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Sustainable tourism refers to the process of establishing a suitable balance between economic, socio-cultural and environmental aspect for minimizing the negative impact of tourism activity over environmental and local culture. Tourism activities in a country is very essential as it provide an opportunity to earn foreign exchange. This project is based over Qatar, a country with rich culture and history. This assignment includes explanation of shareholder's benefit from planning tourism development along with advantages and disadvantage. It further discuss about features of tourism development planning at different level and methods to measure the tourist impact. This project also includes implication of balancing supply and demand as well as moral & ethical issues of enclave tourism. In addition to this comparison between issues associated with emerging destination and developing country as well as recommendations for future development o
1.1 How stakeholders get benefited from planning of tourism development
Tourism refers to the set of activities related to person travelling to and staying at environment which is different from their usual place for the purpose of leisure, business and fun. Stakeholders are the one who can affect or being affected by organisation's action, objective and policies. Stakeholders are the base of tourism development in Qatar which includes organisation, government, customers, local community and supporting authorities. Development of tourism provide several benefits to stakeholder which directly or indirectly support business growth. So, in order to achieve higher sustainability Qatar's tourism companies must involve their stakeholder in process of development. Benefit to stakeholder are given below:
- Employment opportunity:- Development in tourism industry also support in increasing the employment opportunities as local peoples arrange many activities and events that are appreciated by tourist. So with the development of tourism sectors more people get the chance to contribute toward providing a better experience to tourist and earn money.
- Economical growth:-Tourist industry also linked with other industries such as airlines, hotels, local transport etc. So, these sectors also get growth opportunities with the development of tourism industry. Therefore, the overall economy of the Qatar also get developed with the improvement in Qatar tourism industry.
- Community development:-Development of tourism sector also support Qatar to improve the social and economical condition of country. As it provide employment opportunity to local people in different industries such as hotel, transport, vendor or local guide which support toward improving and developing the community.
- Maximising benefits of Tourist:-Visitors are one of the most essential stakeholders in tourism industry as they are the major sources of revenue for tourism organisations as well as economy of Qatar. Therefore, effective policies related to tourism activities must be formulated by Qatar government. This will be beneficial for both the tourist as well as tourism industry. As tourist get satisfactory travel experiences and tourism companies will be able to attract large number of visors.
2.2 Advantage and disadvantage in tourism planning and development
Qatar is one of the well known country for tourism sector as it has rich culture and history related to middle east. It is also a country which host various sport and other event which is one major factor toward the attraction of tourist at this place. But apart from this it requires attention that provide better development and growth. This can be better achieve with the help of forming a partnership between public-private that help in increasing the effectiveness of tourism place by providing better coordination. Following points describe about the advantage and disadvantage of public-private sector partnership in tourism planning and development are:
- Partnership in public and private sector help Qatar in ensuring better utilisation of resources by planning future actions to be perform in advance.
- Private sector can offer better services to public sector tourism of Qatar through their experience, adoption of best practices and innovation.
- Return on investment over infrastructure project will be higher in comparison with projects that are executed individually by both the sectors.
- Private-public partnership by combine their capital and power will provide better growth opportunity to Qatar economy which further contribute toward sustainability of tourism industry.
- This partnership involve the risk for private participant who doesn't accept to compensate over risk. This may increase the cost of government.
- Distribution of roles and responsibilities among both expertise affect the growth and sustainability of community. Problems related to decision making have direct impact over the competitive decision taken by firm.
- Difference in purpose of private sector company and government agency of Qatar is different that may cause problem in execution of project.
2.1. Features of tourism development planning at different levels
Development process beings with the recognition of options that are available for further enhancement. For successfully designing and implementing the development plan its is very essential to have a clear understanding of development objectives required to achieve at different levels. There are basically four levels in tourism development planning in a country and its feature to support planning of other level are explained below:-
International:- These organisations work toward promoting the policies to improve the economic and social well-being of people across the globe. International tourism organisations coordinating with government with aim to identify the forces that bring changes in economic, social and environmental factors to improve tourism and destination attraction. QTA measures productivity and global flow of investment as well as trade to analyse &compare data for predicting future trend.
National:- These organisations are both public as well as private under the control of government, national volunteer or private organisation associate with government. Main aim of Qatar Tourism Authority is to promote Qatar all over the world to increase number of visitors to country and to make it more attractive destination.
Regional:- These organisations have the capability to create and develop attraction in destinations by integrating different strategies to promote business. Regional plans are limited to cities and particular destination. At this level Qatar generally focuses on formulating strategies related to marketing and promotion of location to attract large number of visitors.
Sub regional:- Main feature of this level is that it work with regional and national level organisation to promote and protect the attraction and destination. At this level Qatar handles strategic development and situational plan by collecting data from different level.
These levels are independent but are interrelated that support in formulating plan for developing tourism sector that provide higher sustainability and growth in this sector.
2.2 Significance of interactive planning system and process in tourism development
Qatar host various promotional events in order to promote and gain attention of people around the world. Country is planning to host World Athletics Championships and various countries are participating in this event. So, the reputation of Qatar is at risk because each country has its own expectation related to the arrangements done by host nation. At this development, interactive planning is very essential for successful implementation of plan and execution of event. Interactive planning refers to a system which allows regular monitoring, evaluation and modification of plans in order to respond to changes by involving stakeholder in planning process. This process suggest that there must be collaborative, co-operative and participatory planning for better decision making. This help in eliminating the complexity of process so that plan could be implemented effectively. It also support in controlling the impact of tourism over environment, culture, society etc.
By implementing interactive planning in tourism development process, Qatar will be able to provide right product according to the need of customer. Importance of interactive planning process are as follows:
- Interactive planning help in ensuring that all the level of organisation, community and tourist must involve By Qatar Tourism authority in planning process so that over spending and negative impact on community can be minimized.
- This planning also provide an opportunity to stakeholder to participate in decision making process.
- Interactive planning is a continuous process that involve modification of plan according to changes which provide better result by minimizing future uncertainty.
- It also support Qatar in interacting with tourists effectively for tourism services by using some promotional methods or advertisements to persuade customers and making them aware about tourist services available.
- It help Qatar in designing the efficient services according to the demand and preferences of market segment.
2.3 Different methods available to measure tourist impact
Development of tourism industry is largely affected by the way in which activities are performed and managed. These activities have an impact over different factors like social, environmental and economical which can be positive or negative. But QTA is responsible for making sure that the impact must be positive so that Qatar as well as local community will be positively benefited from these tourism activities. Main aim of planning process is to identify and evaluate whether the objective is being fulfilled or not by measuring impact over these factors. Following are the methods through which impact can be measure:
Economic measure:- The tourism development planning is mainly connected with the economic prosperity, so measure in tourism impact is associated with economy. By using economic modelling process known as STEAM (Scarborough Tourism Economic Activity Monitor). This model uses quantity data such as number of visitor, visitor expenditure level, income generation, occupancy rate etc. to find out the trends and changing demand of visitors. It identify the impact of tourism activities over the economy of country which can be further use by government of Qatar to plan and analyse the finance required for further development. But it doesn't consider the environmental damage which happens due to various tourism activities.
Environmental measure:- Activities related to tourism development has direct impact over the environment in which these changes have implemented. These impact can be positive or negative. By proper planning and monitoring the negative impact can be minimize which promote better growth and sustainability. For measuring the environmental impact EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment) model can be used. It help in evaluating the impact that a particular activity have over environment and damage occur over it. By using this model QTA can measure the environmental impact on tourism for avoiding future risk and ecological imbalance but this setback fails to determine the economic benefit which have been derived out of tourism activities. EIA process must be performed by the tourism industry of Qatar at early stage of tourism development which help in avoiding environmental damage.
Social measure:- Socio-cultural impact of tourism are difficult to measure because it is highly qualitative and subjective in nature. It nature of social impact can be measure by collecting data related to safety level of tourist, crime rate, infrastructure, type of disease etc. In order to collect information related to social impact measurement there are mainly two methods i.e. primary and secondary. Primary research includes survey, interview etc., and secondary research includes collecting information through newspapers, internet, governmental record etc.
3.1 Concept of sustainability in tourism development
Sustainable tourism development consider all the present as well as future economical, environmental and social impact over tourism by examining the different community needs, tourist and trends in sector. Qatar is emerging destination and its growth can be determine through different market research, as last year country market 1.235 million travellers in year. This depict the growth opportunity in tourism sector and sustainable tourism also provides long term advantage to country.
Sustainability contribute toward eliminating the negative impact of tourism over local biodiversity. Further it also encourage optimum utilisation of resources that help in securing natural resources for future use. Main advantage of sustainability is that it support in creating development opportunity by involving local communities in decision making process. This further support in reducing the chance of conflicts.
3.2 Factors that hinder/prevent sustainable tourism development
Sustainable tourism development signifies economical, social and environmental aspect which provide numerous opportunity and benefits to stakeholder as well as minimizing the additional costs. It work towards protecting and safeguarding the environment as well as culture of the country. Factors that affect the sustainable tourism development are as follows:-
- Climate changes:- Fluctuation in climate hinder the tourism development as it limit the number of tourist activities in the Tourists generally prefer to visit destination which have stability in climate and environment. But Qatar faces various storm which sometime affect the tourism activities.
- Pollution:- Qatar is main spot of oil and natural gas production and conversation which creates air and water pollution. Qatar is required to manage its oil conversation processes in order to avoid air and water pollution as it hinder the tourist to visit the country.
- Resources availability:- Major consideration toward tourism development is availability of resources as improper utilisation or unavailability of resources also prevent the tourist to visit the country. Qatar government must work toward improving the infrastructure of country in order to develop and attract the large number of visitor to country.
- Human rights:- Laws and policies related to human rights also have an huge impact over tourism development. Government of Qatar must try to alter their human right policies in order to attract large number of tourism to their country.
3.3 Different stages in planing for sustainability
Sustainability planning refers to set of activities or processes which assists in improving the performance of business, country or region by considering economic, social and environmental factor.
Phase1: This stage focuses on deciding the long as well as short term objectives for sustainability.
First of all the objectives toward tourism development and sustainability is decided along with the time required to achieve those.
Phase 2: Developing plan for achieving the desire goals and objectives.
After deciding the objectives next step is to formulate the plan which depict about various actions to be taken by Qatar tourist organisation in order to develop sustainability.
Phase 3: Identification of various stakeholders which get affected by sustainable development.
Next step is to identify and evaluate about the stakeholders that get affected by this plan in order to identify any negative impact of plan so that it can be remove on timely manner.
Phase 4: Issues related to sustainable development are identified in this phase
under this stage different issue related to this plan are identified such as licensing from government. Qatar tourism authority must consult these issues with stake holders to avoid conflicts.
Phase 5: Causes behind the conflicts are evaluated and solution for them are identified.
After determining the conflicts and cause behind them next step is to determine the solution to eliminate those issues from the data collected through stakeholders.
Phase 6: Guidelines are created to attract visitors in country for boosting up economical growth.
After solving all the issues next step is to draft guidelines by considering the demands and preference of all the stakeholders to attract large number of tourists.
From the above information it can be concluded that sustainability is positive activity that work toward making the tourist place safe and secure to attract large number of visitors. It also help in protecting the environment and other natural resources.
4.1 Methods of resolving conflicts of interests to ensure future well-being of developing tourism destination
Several conflicts may arises while performing operations as travel and tourism industry is highly competitive sector where trends keep on changing daily. The level of competition may be little bit higher at country like Qatar due to limited availability of resources. These conflicts may arises due to differences in the interest of stakeholders or it may be related with the conversation of natural resources. So in order to eliminate the conflicts following are the factors that must be consider by tourism operators for keeping stakeholders and local people satisfied:
- Stakeholder satisfaction:- The interest and will of stakeholders in tourism activities are also responsible for creating conflicts. As if tourist are not satisfied with hospitality services in Qatar then it will affect the profit of tourism industry at large extend and create problem in developing international stand.
- Stakeholder engagement:- Tourism operator must consider the goals and preferences of stakeholders while formulating strategies related to future actions. They must also involve stakeholders in planning and decision making process in order to perform activities according to the their demand. As avoidance of this may create conflicts that might result in heavy loss to company.
These are the factors that must be consider by tourism operators in Qatar in order to eliminate the conflicts that may arise in travel and tourism industry. Read more about travel & tourism management. Apart from this there are certain methods that can be used by QTA in order to resolve the conflicts which are as given below:
- Negotiation:- It is one of the most widely used method to solve conflicts by promoting a clear communication interaction between parties involve. This method suggest that parties must interact with one another for negotiation purpose in order to identify a solution that create win-win situation for both the parties.
- Mediation:- Under this method both the parties participate in conflicts actively and discuss the matter. These comments are then judge by Qatar Tourism Authority which act as a mediator to find out a better solution. Main drawback of using this method is that sometimes it become difficult for mediator to ensure fair judgement to both the parties due to adverse situation. But it is helpful too, as it provide various option to be perform in particular situation and best one is selected without compromising.
4.2 Implication of balancing demand and supply
A balance between demand and supply is very essential in tourism industry as imbalance may create certain difficulties in operating business activities effectively and satisfying customers. As when the demand is more than supply because of increase in number of visitors their may be overbooked hotel and delayed of flights that create more dissatisfaction. Similarly, when supply is more than demand it will minimize the profit earned by company. Therefore the balance between the supply and demand is very essential for preserving the natural activities at Qatar as demand for green tourism is rapidly increasing. There are various methods through which the balance between demand and supply in tourism sector can be managed that are given below:
- Imposition of limits:- In order to manage a balance between demand and supply, it is very essential for travel as well as tourism industry of Qatar to impose some limitation over their services. For instance, they can set a limit over number of visitors allowed to come in particular time or limitation the tickets or hotel booking. This help in avoiding the overcrowding situation, as it make harder for tourism operator to provide services effectively.
- Seasonality arrangements:- Tourism demand in some seasons like summer & winter vacations, Christmas, New year etc. is generally higher. For instance, Qatar welcomed more than 864,444 number of visitors in first quarter of year 2017 at the time of their shopping festival which provide hospitality and entertainment offers (Qatar Tourism Analysis, 2018). For this season Qatar government must mange the services according to the demand of customers. They must employ extra employees for providing better services to tourist. On the other hand government of Qatar must also construct or arrange extra hotels for balancing the demand of tourist. This help in avoiding the chances of overcrowding and overbooking as it directly affect the goodwill of company.
4.3 Moral and ethical issues of enclave tourism
Enclave tourism is an act performed over a small geographical area with the aim to satisfy the need of visitors by allowing them to get entire experience of their travel intention at one place without moving or travelling to different places. Main reason behind opting enclave tourism is to generate maximum profit by minimizing the expenses over facilities and providing expected experience to visitors at one place. Large organisation related to travel and tourism industry is not implementing this strategy in their services which provide maximum benefit without spending much.
Various foreign tourism organisations are now entering in Qatar tourism sector with lots of resources and assets that provide a tough competition to domestic enterprises. Further they are blocking the domestic companies from market as these small tourists don't have adequate resources to compete with them and because of which they are not able to contribute toward the economy of Qatar. This is the main issue faced by government which is not consider as an ethical activity. Apart from this local community of Qatar will not get any sort of benefit because of enclave tourism, as this strategy limit the accessibility to different places and tourism organisation are using this to rule over an area with the aim to maximize their benefit. Another ethical issue faced by Qatar is tourism enterprises are taking licence in an unethical manner with an aim to expand their business for attracting more customers. Apart from this capturing the land for their business and limiting the resources such as water, land and forests for local is one of the major moral issue faced in Qatar. In addition to this these organisation provide employment at lower income which also an immoral practice faced by people in that nation.
Therefore, enclave tourism is beneficial for tourism organisation but its practices involve some ethical issue which may affect the economy of country. It also hamper the culture as well as environment of county. In order to avoid these unethical practices it is very essential for QTA to form some tourism policies and strategies which support in protecting the interest of country as well as local tourism companies.
5.1 Factors associated with tourism development
Tourism sector is influenced by various factors that affect the development of tourism sectors in developing countries like Mexico and emerging destination Qatar. A comparison given in below table between Qatar as a emerging tourist destination and Mexico as developing country shows various differences on account of problem associated with tourism development.
Basis of comparison
Oil conversion is one of the major activity performed within Qatar which largely affect the environment of country. It creates air, land and water pollution which is continuously damages the natural wildlife heritages. This is one of major environmental faced by Qatar in tourism development.
Mexico is well known tourism spot due to the beauty of country, this leads to development of various tourist organisations to enhance the tourism services. But expansion of business destroy forest and other natural spots which largely affect the environment of country.
After boycott done by Iran through blocking the Strait of Hormuz affected the trade of country. This largely affect the economy of country and apart from this due to establishment of foreign tourism companies capturing the share of domestic tourism organisation. Because of this domestic tourism players generally fails to contribute toward economical growth of country.
Establishment of various foreign tourism organisations in Mexico restrict the local companies to earn foreign currency which affect the economical growth of country.
Major of people lives in Qatar are belongs to Islamic religion and because of this they sometimes fails to cater visitors effectively which belongs to different culture. As Islamic people don't have adequate knowledge related to other religions.
Due to integration of different culture invited several unethical and legal practices such as child labour for fulfilling the demand of visitors. This is the major issue which affect the culture of country.
5.2 Recommendations for future development of tourism
Qatar is an emerging tourism destination which put several effort toward improving the services provided to visitor in order to attract large number of tourism in country. There are number of strategies and schemes are determined above which support Qatar in improving their tourism sector. Further, government must also formulate certain policies and actions for tourists such as tax payment, exchange rate and many others. It will support toward removing the negative impact over economy and also support in eliminating the social problems. Weaker infrastructure and facilities is the biggest drawback that may affect the tourism sector growth. So, QTA must work toward improving the destination to make them more attractive.
Apart from this sustainable tourism depict the activities as well as decisions taken to remove the negative impact over tourism. It is very essential for both the countries whether it is developing or emerging tourism destination so that income opportunities can be balanced and safety of environment get assured. Some major factors like social, economical and environmental factor must be focused by Qatar in order to increasing positive outcome of tourism practices. Following are the recommendations for Qatar and Mexico:-
- Both the countries are required to formulate strategies and impose certain restrictions over unethical practices in order safe the culture and minimize the negative impact over socio-cultural environment of country.
- For reducing the environmental impact it is very essential for both the countries to encourage minimum wastage of natural resources and actions must be taken to limit the pollution.
- Both the countries are required to provide equal chance to foreign as well as domestic tourism industry and must impose restriction over the establishment of foreign tourism companies to promote economic prosperity.
From the above given report it can be concluded that tourism is one of the fastest growing sector which contribute toward the economical growth of country. Economical, social and environmental factor are some major consideration that support toward the development of tourism sector. There are some practices that support toward the sustainability in tourism sector which includes fiscal policies, proper utilisation of resources and participation of business people. The development of tourism support in achieving competitive advantage and also help in improving foreign exchange which strengthen the economy of country.
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