network architecture & topologies

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INTRODUCTION to network architecture &topologies

In the present time where technology is playing a major role in every sector it is important to communicate and transfer data and information among various locations within seconds. Computer Networking is an architecture which works on exchange of data and information between computers. In respect to transfer of data a physical connection is demanded by means of cables, wireless modems among computers and most commonly used platform of computer network is internet. Data is transformed, directed and terminated through various network nodes of computer devices. These nodes commonly are device like server, hubs, repeaters and routers. When two or more systems share and exchange information they are said to be inter-connected. There are various rules for transfer of data among systems known and network protocols which define data formats and rules in which information can be exchanged. The most widely used protocol is TCP/IP (Chiang, 2008).


LAN or local area network could be stated as kind of computer network in which computers are inter-connected in a way by which information could be exchange, inter-communication and resource sharing can be implemented. In simple terms it is a network which allows multiple users to access the same resources of a system, regardless of physical location of user or computer resources. The primary usage of LAN architecture is implemented in small area like school, office or college. In LAN computer network architecture, each user can receive and send data addressed to it (Trulove, 2005).Various types of LAN topologies are available and are shared below:


In this type of topology, every computer or system is straightly connected to a custom centralized node. The central station was also known as Star Coupler carries two point-to-point links, in which one does work for transmission and one is used for receiving. The basic features of star network include, Firstly it is quite expensive to be implemented. Secondly the speed is quite fast as every node has its particular cable. Thirdly if a cable gets busted then only a single computer gets affected. The whole architecture is completely dependent on central device. It the most general network topology (Local area network(LAN), 2013).


In this type of LAN topology, we design a long centralized cable which looks like a bus is utilized to inter-connect the entire computer or the nodes altogether. Every computer carries a short cable which is inter-joined to the central cable or we can say links to the bus. The salient features of LAN are: Firstly its implementation is very cheap since lesser amount of cables is required. Secondly it is fairly slow as all computers utilize the same cable for transfer and reception of information and data. There can be interruption if the central cable gets damaged (Chia

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