In the travel and tourism industry, legislation and ethics considered major part to attain desired results. In this context, different activities and tasks have been performed to implement smooth functioning at workplace. Apart from this, it is the only industry that contributes major part in economic development (Martin, Van Assche and Codreanu, 2016). Present study based on the Thomas Cook Group which provides different kinds of travelling activities in UK and attracts more customers as well. Furthermore, the company also develop their operations to increase customer base of different nations. For gaining insight information of the business, it covers legal and regulatory frameworks of travel and tourism sector. Furthermore, it includes surface, sea and transport law with consideration of legal regulatory. Moreover, it focuses on the contract legislation in relation with travel and tourism customers. At last, it provides discussion on ethical dilemmas faced by the industry.
1.1 Legal and regulatory frameworks of travel and tourism sector
In UK, travel and tourism industry consider several functions and operations that are developed effective results in the country. With this regard, different ways consider which helps to relate different activities in the business environment. Furthermore, there are certain parties also involved who take part in the industry with special aspect. For instance, contractor, customers, suppliers, etc. (Moghavvemi, Ormond and Chandy, 2017). These parties make their proper interaction that is important to focus on the innovations and creativity as well. Although, there are different rules, regulations, norms implemented that are related with the country operations. When Thomas Cook Group not following these rules and regulations, their operations and functions get affected. They are explained under here:
·Strategic Rail Authority: It consists of non-departmental public body in UK, which set up under the Transport Act 2000. It helps to provide strategic direction in the railway industry. It was abolished by the Railway Order 2006. Therefore, functions are observed and delivered in the office of rail regulations (Tambo, Madjou and Khater, 2017). Government also consider different activities that regulated to make more interventionist role in the successful results.
· Health and safety executive: Health and safety executive published third annual science review aspect that focus on the work in the field. In this consideration, health and safety includes rights to come and make safety very well from the job. As results, their mission is to prevent work related death, injury and ill.
· Health and safety commission: Health and safety commission in UK consider non-departmental public body. This is created to maintain health and safety in travel and tourism consideration at workplace. This considers Act in 1974 which was established on 31st July 1974. In addition to this, it also covered responsibility of England, Wales and Scotland. Therefore, activities design to merged health and safety to make security for all people in the travelling (Martin, Van Assche and Codreanu, 2016).
· International Air Transport Association: It is international trade association which consist of 278 airlines with primary consideration at workplace. In this aspect, airlines account support to carrying activities that consider industry policy and standards. It is formed in April 1945 so that successor international air traffic association also implemented in different nations. It creates benchmark to face competition in cutthroat manner (Tambo, Madjou and Khater, 2017).
Air travel Operators Licensing: Air Travel operators consider their part in scheme of the financial protection to people. Therefore, they consider their concentration on the purchased package holidays and flights from the tour operator’s members.
1.2 Surface, sea and air transport law
In the travel and tourism sector, there are several activities consider attract different customers in the business environment. With this regard, Thomas Cook Group determines law for different perspective at workplace. They are as follows:
· Surface Law: This consideration determines in the International Carriage Passenger Road Act 1979. It assists to look upon the protection for rights of customer in the country. As a result, claims are also related with physical damages. Rules and regulations determines to protect luggage of passengers with include Carriage Railway Act 1972. These kinds of laws regulated to make transport with passengers. In addition to this, Thomas Cook Group also considers their part with safeguarding activities in the activities. In addition to this, it is important to look towards the effectiveness of transport of goods and to maintain safeguarding in the workplace area (Moghavvemi, Ormond and Chandy, 2017).
· Sea Law: It is considered safety and security towards goods and passengers in ship with different environmental elements. There are different aspects has been measure in the business that are related with the nos of passengers. These aspects related with the safety and security of people and their goods when they are on ship. There are several equipments consider in international convention to maintain safety and security at sea (Gholami, Ravishankar and Machet, 2017). In ship, liability also increases when people suffered loss with damages in the nation. In this consideration, Athens Convention Act 1974 has been followed by Thomas Cook group.
· Air Law: Air Law includes rules and regulations in the international carriage and documentation in convention of 1929. Hence, family members of passengers get benefit of compensation after death. They consist right to claim towards personal injury. Different types of freedom agreements included in 1944. Rules and regulations related with landing across different perspective. With this consideration, cargo and mail consist for territory.
These considerations included in common law that is related with the contract of carriage. In law included with variety of legislation in the Railway Act 1993. In addition to this, carrier by air act 1961, Shipping Act 1999 implemented.
2.1 Impact of the Principles of health, safety and security legislation on travel tourism sector
In the travel and tourism activities, legislation consider important role in the business success. With this consideration, health and safety require in proper way to attain determine significant results. It assists to minimise and reduce risk in the travel and tourism sector. In Thomas Cook Group, different activities determine responsibility to maintain safety at workplace. Thus, they are able to find hazards that create negative impact on the activities. As results, precaution has been selected to protect environment. In addition to this, health and safety in environment requires specific regulations which could be directed to perform duty and responsibilities. Therefore, it ensures proper functioning at workplace. In addition to this, guidelines implemented for health and safety to increase knowledge in the country. In this regard, following regulations need to be implemented at workplace:
- Health and Safety Act 1974: This act stands for primary legislation that covers occupational health and safety in Great Britain. This element considers maintaining proper safety and security in terms of health with executive and local authority. There is several numbers of authorities that take place in travel and tourism sector to maintain effectiveness with proper outcomes (Higham, Cohen and Finkler, 2016). Therefore, Thomas Cook Group needs to maintain proper security and effectiveness to implement data in secondary legislation.
- Occupiers Liability Act 1984: According to this Act, an occupier covers liability for trespassers. They decide to owed duty with exact application of the decision has been unclear. Matter also undertaken on the basis of Law Commission for a report. As a result, it considers effective results at workplace. In other words, it can determine to amend the law of England and Wales to the person who suffered injury.
- Data Protection Act: According to this act, in UK there are several data considered as person information that need to kept safe. This is because, there are certain outstanding changes implemented that needed to appear for team with reference to the annotations. Furthermore, it is also consider provision in which manager need to maintain security regarding personal information of customers. The chosen enterprise need to follow it and consider proper security at workplace (Gholami, Ravishankar and Machet, 2017).
- Duty of Care and Vicarious liability: Parents consider liability for the different act towards the children. Hence, it is duty of care for them to maintain effective results at workplace. Vicarious liability established in the Thomas Cook Group with care duty which imposed by manager that broken. However, it not claimed that identify to breach it (Greenwood and Dwyer, 2015). Employer never breaches it with escape liability in particular manner. There are mainly three elements included which need to established and consider relationship between employees and employer that committed within the course of employment.
2.2 Legislation related to equality of UK’s tour operators
In order to implement the different activities at UK environment, Thomas Cook Group need to consider their role to protect environment with implement different legislation. Following are certain regulations they consider with reference to equality:
- Sex Discrimination Act 1976: According to this act, Thomas Cook Group needs to focus on the proper management in their business. In this regard, they need to avoid discrimination on the basis of gender. Hence, they possess roles to keep proper and effective results through provide same opportunity to both.
- Employment Protection Act 1978: Employment Protection Act consists with the employment rights. It includes two piece of legislation in the contract of employment and pay proper attention towards the effective results at workplace.
- Disability Discrimination Act 1995: In respect to focus on this act, normal and disable person need to provided same opportunity in the consideration of travel and tourism sector. It is the best way to attain more significant advantage (Higham, Cohen and Finkler, 2016).
- Employment Act 2002: These acts consider new rules and regulations on employment which consider adoption leave, pay and changes in the tribunal system. Therefore, Thomas Cook Group needs to focus on it and maintain effectiveness at workplace.
- Human Right Act 1998: This act defend to the several rights that need to provided by UK to their employees that are work in different industries. It is important to treat all people fairly and provide them all rights as well.
These regulations create impact on the passengers and travel and tourism sector in following aspect:
- Key legislation and regulations: In order to follow the above rules and regulations, people are protected in Thomas Cook Group. Therefore, it increases effectiveness of the different services that undertaken in creative consideration.
- Health and safety: Furthermore, the chosen organisation can also maintain health and safety that helps to focus on the creativity and effectiveness in the business environment.
- Fair trading: In addition to this, it consider fair trading to consider proper advantages at workplace through treat all employees in same manner (Higham, Cohen and Finkler, 2016).
3.1 Contract legislation in relation to travel and tourism customers
In order to maintain relationship between travel and tourism industry and passengers, it is important to make contract in positive aspect. In this regard, different conditions has been undertaken which are related with the specification of different activities (Chew and Darmasaputra, 2015). Thomas Cook Group prepares their different contract law that are as follows:
· Legislation relating to contract for supply of goods: In respect to supply goods, there are different rules and regulations included. In this way, it is important to cope up with the contract regarding supply of goods. It is essential to focus on the contract undertaken to maintain security at workplace. For instance, match the model with examined activities. Further, correspond with the pre-contract information at workplace.
· Contract for provision of services: In this regard, contract has been made to consider provision of services (Moghavvemi, Ormond and Chandy, 2017). Therefore, Thomas Cook Group needs to make sure that services never harm to any person in the organisation.
· Contract related to package holidays: In this way, contract related to the package holiday assists to make sure that effectiveness will be developed to gain significant advantages. It helps to focus on the systematic results.
· Valid contracts: In this regard, Thomas Cook Group has a responsibility to consider valid contract with different people so that effectiveness could be maintain. In this way, it is important to cope up with the innovations and managing targets to attain desired results at workplace. With the help of the creativity, it has been manage successfully (Goldstein, 2015).
Unfair Contracts: Unfair contract need to reduce by the Thomas Cook group to maintain effectiveness at workplace. In this regard, it is important to maintain and keep security among the different parameters at workplace. It will help to protect the whole environment in a significant manner.
3.2 Consumer protection legislation in relation to travel and tourism customers
Consumer protection legislation consider important role in Thomas Cook Group. This is because it helps to protect rights and interests that assist to consider standards in systematic way (Martin, Van Assche and Codreanu, 2016). With this regard, following are certain consumer protection legislations implemented in relation with travel and tourism activities:
· Trade Description Act 1968: This act denotes by the UK Parliament in which rules and regulations ascertained that prevent manufactures, retailers and services industry as well. All right trade description must be provided by travel and tourism industry otherwise it is called as offence.
· Consumer Protection Act 1987: This act considers important changes in the consumer law that is implemented in the European Community. Product liability considers maintaining security and security for all customers (CAFFYN, 2018).
· Package Travel: Package travel considers different aspects of management activities which is essentially followed by the business to develop effectiveness.
· Package Holidays and Package Tours Regulations 1992: In order to provide packages to customers, Thomas Cook Group needs to maintain their operations by following different rules and regulations at workplace (Guttentag, 2015).
In addition to this, in consideration of accommodation services, there are different laws has been regulated in the UK. They are as follows:
· Hotel Proprietors Act 1956: Apart from this, this act also considers to maintain security and safety of hotel appliance. In this commencement establishment activities consider with special contract (Raj and Griffin, 2015).
Food Act 1984: According to this act, Thomas Cook Group has responsibility to maintain security and safety in material which they implemented in the business. In this regard, it is important to look upon the creative advantages and effective results at workplace.
4.1 Ethical dilemmas faced by travel and tourism sector
In the travel and tourism sector, there are different ethics consider which create impact on the country operations. Thomas Cook Group needs to essentially adopt it which defines as follows:
- Employment ethics: Employment ethics consider responsibilities of employer. In this aspect, specific responsibilities included which need to maintain relationship in ethical manner (Goodwin, 2017). Good moral conduct of employees conduct in this way by Thomas cook group.
- Financial and investment ethics: Ethics could be determines in the context of right and wrong behaviours in term of principles and integrity. It consider branch of the morality which derived from daily life (Tambo, Madjou and Khater, 2017). Therefore, government of country consider certain rules and regulations which need to given on the basis of effective results.
- Ethics of advertising: Advertising also contains certain ethics. In this way, there are different aspects has been undertaken in the business that never harm to the customers. In other words, Thomas Cook Group need to follow set of moral principles that govern by a person behaviours and conduct activity as well (Crang and Hughes, 2015).
- Green issues in business: In the environment, certain activities need to consider that helps to manage green environment in effective aspect. Therefore, it is important to focus on the business and its creativity to gain more significant advantages at workplace.
- International business global ethics: In the international market, every country se their own principles and regulations. Therefore, it is important to focus on the systematic aspect of the global ethics (Higham, Cohen and Finkler, 2016). In this way, Thomas Cook group need to focus on the proper management of functions.
In travel and tourism business, there are different dilemmas exist that faced by Thomas Cook Group which includes different factors. They are as follows:
- Marketing tourism responsibly: Tourism business mainly responsible towards security so that it is important to follow marketing rules and regulations in the international environment (Faure and Arsika, 2015).
- Supporting local economies and political regimes: Furthermore, it is important to support local economies and political regimes. In this way, it is important to develop positive aspect in the local and international market.
- Using resources economically: In this way, it is important to using resources economically. This is because, manager of the business need to kept their operations in mind to maintain effective results (McCabe and Diekmann, 2015).
- Reconciling business life with moral values: Furthermore, moral values and rules need to follow by Thomas Cook Group to create and maintain security at workplace. It will assist to manage functions economically.
4.2 Corporate social responsibilities' policy in travel and tourism business
In respect to focus on the ethical issues and dilemmas, travel and tourism industry need to follow all rules and regulations that are related with the effective consideration of environment (Font and McCabe, 2017). They need to maintain environment ethical in following consideration:
- Responding to ethical consumerism: In respect to develop effective functioning, Thomas Cook Group has responsibility to deal with the ethical consumerism. This is because follow ethics is the main aspect of travel and tourism activities.
- Environment and social auditing: Furthermore, they need to develop their understanding and outcomes with consider social auditing (Makinde, 2016). This is because; ethic must be following with implementing properly with identifying social consideration at workplace. It will assist to focus on systematic working.
- Developing codes of practices: In addition to this, policies of ethics also consider with undertaken codes of practices. Codes of practices usually available in the business website and consider for financial statements of the company. Therefore, it is important to focus on it (Gholami, Ravishankar and Machet, 2017).
- Role of corporate social responsibility: Corporate social responsibility considers main aspect in the business success. Therefore, it is important to focus on the maintain relations with staff and customers as well.
- Corporate governance: Corporate governance is the system of rules, practices and processes. This is because, it consider effective advantages which controlled by the firm essentially (Greenwood and Dwyer, 2015). It is important for the people that are connected with Thomas Cook Group. For instance, shareholders, management, customers, suppliers, etc.
- Human rights: Human rights consider moral principles which describe standards of human behaviour. In this way, different activities considered that are regularly considered for the municipal and international law (Tse and Tse, 2015).
From the above report, it can be concluded that travel and tourism activities consider important role in business success. In this regard, report summarised about the Thomas Cook Group operations and functions that are carried to maintain safety and security. Furthermore, it carries legislations that are essential part to consider effectiveness in the chosen business environment. There are different acts consider that take place important role to measure effectiveness and success to cope up with aims and objectives. With the help of the ethics and rules, the company can develop their customer base with their loyalty program. In respect to target new people, there are different rights of people need to implemented that assists to look upon the creative advantages and disadvantages.
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