Human resource management deals with those function that are performed in the organisations that facilitates effective use of manpower to achieve individual and organisational goals. Human resource approach follows some principle which conveys that employees are the assets of any organisation. Human resource management in service industries deals with function of management and is concerned with hiring, motivating and maintaining manpower in an organisation (Collings, Wood and Szamosi, 2018). Airlines industry is one of upcoming and emerging part of service sectors. British Airways is one of the leading company in an aviation business.This report emphasis one role and purpose of human resource management in British Airways along with proper human resource planning for appropriate supply and demand. This report focus on understanding the effect of employee relation and employment law in British Airways. The project report includes the role and purpose of HRM along with an appropriate plan for service industries. The project also discusses the current state of employment relations, employment laws, job description and person specification, contribution of training and development in the growth of service industry business.
1.1 Analysis of the role and purpose of Human Resource Management:
The management of all the activities related to the performance of employees depends on the efficiency of Human Resources. This department in British Airways plays a vital role in providing quality services to their customer.Along with that, the HRM provides planning and forecasting, monitors the budget, recruit skilled employees, handles their employment contracts, monitor their performances, introduce training and development programmes (Armstrong and Taylor, 2014). Apart from these, some of the key roles of HRM are as follows:
Conscience: It is up to the human resource management to keep the employees satisfied. And thus, Human resource management periodically reminds the upper management their obligations and roles towards their employees and this in turn helps to retain skilled and talented staff in the company.
Teamwork: The managers and human resource departments are responsible to enhance the performance of their employees at every level of the organisation. In British Airways, they act as an advisor to managers as well as the staff in facilitating teamwork to effectively achieve their organisational goals.
Building Commitment: Human resource management acts as a counsellor for the employees and helps them understand the impact of their hard work to engage them more in the organisational activities and building their commitment towards the company.
Performance Enhancement: By introducing the staff members to effective training and development programmes, the HRM of British Airways helps to enhance performances of its staff members.
The HRM of British Airways has a definite purpose which are as follows:
Staffing: The key purpose of HRM is to hire best possible personnels for effectively conducting the activities of the company.
Internal Customer Management: The HRM manages the employees in the organisation and helps to give quality care and effective treatment to these employees.
Cultural Sensitivity: HRM considers the beliefs and cultural values of the employees and aims towards conducting the procedures without violating these cultural aspects.
Laws: HRM considers the employment laws and helps the organisation to consider their roles towards the employees in its full capacity.
Compensation and Performance: HRM works towards enhancing the performance of the employees and sets up compensation and incentive schemes according to their performances.
Employment Relations: HRM helps in maintaining employment relationships in the organisation for smooth running of the activities.
1.2 Human Resource Plan:
Human resource planning refers to the ongoing process of organised planning to utilise human resource optimally. It is very important for managers of British Airways to develop a flexible human resource plan as the success of the company heavily depends on human resources (Baum, 2016). There are various aspects which are required to take into considering while making of HR planning process. It includes employees availability with specific skills etc. Thus, to make HR planning following steps need to be taken by the management of the firm. For their trips to and from Madeira, the HR plan for British Airways is as follows:
BRITISH AIRWAYS HR PLAN
Analysing organisational objectives
At the first, HR manager of British Airways should analyse the overall business objectives which includes production, finance, marketing etc. that assist manager in giving an overall idea regarding work that to be done in near future. In this stage, the focus of HR Manager must be on developing objectives of providing comfort and effective service quality to its customers travelling to Madeira.
Availability of existing human resource
HR manager is held liable to identify the skilled workforce at present with company so that further decision can be taken regarding recruitment and selection. This can be estimated by external as well as internal source. It is imperative for the firm to determine their existing employees that could effectively fulfil the requirements of four flights in the peak season and three flights for the rest of the year to and from Madeira.
Forecasting demand and supply
According to the job profiles, requirements of workforce is estimated by HR manager of British Airways. For this, internal as well as external sources are used to measure the job requirements. For Madeira, the predicted staff members would be pilots, flight attendants, air traffic controllers, engineers as well as ground staff that would effectively manage and handle the flight. Generally, there are 2 pilots required per flight working almost 8 hours a day. Each flight to Madeira would require 2 pilots as the duration is almost 5 hours and 40 minutes, i.e., below 6 hours. As for flight attendants are concerned, the capacity of British Airways Airbus is generally more than 100 passengers which requires each flight to have two attendants and one additional attendant for a part of each unit working throughout the duration of the flight with rest time during a stoppage. Each flight to and from Madeira would also require a team of Air traffic controllers that would direct the air traffic for the flights. These controllers might change the shift once during the flight duration. It also needs 4 flight engineers per flight to check and monitor the effectiveness of the aircraft. For Madeira flights, ground staff would also play a prominent role in fulfilling the ground duties of managing luggages, ticket sales and fuelers. It would be a team of 10-15 people on each airport to maintain comfort and service quality for customers working 6 hours a day before and after flight.
Estimating manpower gap
HR manager is held responsible to identify the requirements of workforce in an organisation by comparing demand and supply of manpower. Deficits indicates the shortages of employees whereas surplus indicates about terminations. As such the firm has the required workforce but it still is short where ground staff and flight attendants are concerned. To fulfil this gap, British Airways must hire new employees through effective recruitment and selection procedures focusing on their skills and required experience fit for the job.
Design human resource action plan
HR department of British Airways should design and implement a suitable action plan and on the basis of which transfer and train new employees within an association. Moreover, the existing staff such as pilots and engineers must be train to satisfy the demands of the new route and fulfil the required effective service quality.
2.1 Assess the current state of employment relations in a selected service industry
Employees acts as pillars for any organisation as they serve their best at their roles and responsibilities with potential skills. Employee relations deals with the practices for ensuring that employees are productive for the organisation and satisfied with their jobs (Sadeghi, et, al., 2018). Employee relation at British Airways offers employee recognition and policy development for sorting out all types of problems. Employee relations is wider concept that involves maintaining a healthy working environment that satisfies the needs of management and individual employees. Employee relation at British Airways helps in improving employees morale, conveying exceptions and building organisation culture. In order to build employment relations following measures are adopted by Allied Healthcare that are discussed below:
Collective Bargaining: In the service industry, workers always tried to bargain with their employees on terms and conditions related with the employment. It generally identified due to raising voice by trade unions in which leader confront all the requirements of employees towards the company. Such requirements includes increment in wages, reduce working hours and other grievances. An organisation also support the demand of trade union with an objective of maintaining good relation with them and achieve their loyalty with company for longer period of time.
Employee Participation: British Airways should have sufficient amount of skilled employees to provide effective services to the customers due to which it is important for management to achieve loyalty of their employees which can be possible through maintaining better relation with them. For this, the management of British Airways should conduct training and development programs, performance appraisals, rewards and compensation etc. which increases the satisfaction level and working behaviour of employees within an organisation.
Culture: It play a significant role in establishing a better relation with the workforce through creating own values and cultures that support the equality and welfare of employees. In British Airways, the rules and guidelines are strict which brings demotivation among employees and create fear of termination as well. On the other hand, if the culture is favourable of employees then it increases the morale of employees which in turn increases their work commitment with company.
Structure: Prior, hierarchy is followed by British Airways, where employees are receiving proper guidance and instructions to follow as well as they are restricted to involve in decision making process. But now, firm has given a freedom to employee to share their views and suggestions to top level management without facing any communication gap. This will develop satisfaction level of employees which in results develop health relations with management.
Grievances and disciplinary procedures: In order to resolve issues and grievances among employees, British Airways should form a conflict resolving team whose main responsibility is to maintain healthy environment at workplace through resolving all conflicts among employees.
2.2 Discuss How Employment Law Affects the Management of Human Resources
Employment laws emphasis and covers various areas of law that is directly related to employees, employers, employment and workers compensation. Employment laws are implemented all over the nation and it is necessary for employers and employees to follow them.
Employment laws covers a wide range of areas that exists in the workplace. Employment laws can assist an employee or an employer in various areas which includes employment discrimination, disability accommodations, family and medical leave act compliance, wage and hours issues, disciplinary and termination issues, maternity and paternity rights (Ross, 2018). Some of the employment laws are mentioned below:
Employment discrimination laws: Employment discrimination laws conveys that an employer cannot discriminate any potential employee on the basis of certain characteristics which includes gender, age, caste, national origin, race and disabilities. In context with British Airways, it is found that there no discrimination against employees on the basis of age, gender, national origin or race. It creates positive impact on the management of human resources as no such discrimination are followed by organisation (Barrow and Lyon, 2018).For example Disability discrimination act, 1992 etc. which protects the interest and rights of disable employees at workplace in an organisation.
Right to fair compensation: This employment laws focus on rights that is concerns with daily wages and salary of employees. Moreover, Equal Pay Act of 1970 states that both men and women should get equal pay or compensation for the same work. It will be consider illegal to pay any one more pay than the other for the same quantity of work. In context with British Airways, it practices equal pay to both men and women so human resource management has no issues in concern with compensation or wages.
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Maternity and Paternity Rights: This rights also some under Civil Rights Act in which both father and mother can claim for leaves to take care of their newborn child. In context with British Airways, they are concern about maternity and paternity rights and they provides leaves due which human resource management has to hired competent employees to replace them for short duration.
3.1 Discuss a Job Description and Person Specification for a Service Industry Job
Refer to Appendix
Job Description refer to a document which includes a detailed description of the required post that needs to be filled in a company for which the firm hires employees. British Airways must provide effective requirements with a detailed description of the purpose of this job role and roles and responsibilities that are required to be fulfilled by the candidates to effectively get selected in the firm. For British Airways, a job description is prepared for cabin crew member. The purposes of this job are handling employees, conflict management and ensuring safety and welfare. Where employees are concerned, cabin crew member effectively manages each employee and ensure their satisfaction and engagement with the firm. Moreover, they are required to set pay and compensation package of employees. This position also requires conflict management between employees and that between customers effectively while maintaining utmost professionalism. Another purpose is assurance of safety and passenger welfare during and after flights and ensure their comfort throughout the flight duration,
The roles and responsibilities of cabin crew includes availability of refreshments, ensuring safety, using first aid in a systematic order, displaying safety procedures during requirement, fulfilling basic need of each customer and so forth.
3.2 Compare the Selection Process of Different Service Industries Businesses
Selection is a process that depends upon different organisation's needs, strategy and objectives. Selection process is negative approach for short-listing the candidates based on responsibilities of the job, experiences, characteristics and qualification. Selection is considered as final process and this decision is finally taken by either middle or top level managers. Selection process is concerned with selecting the most appropriate candidate through various tests and interviews. The selection process involves with collection of activities that includes screening, eliminating unsuitable candidates, medical check, checking references and interviews. Some of the selection methods used for hiring purpose includes application forms, CVs, conducting face to face interviews, aptitude tests, group discussion, presentations and personality profiling.
Different services industries has different selection process that is totally based on organisation goals and objectives. Comparison of two different service industries are described below:
Comparison between selection process of British Airways (BA) and Transport for London(TfL)
- BA displays its job vacancies on their official websites whereas TfL recruits through advertising on official websites as well as taking the help of a recruitment agency.
- In BA, applicants should fill the questionnaire forms as well as give only psychological tests whereas TfL candidates are giving situational judgment test.
- On qualifying from the recruitment process, BA provides sufficient training and learning programs whereas in TfL selected candidate are directly appointed for the offered positions.
Few more samples on Human Resources Management-
- Human Resource Management for Service Industries
- Case Study on How Service Industries Manage Their Human Resources
4.1 Contribution of Training and Development in Effective Operation:
Training refers to the activities for performance enhancements of the employees regarding a specific job, while development refers to the overall advancement of an employee in terms of their personality, professionalism or experience (Brewster and Hegewisch, 2017).
Training focuses on the present, i.e., it focuses on enhancing the performance for a specified job
Development focuses on the future advancements of an employee in terms of their professional as well as personal life
Training is job-oriented. It is limited to perfect the performance in a certain task.
Development is career-oriented. It's an ongoing process throughout a person's professional life.
Need of training: In a leading Airways sector like British Airways, it is important for the staff members to undergo training as to enhance their skills and performance in achieving their objectives (Tracey, 2016). The need for training in British Airways is as follows:
- There are different passengers having different needs at different time. Training would allow the staff to be flexible in their working process so that customers are not facing any difficulties while getting their services.
- Good training would develop expertise amongst the staff members which will increase the company's reputation.
- Training is essential as it would decrease employ turnover and would improve retention which would reduce costs of staffing and hiring.
Types of Training programs: In British Airways, there are different types of training and development activities which are required to retain the staff at every level of the firm. These are:
- Technology-Based Training: In British Airways , this type of activities include training of employees with the technological equipments and tools to manage well the air crafts needs.
- On-The-Job Training: This refers to the ongoing training process while monitoring the job of the employees. British Airways superiors monitors the working style of the employees and communicate their shortcomings spontaneously (Leberman and McDonald, 2016). This helps the employees to take corrective actions while working in the future.
- Soft Skills Training: These skills are crucial for employees in British Airways as the quality of their treatment have a heavy dependency on the soft skills. Employees are trained in these skills via interactive training sessions to increase their abilities.
Benefits of Training and Development: There are many benefits associated with training and development, which are as follows:
- It helps increase the morale and job satisfaction among employees.
- It increases efficiency of the employees.
- Training and Development helps employees to update themselves with the innovative technological tools and equipments.
- Regular training and development programmes would enhance employee's performance and would reduce employee turnover.
Why evaluation of training against overall objectives is important:
However, it is essential to evaluate the training methods of an organisation according to the needs of the employees. Sometimes organisation fails in training its employees due to its rigid training methods which does not serve the actual objective of the firm rather, the personal objectives of the leaders. The prime objective of British Airways is to provide quality services to their passengers. Therefore, the training programmes should be based to achieve this objectives. They should also help skilled and talented employees achieve their personal objective to ensure their long term retention which is the ultimate objective of Human Resource Management.
It is thus, concluded by this report, that Human Resource Management is essential for driving any organisation towards success. Productive management of human resources in British Airways would allow the firm to hire skilled talent and retain its potential employees. Moreover, it is essential for the company to introduce systematic human resource planning as it would help the firm to manage the staff in uncertain environment. Developing internal employment relations is crucial as it would enhance the productivity and facilitate effective communication. The firm should abide by the employment laws and must not violate these laws in any manner. The company also should adopt efficient recruitment and selection methods to hire potential employees. British Airways should invest its resources in interactive and productive training and development programmes to enhance the performance of its employees. This would enable the employees to develop better commitment for the company and the company would be able to provide quality care to the employees.
Books and journals
- Armstrong, M. and Taylor, S., 2014. Armstrong's handbook of human resource management practice. Kogan Page Publishers.
- Barrow, C. and Lyon, A., 2018. Modern Employment Law. Routledge.
- Baum, T. ed., 2016. Human resource issues in international tourism. Elsevier.
- Brewster, C. and Hegewisch, A. eds., 2017. Policy and practice in European human resource management: The Price Waterhouse Cranfield survey. Taylor & Francis.
- Collings, D.G., Wood, G.T. and Szamosi, L.T., 2018. Human resource management: A critical approach. In Human Resource Management (pp. 1-23). Routledge.
- Collings, D.G., Wood, G.T. and Szamosi, L.T., 2018. Human resource management: A critical approach. In Human Resource Management(pp. 1-23). Routledge.
- Leberman, S. and McDonald, L., 2016. The transfer of learning: Participants' perspectives of adult education and training. Routledge.
- Marchington, M., and et.al., 2016. Human resource management at work. Kogan Page Publishers.
- Ross, A., 2018. Workplace law: Abandonment clauses abandoned FWC updates six modern awards. Proctor, The,38(3), p.34.
- Sadeghi, A., and et. al., 2018. Survey of Nurses' Job Satisfaction in Educational and Therapeutic Centers of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences. Scientific Journal of Hamadan Nursing & Midwifery Faculty. 26(1). pp.40-48.
- Tracey, W. R., 2016. The human resources glossary: The complete desk reference for HR executives, managers, and practitioners. CRC Press.