn and et. al., 2014. Management: Foundations and Applications (2nd Asia-Pacific Edition). John Wiley & Sons.
  • Sheehan, M., 2014. Human resource management and performance: Evidence from small and medium-sized firms. International Small Business Journal. 32(5). pp.545-570.
  • Sparrow, P., Brewster, C. and Chung, C., 2016. Globalizing human resource management. Routledge.
  • Storey, J., 2014. New Perspectives on Human Resource Management (Routledge Revivals). Routledge.
  • Unger, J. M. and et. al., 2011. Human capital and entrepreneurial success: A meta-analytical review. Journal of business venturing. 26(3). pp.341-358.
  • Welch, C. and et. al., 2011. Theorising from case studies: Towards a pluralist future for international business research. Journal of International Business Studies. 42(5).
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